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\£*# THE 

Columbian Magazine : 

For JANUARY 1790. 

Account of Fort M'Intosh — with a Plate. 

FORT M'INTOSH was fituated upon 
an high fiat, or level piece of ground 
on the weft fide of the Ohio, and about half 
a mile below the junction of that river with 
Beaver- River, commonly known by the 
name of B:^-Beaver-Creek. It confided 
of a number of log buildings which alto- 
gether formed nearly a tetragon, at each 
Corner of which there was abaftion. The 
Fort was entirely built of logs ; — and the 
houfes f >r the. if "ommodation of the offi- 
• in I r - lon °j 1k - very commodious : 
17, j 787. —See ft'Cmfngles, and the win- 
dows were giazea. 

Thisfort was built by General M' I ntofh, 
in 1779: — and has, lately, been entirely 
demolished ; it having been deemed unnc- 
ceffary to continue a garrifon of foldiers at 
this part of the Ohio. The latitude of 
this place is 4Q°4i' 36". 

The Right of the French to tax themfehes, 

THE following extracts may ferve to 
throw fome lights on the interefting 
fubject which now engages the French Na- 
tion, namely, the right oftzxin? them/elves. 

K K <, h ?M? V* 7 ' ^ th / yW ? cler.y and gentry being forborn, were ea 
collected by Mr Turnor*, and are }^^ g tQ ,J ave g (m to the King » 8 
be found in his " Cafe of bankers itated my luuuccu , . n ren pth 

, , • .„ n,,, f a n I mercy. But the h-ing, havinggot urengtn 

(when the exchequer was (nut, A. u. ' . 

14. Approhatio pacU inter Regna Anglia eb 
Francia nuper conclufa (1420). *•• Quo J 
Carolus Sextus Rex Francorum regal; 
folio fedens, Tres Status regni fui, videli- 
cet Prelati & Cleri, necnou Prcce-.e* & 
Nobiles, ac etiam Cives, Burgenfes Civi- 
tatum, Viilarum, ac Comrnunitaa dicti 
Regni, pacem predictam, ac omnia & im- 
P^ula contenta in eadem approbarunt, lau- 
da»-unt, acceptarunt, & auftorizarunt." 

Hence we may infer, that car iel ejl 
nStre phiijtr, fo ufual in the modern edicts 
of the Kings of France, has not always 
been the law of that country. 

Sir Thomas Overbury informs usf, that 
the occaiion that firft procured to the 
French King that fuprernacy, that h:V 
edicts (for impofing taxes at pleafure, &c.) 
fhould be law, was the lalt invalion t of 
the Englifh; for at that time, they pof. 
felling two parts of France, the three 
eilates could not affemble ; whereupon 
they did not then grant that pouter tp 
Charles VII. during that war: and that 
which made it tafy for Louis XI. and his 
fuccefforsto continue the fame (the occa- 
fion ceafjng) was, that the clergy and 
gentry did not run the fame fortune with 
the people there, as in England, for moil 
of the taxes falling upon the people, the 

167 1 ) a book recommended to the pern 
fal of every lawyer by Francis Hargrave, 
E.fq in his edition of the State Trials.. 
vol. II. p. 137. 

The French had formerly parliaments. 
T*Rot. Pari. c/° Hen V. pan prima, Num. 

* A barrister of Gray's Inn, and fon of Sir Timo- 
thy Tumor, of Shrewlbory, Km. Serjeant at la* 
terr.D. Charles II. See Wood's path. 

upon the peafants, hath been fmce the 
bolder to invade part of both their liber- 
ties ; and for the aflembly of the three 
eltates, it is there grown now as extraor- 
dinary as a general council ; with the lof». 
jf which the French liberty fell! 

+ Temp. Henry V. ol Bn§Uo4. 

Sir Thomas Smith* (who had been fun- 
dry times our ambaflador in France, does 
not hefitate to rank that (late amongft the 
defpotic and tyrannical governments ; be- 
caufe, fays he, thofe Kings make and 
abrogate laws and edicts, lay on tributes 
and impofitions of their own will, or by 
the private counfel and advice of their 
friends and favourites only, without the 
confent of the people. Which enormities 
(adds he) were much improved by Louis 
XI. who would often boaft and fay, that 
he had brought the crown of France hors 
depage; that is, out of wardfhip. How 
far the advantages this freedom of ward- 
fhip has brought to the crown of France, 
let us hear Sir Walter Raleighf, who ob- 
ferves, that fince this freedom from ward- 
fhip, and the power of raifing money by 
letters and edicts only, France was never 
free in effect from civil wars ; and lately 
it was endangered either to be conquered 
by the Spaniards, or to be cantonized by 
the rebellious French themfelves. And 
here, by the way, (adds Mr. Tumor) we 
may difcover a fecret in that government, 
which is, to difcharge their turbulent and 
fermenting blood upon their neighbours ; 
fo that, while their people are amufed with 
conquefts and acquilition abroad, they may 
have the lefs leifure to meditate and con- 
trive mifchief and fedition at home. 

Philip de ComineoJ, fays, " Nul Roi ni 
Seigneur fur terre, ait pouvoir de mettre 
un denier fur fes fujets fans octroi & con- 
fentement de ceaux qui doivent payer, fi 
non par tyrannie ou violence." And again, 
Johanno Boding •' Ego vero ceteris regi- 
bus non plus in genere quam regibus An- 
glorum licere onto ; cum nemo lit tarn 
improbus tyrannus, qui aliena bona deci- 
pere fibi fas efle putet," 

At the time that Henry the Vth of 
England completed hisconquefl of France ; 
that country did enjoy their three ejlatei 
in the height and exaltation of power, 
which appears from the extract already- 
given from our parliament rolls, and can 
need no further confirmation ; whence we 
may infer, that, if the French fucceed in 
their druggie with the King, and ettablifh 
a third eltate, it will be a confirmation of 
tld rights, not an acquifition of civil liber- 
ty unknown to their conltitution. 

* His Commonwealth, book I. chap. 7. 

+ His Prerogative of Parliament. 

% Book VI. chap. 7. 

^ Dcs Rcpub. book I. chap. 8. 



Or, a Lift of important Mr as and memo- 
rable Events, in any wife relating to 
America, fince its Difcover y by the Euro- 
peans, arranged in alphabatical Order ; 
'with their rejpeclive Dates. 

AMERIC A— firft difcovered 
L A J J\ by Chriftopher Columbus (or 
Colon) a Genoefe, in the fervice of Fer- 
dinand and Ifabella, King and Queen of 
Caftile, &c. He landed, Friday, October 
12, 1492, on one of the Bahama-iflands, 
named by him St. Salvador ; now called 
Cat IjJand, and by the natives Guanahani, 
— The Continent of America, from 40 to 
67' N. lat. was firft difcovered in 1498 — 
Settled, by the Englifh, in the reign of 
James I. King of England. 

Amfterdatn. — (New), Now New- York. 
— Carr and Nichols arrived before it, with 
an armed force, Auguft 20, 1664. — It 
was furrendered by the Dutch, Augufl 
27, 1664; and New Netherlands confirm- 
ed to the Englifh, by the treaty of Breda, 
in 1667. 

Academy. — The JV^* Ip Academv 
of Arts and SciencCTjf^ j| j, ^J 

incorporated by the legiilaTOre of iuaifa- 
chufett3, May 4, 1780. 

Alliance — between the U. S. of America 
and France, concluded Feb. 6, 1778. 

[B] Bofton.— At the fettlement of 
Charleftown, on the 10th of June 1630, 
a Mr. Blaxton lived on a point of land, 
called Blaxton's-point, iituate on the fouth 
fide of Charles river mouth, where he had 
only a cottage. The neck of land from 
which the point runs, was, in the Indian 
language, called Shawmut ; and was, on 
the 7th Sept. following, (by order of the 
fecond court of afTiftants, held at Charles- 
town) called Bofton ; — fo named, in com- 
pliment to Mr. Cotton, then a famous in- 

* The great utility ami convenience of an Ame- 
rican Chronology, fuggefted to the Editor of the 
Columbian Magazine, the thought of fuch an under- 
taking; and the practicability of carrying the de- 
fign into effect; with fume facility, in a periodical 
publication, induced him to make the attempt. It 
mull be obvious, however, from the nature of the 
tafk, that the incidents cannot be placed in the order 
of time in which they occurred ; nor would fuch an 
arrangement be attended with any particular advan- 
tage. The dates will thciefore be defultory, with 
relation to the order of fucceffion of the feveral ar- 
ticles ; which will be inferted without regard being 
had to any other circumftance, than their alphabetical 
dillribution. As the Editor wifhes to make this part 
of the Magazine as coinp'ete as poffible, in order to 
render it the more uieful, — all communication* for 
it, will be thankfully received. 

simerican ^nronoiogy. 

dependent Minifter at Bofton in England. 
Banker's Hill— Battle of,June 17, 1775. 
Bank of North- America- begun at Phi- 
ladelphia, Jan. 4, 1 781. 

Bennington. — Battle of, Aug. 16, 1777. 
Bofton. — Blockade of, by the Britifti, 
June 1, 1774. 

[C] Connecticut. — A grant of, by the 
council of Plymouth, to Robert Rich, 
Earl of Warwick — dated 1630: 

and a confirmation of the fame by the 
crown, in the fame year. — A conveyance 
of Connecticut, by the Earl of Warwick 
to Fiennes, Lord Say and Sele, dated 
March 19, 1631 — Incorporated by King 
Charles II. April 23, 1662. 

Canada. — Said, by the French, to have 
been rirft fettled by them, under M. Cham- 
plain, 1603. Doug. Summ. — The com- 
million of Francis I. King of France, to 
James Cartier, for the eftablifhment of 
Canada, was dated Oft. 17, 1540. 

Charlejlon (S. C) - Capitulated on the 
1 2th of May, 1780, after a fiege of feven 

Cro-wn-Pcint — Taken by General Am- 
herft, Aug. 4, 1759. 

Conftitution of the U.S. — Dated Sept. 
17, 1787. — See Ratification. 

[D] Drake — Captain (afterwards Sir 
Francis) — failed from Plymouth in Eng- 
land, Dec. 13, 1577 — pafled the Straits 
of Magellan, in Sept. 1578 — failed as far 
North, as the 43 . N. lat. — And arrived 
in England, Nov. 3, 1580. 

Dixiuell, Efq (John)— One of the 
judges of King Charles I. died at New 
Haven in Connecticut, March 18, 1688, 
in the 82d year of his age. — He was bu 
ried there ; and his grave-done is (landing, 
at this day, in the public burying place. 

Du Quefne (Fort) — now Fort- Pitt — 
Ta- en poffeffion of, by General Forbes, 
Nov. 25, 1758 ; having been abandoned 
by the French, and fet fire to, the prece- 
ding night. 

[E] Eutanu- Springs, (S. C.) — Batth 
of, Sept. 8, 1 78 1. 

Evans, the poet — The Rev. Nathanie' 
— born in Philadelphia, June 8, 1742 — 
died in the 26th year of his age. 

[F] Florida (Welt ) — Revolution of, 
by the Spaniards, May 8, 1781. 

Franklin, Efq. LL. D. &C. (Benjamin) 
, — Born at Bolton, (MafTachufetts) Jan. 
17, 1706. 

Faft— Thurfday, July 20, 1 775? k fP' 
as a day of public humiliation, fading 
and prayer, in the United American C<- 
loniesj — in piirfuancc of a recommenda- 

tion of Congrefa. 

Front enac — The French attacked and 
defeated at — by Colonel Broadftrcet, Oct. 
31, 1758. 

[G] Green-Spring (Virginia) — Battle 
of, July 3, 1781. 

Greene (General Nathaniel) — Born at 
Warwick, Rhode Ifland, about the year 
I 741 — died in Georgia, June 19, j 7 S 6 . 

Georgia — The firft Confutation of that 
iVate, eltablifhed in Convention, Feb. 5, 

Gorges (Sir Ferdinando) — and Captain 
John Mafon, obtained a joint grant or all 
the lands between the riven Merrim?ck 
and Sagadehock, extcnd'ng back to the 
great lakes and rivers of Canada, Angull 
10, 1622. This tradt was called Laconia. 
See Mafon. 

Guildford — The battle of, between the 
Americans under Gen. Greene and the 
Britiih under Lord Cornwallis — March 
15, 1781. 

[II] Hefians — Their defeat and cap- 
ture at Trenton, Dec. 26, 1776. 

Hancock, Efq. (John) — FlecVd Prefi- 
dent of Cmgrels, — on the relignation of 
Peyton Randolph, Efq. May 24, 1775. 

[I] Independence — of the Thirteen 
United States of America, declared, July 
4, 1776. 

Indians — On the 30th of June, 177 j, 
Congrefs *' Refolved, that the committee 
for Indian affairs do prepare talks to the 
ieveral tribes of Indians, for engaging the 
continuance of their fricndlhip to us, and 
neutrality in our prefent unhappy difputc 
with Great-Britain." 

Independence— of the U. S. of America 
— acknowledged by France. Jan. 30, 1778 
(by the treaty of amity and commerce 
twecn the two nations) — acknowledged as 
fuch by Holland, April 19, 1782— by 
Great-Britain, Nov. 30, 1782, (by the 
provisional articles of peace) - by Su.c.:., 
Feb. 5, 1783— by Denmark, Feb. 2,', 
l7 83 — by Spain, March 1783 — by R 
Julv 1783. 

[K] Kings-College (New- York), now- 
called Columbia College — founded (and 
incorporated by Roval Charter,) in l 7^4. 

Kent w: key. — S^e M'Biide, Finley, a:,d 

[L] Long- IjLmd— Battle of, Augull 
27, 1776. 

Lexington — Battle of, April 19, I 775'" 

Laconia. — The company of — attempted 
the fettlcment of a colony and fifliery,at the 
river Pafcatnqua, in 1622 ; n :i \, in the 
fpringof 1623, feat over David Thump* 

fori, with others, to carry on their defign. 
See alfo Gorges, hereafter. 

Laconia — See Gorgts. 

Library-Company — of Philadelphia, in- 
ftitutcd in I 73 1 — incorporated March 25, 

[M] Maryland — Granted by charter, 
dated June 20, 1632, from Charles I. to 
Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore. 

Monmouth (New-Jerfey) — Battle of, 
June 28, 1778. 

Montgomery (Gen. Richard) — Born in 
.the North of Ireland, in 1737 — flain at 
the florming of Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775 
— interred in Quebec, with military ho- 
nors, Jan. I, 1 776. 

M'Brids (John)— The firft white man 
we have any account of, who discovered 
the Kentuckey country. He, in company 
with fome others, in the year 1754, paff- 
ing down the Ohio in canoes, landed at the 
mouth of Kentuckey river ; and there 
marked a tree with the initial letters of 
his name, and the date, 

Montreal — reduced by the Americans, 
Nov. 12, 1775. 

Minijiry ( Britifh ) — See Nor|h. 

[_"N~] Ne-w-Orhans, capital of Louisi- 
ana— A great fire there, which nearly 
confumed the whole town— March 19, 

Nen»-Caflle,&c. (Delaware)-— The Duke 
of York's deed of feoffment of— to W. 
Penn, dated Aug. 24, 1682. 

Neiv England — A grant of, by James I. 
to the council of Plymouth, dated Nov. 



North-Carolina. — The Conftitution of, 
fettled in Convention, at Halifax in thai 
itate, Dec. 18, 1776. 

Nenv-Tork — The city of — was incorpo- 
rated by Englifh charter, Aug. 27, 1686. 
This charter was confirmed by another, 
dated April 19, 1708 : and a third char- 
ter was granted, Jan. 15, 1730. 

North (Lord)— declares the Britifh mi- 
niitry diffoKed, March 20, 1782; and a 
i\ew miniilry appointed, March 27, 1782. 

[O] Ofivcgo, Fort — taken and deir.o- 
lifhed by the French, Aug. 14, 1756. 

Ohio-Company ( Englilh) —driven away 
from the banks of the Ohio, by M. de 
Villiers, in June 175'. 

[P] Provijional articles of peace— Sec 

Princeton — Battle of, June 3, 1777. 

Pennfyhania— Charter of, granted to 
William Pcnn, Efq. by King Charles II. 
March 4, 1681 — The grant of this char- 
ter was declared or proclaimed by the 
King*8 authority, April 2, 1681. 

Plymouth — The town of, in New-Eng-. 
land — founded Dec. 21, 1620;— being 1 
iiizjitjl EngliJJi colony fettled in that coun- 

Paulus-Hook (or Powles-Hook) — fur- 
prifed by Col. H. Lee, Auguft 18, 1779. 

Penn y Efq. (William) —firft proprietor, 
and founder of Pennfylvania— -born Ocvt. 
14, 1644 — died 1718. 

Peace — The provifional articles of — be- 
tween the U. S. of America and Great- 
Britain, figned at Paris, Nov. 30, 1782. 

[QJ Qitebec — The city of — taken by 
Gen. Townfend, after a battle (on the- 
13th of Sept. 1759) with the French — - 
Sept. 18, 1759. 

[RJ Raleigh (Sir Walter) and others, 
obtained a patent from Queen Elizabeth, 
for difcovering and planting lands and 
countries, to continue for the fpace of fix 
years— dated March 25, 1584. He began 
a plantation in 1585, having fej.t out Sir 
Richard Grenville with feveral veffcls and 
108 people, who landed upon the ifland 
Roanoke, near the mouth of Albemarle 
river, in North-Carolina. 

Randolph, Efq. (Peyton)— eleded Pre- 
fident of Congrefs, Sept. c, 1774. — Died 
fuddenly at Philadelphia, Oft. 22, 1774. 

Rhode- //land — -battle of — Aug. 2 2, 177 8. 

Rights — A declaration of fun dry — re- 
folved on, by Congrefs, Oct. 14, 1774. 

R.atification — -of the Conftitution of the 
U. S. of America — by the ftate of Dela- 
ware, Dec. 3, 1787 — Pennfylvania, Dec. 
13, I 787 — New-Jerfey, Dec. 19, 1787 — ■ 
Georgia, Jan. 2, 1788 — Connecticut, Jan. 
9, 17^88 — Maffachufetts, Feb 6, 1788 — 
Maryland, April 28, 1 788— South-Ca- 
rolina, May z%, 1788 — New-Hampfhire, 
June 21, 1788— Virginia, June 25, 1788 
— New-Yoik, July 25, 1788 — North-Ca- 
rolina, Nov. 21, 1789. 1. t~J VV*U 1 

Sicknefs — The fummer of 1702, was re* 
markable for an uncommon mortality, that 
prevailed in the city of New York, and 
which makes a grand epoch among the in- 
habitants of that city, diftinguilhed as. 
" the time of the great Jicknefs." This 
I fever, which proved fatal to every perfon 
feized with it, was brought thither by a 
veflel from the ifland of St. Thomas, in the 
Weft-Indies, remarkable for contagious 
difeafes. Smith's Hiftory of New-York. 

Springfield (New Jerfey ) Battle of — July 
23, 1780. 

Stoney- Point — The fort and garrifon of, 
taken by Gen. Wayne, Auguft 16, 1779. 

Savannah (Georgia) — Afiaulted by 
Gen. Lincoln and the Count d'Ellaingj 

0&. 9, 1779. 

On the Food or Nutriment of Plants, with Obfervations on Manures. 

dical fibres of the plants. Upon clay the 
eflctl of lime is different ; for by means oi 
^entle fermentation that it produces, 
(he unfubdued foil U opened and divided ; 
thcmaivires laid on readily come into con- 
t :t with every part of it ; and the fibrev 
ci the plants have full liberty to fpread 
themielvfs. It is generally faid that lime 
anfwers better upon fand than tlay. This 
obferwation will undoubtedly hold gooC 
us K>:ig as the farmer continues to 
l-xnc his clay lands in a fcanty manner. 
Let him treble the quantity, and he will 
then be convinced that lime is better for 
clay than fand. It may be juttly anlwer- 
ed, that the profits will not admit of the 
expenfe. i agree. But then it mud be 
uruLrltood, that it is the application, and 
not the nature of the lime, that fhould be 
called in queftion. Clay, well limed, will 
fail in water, and ferment with acids. Its 
very nature is changed. Under fuch agree- 
able circumitances, the air, rains, and dews 
are free'ty admitted, and the foil is enabled 
to retain the noUrifli merit that each of 
them brings. In confequence of a fermen- 
tation raifed in the foil, the fixed air is fet 
at liberty, which, in a wonderful manner, 
promotes vegetation. It is the nature of 
lime to attract oils, and diffolve vegetable 
bodies. Upon thefe principles we may ac- 
count for the wonderful effects of lime in 
the improvement of black moor-land. 
Moor earth confifts of diflblved, and half- 
diffolved, vegetable fubftances. It is fuli 
of oil. Lime afiimilates the one and dif- 
folves the other. Such lands, not origin- 
ally worth four pence per acre, may be 
made, by paring, burning, and liming, to 
produce plentiful crops of turnips, which 
may be followed with oats, barley, or 
grafs-feeds, according to the inclination 
of the owner. Thefe obfervations, how- 
ever, are rather foreign to the prefent ar- 
gument, to which I (hall now return. 

To the univerfal principle, oil, we muft 
add another of great efficacy, though very 
little underftood; I mean the nitrous acid 
of the air. That the air does contain the 
rudiments of nitre, is demonftrable from 
the manner of making falt-petre in the d;f« 
ferent parts of the world. The air con- 
tains no fuch fait as perfect nitre ; it is a 
factitious fait, and is made by the nitrous 
acid falling upon a proper matrix. The 
makers of nitre form that matrix of the 
rubbifh of old houfes, fat earth, and any 
fixed alkaline fait. The univerfai acid, as 
it is called, is attracted by thefe materials, 
and forms true nitre, which is rendered 
pure by means of chrylUllifcation, aad iu 

1 1 
that form it is brought to us. In very hot 
countries the natural earth forms a matrix 
for nitre, which makes the operation very 
fhort. It is obferved that nitre is moll 
plentifully formed in winter, when the 
wind is northerly : hence we may under- 
Hand the true reafon why farmers and nur- 
ferymen lay up their lands in high ridges 
during the winter months. The good ef- 
fects of that operation are wholly attribut- 
ed to the mechanical action of the froll 
upon the ground. Light foils, as well as 
the tough ones, may be expoled in high 
ridges, but with fome limitation, in order 
to imitate the mud walls in Germany, 
which are found, by experience, to collect 
confiderable quantities of nitre during the 
winter. After faying fo much in praife of 
nitre, it will be expected that I (hould 
produce fome proofs of its efficacy, when 
ufed as manure. I muft: confefs that ex- 
periments do not give us any fuch proofs. 
Perhaps too large a quantity has been 
ufed ; or rather, it could not be reftorcd 
to the earth, .with its particles fo minutely 
divided, as when it remained united with 
the foil, by means of the chemiftry of na- 
ture. I fhall therefore confider this nitrous 
acid, or, as philofophers call it, the acidum 
vagum, in the light of a vivifying princi- 
ple, with whole operation we are not yet. 
fully acquainted. — A cmious obferver will 
remark, that there fubfifts a llrong ana- 
logy between plants and animals. Oil and 
water feem to make up the nourishment 
of both. Earth enters very little into the 
compolition of either. It is known that 
animals take in a great many earthy pat- 
tides at the mouth, but they are foon dil- 
charged by urine and llool. Vegetables 
take in the fmalleft portion imaginable of 
earth ; and the reafon is, they have no way 
to difcharge it. It is highly probable, 
that the radical fibres of plants take up 
their nourilhment from the earth, in the 
fame manner that the lacleal vcuels abforb 
the nutriment from the intcftincs ; and a* 
the oily and watery parts of our food arc 
perfectly united into a milky liquor, by 
means of the fpittle, pancreatic juice, and 
bile, before they enter the latteals, we 
have all the reafon imaginable to keep up 
the analogy, aud fuppofe that the olea- 
ginous and watery parts of the foil are 
alfo incorporated, previous to ibeir being 
taken up by the abforbir.g veflcls of the 
plant. To form a perfect judgment of 
this, we muflrcflctt that every foil, in » 
(late of nature, has in itfelfa quint, 
abl'orbcnt earth* fufficicut to incrirpor*« 


The Retailer, No. XIV. 

it* inherent oil and water ; but when we 
load it with fat manures, it becomes efien- 
iially neccffary to bellow upon it, at the 
fame time, fomething to affimilatc the 
parts. Lime, foap-afhes, kelp, marl, and 
all the alkaline fubftances, perform that 
office. In order to render this operation 
viiible to the fenfes : diffolve one drachm 
of Ruffia pot-a(h in four ounces of water ; 
then add one fpoonful of oil. Shake the 
inixture, and it will inftantly become an 
Uniform mafs of a whitifh colour, adapted 
to all the purpofes of vegetation. This 
eafy and familiar experiment is a juft repre- 
fentation of what happens after the ope- 
ration of burn -baking, and confequently 
may be confidered as a confirmation of the 
hypothefis advanced. — Let us attend to 
the procefs. The fward being reduced to 
afhes, a fixed alkaline fait is produced. The 
moiilure of the atmofphere foon reduces 
that fait into a fluid Mate, which, mixing 
with the foil, brings about an union of the 
oily and watery parts, in the manner de- 
monllrated by the experiment. When 
the under ftratum confifts of a rich vege- 
table mould, the effe&s of burn -baking 
will be laftir.g. But when the foil hap- 
pens to be thin and poor, the firft crop fre- 
quently fuffers before it arrives at maturi- 
ty. The farmer, therefore, who is at the 
expenfe of paring and burning a thin foil, 
fhould bellow upon it a portion of rotten 
dung, or fhambles manure, before the afhes 
are fpread, in order to fupply the deficien- 
cy of oily particles. In confequence of 
this prudent management, the crop will 
be fupported during its growth, and the 
land will be preferved in health and vigour. 
— Hitherto I have confidered plants as 
fiourifhed by their roots. I fhall now take 
a view of them as nourifhed by their leaves. 
An attention to this part of the vegetable 
fyiiem is efTentially neceflary. Vegetables 
that have afucculent leaf, fuch as vetches, 
peafe, beans, and buck-wheat, draw a 
great part of their nourimment from the 
air, and on that account impoverish the 
foil l^s than wheat, oats, barley, or rye, 
the leaves of which are of a firmer texture. 
Rape and hemp are oil-bearing plants, and 
£oniequently impovet ifhers of the foil : but 
the former lefs fo than the latter, owing 
to the greater fucculency of its leaf. The 
leaves of all kinds of grain are fucculent 
for a time, during which period the plants 
take little from the earth ; but as foon ab 
the ear begins to be formed, theylole 
their foftnefs, and diminilh in thtir attrac- 
tive power. The radical fibres are then 

more vigoroufly employed in extracting 
the oily particles of the earth, for the nou- 
rishment of the feed. 




TH E truth of this observation muft 
be evident to every one who has ever 
attended, on an election-day, at the cor- 
ners of Chefnut and Fifth- ftreets, and lift- 
ened to the learned politics of our Phila- 
delphia populace ! We need not be fur- 
prifed at the facility with which fops and 
fools, in the upper dalles of life, can, by 
an endlefs clatter, pafs for wits and wife 
men, when we fee that, even among the 
lowed and moft illiterate, there is nothing 
eafier, than to give an opinion upon fub- 
jecl:s they cannot poflibly underftand, and 
vehemently fupport principles and points, 
whofe foundation they never trouble them- 
felves to look for ; and if they did, would 
find them far above the reach of their abi- 
lities and comprehenfion. "Ah ! cries' 
a fellow, who may have heard the remotelt 
echo of the cannon at Germantown, 

" we ixjill have Mr. in ; he is a 

brave fellow — none of your fn caking raf- 
cals, that were afraid to fliow their nofea 
where there was a gun or a foldier. — He 
fought for liberty and bis country, and fo 
did I. — He did not faint at the fmell of 
powder. — Many's the time that he and I 
have march'd all night together, hail, 
rain, or fnow ; and went directly to it, the 
next day. — Yes, 1 fought for my liberty, 
and I'll fight for it again, before a parcel 
of cowardly, tory-fcoundrels, fhall come 
and ruin us and our government, to fill 
their own pockets. — Our conftitution is as 
good as poffible ; it fecures the liberties of 
the people, and keeps us from ruin, by thofe 
who want to be our kings. — God knows 
we have had enough of kings." — Thus it 
is, that every fool and madman, ihejlaves 
of fome more cunning politician, bellows 
forth the name of Liberty, and fouls her 
with his filthy, unhallowed touch— thus they 
judge of governments, which they know 
nothing about ; and of men whom they 
never law. — You will fcarcely find a man 
on the ciedlion ground, who has not been 
tither wounded or killed in the caufe of 
Liberty, and bted forth his heart- drops, 

The ketailer. No. XIV. 
for his dear country. — So much for liberty, 
and our free people ! 

But an extreme boldnefs in attempting 
things beyond our reach, and believing 
ourfelves moft adequate to taflo the molt 
difficult, and that we are the lead ac- 
quainted with, is a foible far from being 
confined to our electioneering gentry. It 
feems to pervade all ranks of men ; fo that 
I am almofl tempted to lay it down as a 
general rule, that, thofe acquifitions, 
which every man thinks himfelf compe- 
tent to, as it were by inftinct, and with- 
out the leaft ftudy or pains, are really 
thofe moft difficult in themfelves, and far 
fuperior, both in worth and rarenefs of at- 
tainment, to thofe that are ftared at by 
vulgar eyes. — I do not know of any fa- 
tisfactory natural reafon for this opinion ; 
and it cannot be pretended that mankind 
could believe themfelves acquainted with 
any thing becaufe they are not fo. — We 
muft either find fome better reafon for it, 
or be contented with the fact as we fee it 
every day, and leave the caufe to be dif- 
covered by thofe who are more pleafed 
with ingenious reafons, than with folic! 
truths. A man poffeffing a knowledge of 
the dead and ufelefs languages, is by the 
vulgar looked upon as prodigy of learning 
and abilities, and none would pretend to 
fuch acquirements without their neceffary 
time and labour. — And yet this is an ac- 
quirement which every man may poffefs, 
with nearly an equal degree of pains — 
and little more is neceffary than downright 
mechanical application, and abfolute la- 
bour, which one perfon is as competent to 
as another. But there are other parts of a 
man's character, beyond comparifon of 
greater importance and difficulty; of which, 
though every one believes himfelf tho- 
roughly pofTeffed, I will inflance one. — 
Show me a man that does not think him- 
felf fully capable of holding a converfation, 
as it is termed ? and yet 1 know of tew 
things more difficult and more feldom at- 
tained, than to converfe a few hours' with 
a proper prudence and underflanding. I 
do not now fpeak of the common prattle 
of all companies, and which is nearly the 
fame every where ; yet even here a perfon 
may injure himfelf : but of more ferious 
and interesting converfation, which every 
one muft meet with, more or lefs, before 
he is a great while in this world. — An art- 
ful man will draw from one more weak 
and perhaps more honeft, the moft import- 
ant fecrets, without his ever fufpecting it ; 


his companion can fay to him, Ex ore tut 
te conderunabo. 

We have, in thehiftory of England, a 
remarkable inftance of the unlimited pow 
er, which a man of a^drefs in converfation 
poffcffes, even over the wifeft and muft 
cunning. — When Queen Elizabeth, and 
Mary, Queen of Scots, were at the 
height of that rivalfliip, which finally coft 
the latter her life ; Mary was a good deal 
puzzled to fathom the true defigns of 
Elizabeth, whofe behaviour towards her 
was a ftrange mixture of jealoufy and an 
outward (how of kindnei's. For the ac- 
complifhment of thisdifcovery, Mary fent 
into England, upon fome errand to Eliza- 
beth, Sir James Melvil, a young no- 
bleman, remarkable for gentility of man- 
ners, a fpecious addrefs, and the art with 
which he managed a converfation. Hefoon 
ingratiated himfelf into the favour of Eli- 
zabeth, and by carefully obferving and 
humouring her weak fides, at length 
drew from that artful princefs, fecrets im- 
pregnable by any other means, difcovered 
her moft inward weakneffes, and triumph- 
antly carried to his miltrefs the wifhed-for 
intelligence. — " He fucceeded fo well," 
fays Hume, " that he threw that artful 
Princefsentirely off her guard, and brought 
her to difcover the bottom of her heart, 
full of all thofe levities and follies, and 
ideas of rivalfliip, which poffefs the young- 
eft and moft frivolous of her fex." 

But the want of knowledge and pru- 
dence in conducting a converfation, may 
fubject a man to other injuries and incon- 
venienciesjbefides thedifcovery ofthoughtl 
and circumftances, proper to be concealed, 
a*id the publifhing of which is a material 
difadvantage to him. According to a 
man's converfation, he eftabliflies the cha- 
racter of an ill-difpofed and malicious per- 
fon, or of a fool, or to ufe the fofter 
phrafe, a very weak man, poor fellow.—* 
The fir ft. is obtained by improper and cruel 
raillery, and an indifcriminate exercife of a 
fatirical vein, without any regard to the 
character or circumftances of the perfon 
attacked. — The object is to raife a laugh, 
and at whatexpenfe is never confidered. — 
The blufhes of the modeft, the agonizing 
confufion and torment of the diffident, are 
but fo many additional wreaths of triumph 
to twine round the inhuman tyrant's brow. 
— Such a conduct, as the Spectator ob- 
ferves, is " a degree of murder." — It, at 
firft view, feems unaccountable, that tuch 
haractcrs fhould receive any kind ofcoun- 

afid he will, at length, be furprifedj when j tenance or fupport from the worid. — But 

The Retailer, No. XIV. 

fays the Spectator, " an unpardonable of- 
fence to fhow a man, you do not care whe- 
ther he is pleafed or difpleafed." — 

But if a perfon really fpeaks or acts tri- 
flingly or impudently, it is neither your 
buhnefs or advantage, to catch at every 
opportunity to render him ridiculous. — 
The company have not appointed you 
their attorney-general to redrefs all their 
grievances, without either their command 
or confent, and perhaps to intenupt an 
improving and interesting converfation, 
merely that you may appear with brillian- 
cy, and difplay talents, which, while thus 
exercifed, are a difgrace to you. But the 
making another loekfooli/J?, is not always a 
proof that you have been witty ; for the 
turning of the whole attention of the 
company upon him, may well have this 
effect, whatever be the circumflance 
which puts him in this difagreeable fitua- 

As we generally connect tendernefs and 
delicacy with our ideas of the female cha- 
racter, this barbarous exercife of fatirical 
talents, appears with tenfold blacknefs in 
a lady.- — And when a gentleman is the ob- 
ject of her raillery, it is cowardice to the 
laft degree, the meanefl and bafell of cow- 
ardice. A man appears hot, is not, more 
mean and defpicable, when he lifts his 
arm toabufe a woman, whom Nature, and 
her love for him, have thrown into his 
power ; than a woman who endeavours to 
render a man ridiculous, who perhaps, is 
with-held from punifhing with the bitter- 
nefs of retort, only by that politenefs and 
deference, perhaps 1 may fay pity, which 
every gentleman feels and exercifes, when 
he is treating with the fofter fex, " the 
weaker vefTel." — Such a conduct is like 
beating and kicking a man, after you have 
effectually prevented any refiflance or de- 
fence by tying his hands and feet. — My 
lady would be terribly affected, fhould fhe 
read in fome romance, that Don Rigma- 
role, after having treacheroufly got Don 
Prigmarole in his power, had tied him to 
a pod, and wantonly pricked him with, 
hi6 fword of valour. 

How far, in the cafe beforementioned, 
the rules of politenefs bind a gentleman, I 
may confidcr another time. — At prefent 
I am of opinion, that, when a lady thus. 


true it is, that fuch characters are, in al- 
mofl all companies, moll noticed and 
fought after. — I fear, this is owing to a 
bad principle in human nature— to a cruel 
gratification received from the pain of ano- 
ther ; — and it is the more indulged, as we 
generally fuppofe, fuch raillery but pro- 
motes good- humour in a company, with- 
out materially injuring any. But this is a 
grand miltake, as every one knows, who 
has ever experienced the difagreeable fitu- 
ation of being marked out as an object 
of deiifion for a whole company. — The 
patrons too, of thefe heroes, act but with 
little policy and judgment. For while 
they are thus diverting themfelves, at the 
expenfe of another, and inhumanly glut- 
ting themfelves with the blood of mode- 
fly, they know not but what the indif- 
criminating arm of impudence and fatire, 
is fufpended over their own heads, and 
themfelves will fall the next victim. Were 
thefe tyrannical ufurpers of wit, who 
make no diflinction between modefl merit 
and forward folly, who cannot attend to 
the wholefome advice of fparing the man, 
even fhould it be necefTary to la(h his vices, 
generally difcountenanced and defpifed ; 
then, and not till then, will all be fafe 
from their depredation. But I believe 
there are fome who earn this deteflable 
character without quite deferving it ; that 
is, thay have not really wicked and mali- 
cious intentions, in t'ne midfl of the mif- 
chief they do, and believe they are only 
making a little innocent fport to preferve 
the company fiom an intolerable duilnefs, 
and have no idea that their conduct has 
conftquences beyond the moment — they 
do not reflect that the damage done may 
be irreparable, that they may ruin the 
mofl promifing prolpects, and that geni- 
us is a tender plant, which, if damped in 
in its rifing vigour, and dealt roughly with 
while young, may be blalled forever. — 
Even when nurfed with the greatefl atten- 
tion, it fometimes fails. — But miflakes of 
this kind, I fear, but feldom occur ; inju- 
ry, in fome degree, is generally intended — 
and when oneof thefe wits are told of fuch 
injury, he immediately cries out, " Who 
cares for it ; if he is fool enough to get 
angry, he may, but the more he minds it, 
the more he will be laughed at." — Ceafe 

fool! a man's feelings are not in his pow- bids defiance to decency, it is the duty 
er, and he may blufh at fome of your im- of the gentleman to throw off the re- 
pudent raillery, when he knows himfelf I ftraints of politenefs; when fhe difregards 
above its reach, and is convinced that both [ the delicacy necefTary in her fex, he is ab- 
you and your wit are rather objects of his! folved from the observance of a conduct* 
contempt, than of his concern " It is," i which is due only to that delicacy. 

Eajiern Generoftty—A Tale. 

deceive the children (as the event Ihowcd) 
engaged in the fame fport, advancing to- 
wards the children, till by degrees they 
got fo near, that the children difcovered 
them to be Indians ; but it was then too 
late to make their efcape : the Indians 
feized and carried them fix miles into the 
woods, where they made a fire, and took 
up their lodgings for the night : their 
rifles and tomahawks they reded againil a 
tree, and then laid down, each Indian 
with a boy on his arm : — the children, as 
may be fuppofed, kept awake — the oldeft 
began to move, and finding his Indian 
found afleep, by degrees difengaged him- 
felf, and went to the fire, which had then 
got low, and tlirred it up ; the Indian not 
waking, he whifpered to his brother, who 
likewife crept away, and both of them 
went to the fire. The oldeft boy then ob- 
ferved to his brother, " I think we can 
kill thefe Indians, and get away from 
them" — the youngeft agreed in the pro- 
pofal of attempting it; the oldeft then 
took one of the rifles, and placed the 
muzzle, which he refted on a fmall flick, 
that he found for the purpofe, clofe to the 
head of one of the Indians, and commit- 
ting the execution of this part of the bu- 
finefs to his brother, ordered him to pull 
the trigger at the moment he faw him 
ftrike the other Indian with one of the 
tomahawks The oldeft gave the fignal ; 
the youngeft pulled trigger— the rifle fliot 
away the lower part of the Indian's face, 
and left him fenfelefs ; he then told bis 
brother to lay on, for he had done for his. 
after which he fnatched up the gun and 
ran ; the boy with the tomahawk gave 
the ftroke with the wrong end, the Indian 
darted on his feat— the boy found the 

l 7 

for an attack, which was to have been 
made by a body of warriors, waiting in the 
neighbourhood. The gentleman who 

gives this account, fawand converfcd with 
the two children, in O&ober laft. 



LMBN-ABBAS, favourite of the 
Caliph Mamoun, and lieutenant 
of the police, in the reign of this prince, 
relates in thefe words, a ftory that hap- 
pened to himfelf. 

44 I was one evening with the Caliph, 
when a man, bound hand and foot, was 
brought in. Mamoun ordered me to 
keep a watchful eye over the piifoner, and 
to bring him the next day. The Caliph 
feemed greatly irritated; and the fear of 
expofing myfelf to his refentment, induced 
me to confine the prifoner in my haiam, as 
the moft fecure place in my houfe. I afked 
him what country he was of. Ke faid 
Damafcus ; and that his habitation was in 
the quarter of the great mofque. May 
Heaven, cried I, fhower down its choiceft 
blefiings upon the city of Damafcus, and 
particularly upon the quarter where you 
refided ! He was folicitous to know th# 
motive that fo much intereiled me for that 
dillria. It is, faid I, that I owe my life 
to a man that lived there. Thofe words 
excited his curiofity, and he conjured me 
to gratify it. It is many years iince, con- 
tinued I, that the Caliph, diffasisfied with 
the viceroy of Damafcus, depoftd him. I 
accompanied the perfon whom the prince 
had appointed his fucceflor ; and at the 
inftant we were taking poffeffion of the go- 

vernor's palace, a quarrel broke out be 

x:::;^i2pv =ft^k-£=£ ft 

him another blow, which 

hand, gave 
brought him to the ground : he repeated 
his flrokes till he had difpatched him, and 
then made the belt of his way after his 
brother. When the boys had found the 
path which they recollected to have travel- 
led before, the oldeft fixed his hat on a 
bum, as a.dire&ory to find the fcene of 
aftion the next day. The tomahawked 
Indian was found near the place where the 
boys had left him : the other was not 
there ; but was tracked by his blood, and 
although fo weakened by his wounds that 
he could not raife his rifle to fire at his 
purfuers (two men), they fuflered him to 
efcape ; but it is fuppofed he muft have 
died of his wounds. Thefe two Indians 

latter had polled foldiers, whoaflanited us; 
I efcaptd out of a window, and finding 
myfelf purfued by other affaffins, took Ihe]. 
ter in your quarter. 1 obferved a palace 
open, and feeing the mafter at the door, 
fupplicated him to fave my life. He im- 
mediately conducted me into the apart- 
ment of his women, where I contirv.ed 
a month in peace and plenty. My holt 
came one day to inform me, that a cara- 
van wasfettingout for Bagdad ; and that, 
[f I wifhed to return to my own home, I 
could not avail myfelf of a more favour* 
ble opportunity. Shame held my tongue, 
and 1 had not courage to conftfs my po- 
verty : 1 had no money, and for want of 
that, fliould be forced to follow the ca.a- 

died of his wounds. Theie two Indian. wwu, .»^~ - - 

were fent out to reconnoitre the belt place van ou foot-but now grcuc «« > 

Col. Mag. Vol. IV. No. I. 

! g On Negro Slavery and the Slave Trade* . 

prife, when on the day of my departure, a ipofe of my felf at his pleafure, provided yours 
very fine horfe was brought me, a mulejbefafe. I again intreated him to efcape,but 

loaded with all forts of provifions, and a 
black flare to attend me on the road. My 
generous ho(l pvefented me at the fame 
time a purfe of gold, and conduced me 
himftlf to the caravan, when he recom- 
mended me to feveral of the travellers who 
were his friends. — Thefe are the kindnefies 
I received in your city ; and that render it 
fo clear to mc : all my concern is, that I 
am unable to difcover my generous bene- 
factor. I (hould die content, could 1 find 
an opportunity of testifying my gratitude. 
Your wifhes are accomplifhed, cried my 
prifoner, in a tranfport ; I am he, that re- 
ceived you in my palace. Do you not re- 
member me ? The time that had elapfed 
fince that event, and the grief into which 
he was funk, had greatly altered his face ; 
but, on a more clofe examination of his 
features, I eaiily recollected him ; andfome 
eircumltanccs he brought to my mind, left 
me not the leatl room to doubt, but that 
the prifoner, who was then in danger of 
lofing his life, was the very perfon, who 
had fo gentroufly faved mine. I embraced 
him with tears in my eyes, took off his 
chains, and afked him by what fatality he 

had incurred the Caliph's difpleafure 

Some contemptible enemies, he replied, 
have found means to afperfe me unju'.Hy, to 
Mamoun : I was hurried away from Da- 
mafcus, and cruelly denied even the confo- 
lation of embracing my wife and children : 
I know not what fate attends me; but, as 
I have reafon to apprehend my death isde- 
termined, 1 requeu: you to acquaint them 
with my misfortunes. M No," faid I to 
him, *' you (hall not die ; I dare give you 
tin's afTurance ; you (hall be reftored to 
your family : be at liberty from tin's mo- 
ment." I prefently provided fome of the 
rfcheft gold Huffs of Bagdad, and begged 
him to prefeut them to his wife : depart 
immediately, added I, prefenting him 
with a purfe of a thoufand fequins ; hafle to 
rejoin thofe pledges of your affection, 
which you left at Damafcus ; let the Ca- 
liph's indignation fall on me; 1 dread it 
not, I am happy enough to preferve you. 
What a propofal do you make me ! anfwered 
my prifoner, andean you think mecapable 
of accepting it ? What ! fha.ll I, to avoid 
death, facrifice that fame life now, which I 
formerly faved? Endeavour to convince the 
Caliph of my innocence : this is the only 
proof I will admit of your gratitude: if 
a no cannot undeceive him, I will go my 

he continued inflexible. I did not failtopre- 
fent myfelf next morning before Mamoun. 
The prince wasdrefTedin a crimfon coloured 
mantle, thefymbolof his anger. As foon 
as hefawme, he enquired where my pii- 
fonerwas \ and at the fame inftant order- 
ed the executioner to attend. My Lord, 
faid I, throwing myfelf at his feet, fome- 
thing very extraordinary has happened with 
regard to the perfon you yefterday commit- 
ted to my cuftody. Will your majefty 
permit me to explain it ? Thefe wordsthrew 
him into a paffion. I fwear, cried he, by 
the foul of my anceltors, that thy head 
mail pay for the prifoner, if thou hall fuf- 
fered him to efcape. Both my life and his 
are at your majelty's difpofal : vouchfafe to 
hear me. Speak, faid he. I then relat- 
ed to the Prince, in what manner that man 
had faved my life, at Damafcus; that, de- 
firous to difcharge the obligation I lay un- 
der to him, I had offered him his liberty ; 
but that he had refufed it, from the fear of 
expofing me to deaths My Lord, added I, 
he is not guilty ; a man of fuch generous 
fentiments cannot be fo. Some bafe de- 
tractors have calumniated him to you; and 
he is become the unfortunate victim of 
their hatred and envy. The Caliph appear- 
ed affected, and having naturally a great- 
nefs of foul, could not help admiring the 
conduct of rny friend. I pardon him, faid 
Mamoun, on thy account : go carry him 
this good news, and bring him to me. I 
threw myfelf at the Prince's feet, kiffed 
them, and made my acknowledgments, in 
the ftrongefl terms my gratitude could 
fuggeft. I then conducted my prifoner in- 
to the Caliph's prefence. The Monarch 
ordered him to be clothed with a robe of 
honor, prefented him with ten horfes, ten 
mules, and ten camels, out of his own lta- 
bles ; to all which favours, he added a 
purfe of ten-thouland fequins, for the ex- 
penfeof his journey, and gave him a let- 
ter of recommendation to the governor of 
Damafcus." B. Z. 


On Negro Slavery<z/#///y , Si.ave-Trape. 

THEfubjectof Negro flaveryandofthe 
flave-trade, defervedly, claims the at- 
tention of every benevolent mind. The en- 
lightened part of mankind begins to be 
lfhamed of this inhuman traffic, and of the 

bafe degradation of that part of our fpecies, 
jfdf, and offer him my^head : let him dif- I who, to fpeak in the language of an ami- 

Extracl from Dickfon's Letters on Negro Slavery. 

able and eminent *philofopher of our own 
country, "have been doomed toendlefs lla- 
very by us, — merely becaufe their bodies 
may tye difpofed to reflect or abforb the 
rays of light, in a way different from 

At a period, when the fpirit of liberty, 
and the light of true philofophy, are ex- 
tending their benign influence among the 
nations of the earth ; — in a country, too, 
where the natural rights of men are per- 
fectly underflood, and where the civil 
rights of the citizen are better defined and 
fecured, than in any other ; — the unhappy 
condition of the Negroes, held in bondage, 
mutt be peculiarly interefting. — The time, 
it is hoped, is f not very remote, when 
thofe ill-£ated people, dwelling in this 
Jand of freedom, mall commence a partici- 
pation with the white inhabitants, in the 
bleffings of liberty ; and experience the 
kindly protection of government, for the 
effential rights of human nature. 

The caufe of the Africans is very ably 
advocated, in a work recently publifhed in 
England, (and, as yet, fcarcely known 
here) entitled, "Letters on Slavery, by 
William Dickfon," &c. The ninth let- 
ter contains alummary of the principal ar- 
guments, employed in the invefcigation of 
the fubjedt : — its infertion in the Maga- 
zine v^ill not, we trufl, be unacceptable to 
our readers. 

An Extract from Dickson's 
psNesr.0 Slavery. 

* Deus almus eandem 


' Omnigenis animam, nil prokibente dedit.' 
Williams, vid. tit. pag. 

WE have, hitherto, proceeded with as 
much fecurity on the fuppofition, that the 
Africans are men co-ordinate with our- 
felves, as if the apologiils for flavery had 
not refufed to grant us any fuch pottula- 
tum: or, as if they had not called in thejoint 
aid of fophiftry and modern metaphyfic, to 
wreR humanity, as well as liberty, from an 
injured and infulted race of men. Shame on 
European pride, avarice, and tyranny. 

* David Rittenhoufe, Mfq. — See his ora- 
tion y delivered before the American Philofo- 
phical Society , in February 1775. 

f It may be reafonably prefumed, that the 
year m.dcccviii, 'will be the JEra y from 
ixjhich -uue may date the injlitution of fome 
■national plan, for the gradual abolition of 
Negro flavery. — Seethe cotiflitution of the 
United States — Article I. Section o,. ; 


which, by wreathing the chains of flavery 

on their perfons, have funk the African! 
to, or, at leafl, havekept them in, a ftate 
fo brutifh, as to give fanftion to a doubt, 
whether the flavc and his haughty lord 
partake of the fame common nature ! ! 

On this very difficult part of myfubject, 
[ cannot pretend to offer much that is 
original, though feveral thoughts and ar- 
guments I have, which, I think, I may 
call my own. A narrow plan obliges me 
to confine, to one letter, a difcufTion on 
which a volume might be written. My 
brevity is of the lefs importance, as the 
fubjedt has been very fully handled by 
much abler writers — byBuffon, by Beattie, 
by Ramfay, by Clarkfon, and lately by a 
perfon who had uncommonly good oppor- 
tunities for making obfervations, as well as 
ability to draw conclufions from them.* 
Are the doubts of fome philosophers, 
whofe means of information were very 
much circumfcribed, to be put in the 
fcale againft the arguments and the fails 
of writers, one of whom (Mr. Ramfay) 
fpent a great part of his life, and the other 
(Doctor Smith) I believe, his whole life, 
among different tribes of men ? Tne mo- 
tives of thofe philofophers, for exprefiing 
fuch doubts, are well known ; 'but it is 

* The Rev. Samurl Stanhope Smiih, D D. in " An 
Lffay on the caufes of the variety of complexion and 
figure, in the human fpecies; printed at Philadelphia 
tn 1787. reprinted at Edinburgh i.i 1783, with ad- 
ditional notes, by a gentleman of the untvernty."— 
This gentleman is B. S. Barton, member of the 
Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, &o. author of 
a very ingenious and iuterelting work, entitled, 
<; Obfervations on fome pans of Natural Hill »ry, to 
.vhich is prefixed, an account of feveral remarkable 
velliges, of an ancient date, which have been di Co- 
vered in different parts of Noah-America." (See 
Kalm's and Carver's Travels.) This lad curious, ac 
count has already appeared, and the reflj of the work 
will fhortlybe published. One part of it wilj be "An 
Effay towards a Natural Hiflory ot the N. Ameri- 
can Indians," in which Doftor barton, frgjjj Ls oa-u 
obfervation, will rectify feveral raiAakes, receding 
thole tribes. He affures me. that Dofior truth's ac- 
count of the colour, &c. of the Indians, 14 perfectly 
; ,(!_ — Dr. Smith, in my humble opinion, has, in a 
very mallei ly manner, refuted the a; ..u.r.ciis of Lord 
Kaimes. to prove that there are different fpecies cf 
men. See prel. dil'c. to his. Lordikip's ikclcru-, 
which, in rnoft other refpeds, is a valuable work. 
That a writer of fo amenability and hmnanitfihoi Id 
have realoncd fo weakly on a fubj, % which lea...^, 
we fee, to fuch ferious confequences, is only to be 
accounted for, from the well known effects of !iy: o. 
thefes in misleading the mmd. Knowing, as IWy, 
how erolsly ow part of mankind nave been mihc- 
prefented, I humbly think, no man « fo fully eom- 
p tent to write on thisfubjeft, as he who has refiJed 
among the people he means to defenbe, long enough 
to receive the full and fair impreffion of their charac- 
ter; and, eventhrn, he ought to be unb.a led by 
inUrtJL, or prejudice, which arc Rill m»rc unii lendly 
10 mankind tliau hypothecs. 

Extr aft from Dickfon's Liters on Negro Slavery. 


Highly probable, that the humane Vol- 
taire, and the good-natured, benevolent 
Hume, would not have thrown them out, 
hud they dreamt that their conjectures and 
their ajertions, would have been magnified 
into arguments, by the apologids for fla- 
very. With all due refpeft to thefe, and 
to Tome other great modern names, I can- 
not affent to this their doubt, any more 
thin I can to fome of their dogmas. Se- 
veral of their literary productions are as 
admirable, as, in my very humble opinion, 
their philofophical, or rather unphilofo- 
phical chimeras are abfurd : and, till their 
followers fupport their flimfy, tottering 
fabric of their untenable philofophy, with 
reafonings more accurate and conclusive 
than any we have yet feen ; I mail take 
leave to confider it, as a jumble of refined 
fophiltrv, and heterogeneous paradox, 
which it is impoffible for the human under- 
ftanding (I know it to be impoffible for 
my underdanding) to reduce to anything 
like a confident whole. 

On the prefent fubjeft, though I am 
not a match for thofe writers in argument, 
ftill lefs in the illufive femblance of argu- 
ment, I may furely fay, without vanity, 
that in point of information, I have the 
advantage of them ; having feen and ob- 
Icrved more of the Negroes, than any of 
one of them, or, perhaps, than all of them 
put together. And God forbid, I fhould 
be guilty of infulting the wretched and 
the forlorn, by affirming that any fingle 
instance of their behaviour ever eave me 
the (hadow of a reafon to doubt of their 
natural equality, both in intellect and 
fentiment, to the Europeans. Sir, I never 
did obferve in them any mark of inferiori- 
ty, which might not very fairly be referred 
to thofe mod powerful caufes ; the favage 

Jiute y which differs not the faculties to ex- 
pand themfelves, combined with afate of 
Jlavcry, which, it is well known, debafes 
and crufhes every power of the human 
foul. Nay, fince Britons have been infult- 
ed by an execrable comparifon of their 
condition with that of Negro faves, I will 
tfffc ^but without any intention of offend- 
ing), wherein the fuperiority of the poor 
Barbadian whites, over the Negroes, con- 
fids ? Frr my own part, though I have 
b.v: at fome pains to fatisfy myfelf, on 
this difputed point, by purpofely mixing 
with both, and putting their mental facul- 

i tie3 to the ted of experiment, 1 declare I 
never could difeover, in the poor, unin- 
flru&ed whites, any other mark of fupe- 
riority, than the very equivocal one of co- 


lour, and fome flight differences in figure. 

I call colour (the principal difference 
in the varieties of men) a very equivocal 
mark of fuperiority. I cannot tell, Sir, 
what paffes in the minds of other men ; 
but, in my own mind, I never could per- 
ceive any connection whatfoever between 
my idea of intelletl, and my idea of colour. 
The white man reafons thus ; the Negro'3 
colour is different from mine, ergo I am 
naturally fuperior to the Negro. May not 
a coppex-coloured man, df*an olive-colour- 
ed man, or a tawney man, or a black man 
thus demondrate the natural fuperiority of 
men of bis oiun colour, to all others ? By 
fuch fort of logic, we find the celebrated 
Francis Williams attempting to demon- 
drate the fuperiority of the Negro to the 
Mulatto : " A fimple white or a fimple 
black complexion was refpedlively perfect, 
but a Mulatto, being a heterogeneous 
medley of both, was imperfeel, ergo infe- 
rior."* I fufpeel, Sir, that the ideas of 
intellect and of colour have a mutual de- 
pendence in minds, which pretend to be fu- 
perior to that of our black philofopher. — 
The whites paint the devil black, and the 
Negroes paint him white; but do fuch chi- 
meras prove the devil to be either black or 
white? Amanmay ajfociate his idea of black- 
nefs with his idea of the devil, or with his 
idea of flupidiiy, or with any other of his 
ideas he thinks proper ; but he ought not 
to reafon from fuch arbitrary affociations. 

The truly important national quedion, 
which has been fo long agitated by the 
Scotch and Irifh antiquaries, f will help 
farther to illuflrate my meaning. Set afide 
the fophidry of both parties, and drip 
their arguments to the bare thought ; and, 
then, poffibly, they may be found to 
amount to thefe. My country, fays the 
Scotchman, lies to the northward of your's, 
therefore Ireland was peopledfrom Scotland. 
Nay, replies the Irifhman, but my country 
lies to the fouthivard of your's, therefore, 
Scotland nvas peopledfrom Ireland. Now, 
what force is there in thefe arguments, 
that is not refolveable into the prejudices of 
the cafuids, couched in a laughable kind 
of emphafis, which they are apt to place on 
the word my, when combined with the 
word country I for, where is the connec- 

* Hiftory of Jamaica, vol. 2. p. 478. — This argu- 
ment, abfurd as it is, has more of the appearance of 
logical conneftion than any other of the kind, that 
has been offered on this fubjecf. 

+ See the Hiftory of the Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire, vol. 2. p. 528. 

Extract from Dlckforis Letters on Negro Slavery. 

no connection or relation, of any kind what- 
ever, between ideas, which fome prejudiced 
and weak minds have, abfurdly, unac- 
countably, and unphilofophically affbei- 
ated ; how, in the name of common fenfe, 
is it poffible to infer the one from the 
other ? J *' l '^*k 

Thus I have endeavoured to lay the axe 
of demonftration to the root of this moil 
monftrous production of difeafed imagina- 
tions. The fame mode of reafoning is 
evidently applicable to all the other marks 
of didinction, which have been fondly af- 
fumed, and confidently preffed upon the 
public, as marks of inferiority in the Ne- 

From a connection of ideas fo very ca- 
pricious and chimerical, we cannot expect 
very legitimate confequences. Towards 
the equator, in the eaftern,* weftern, and 
middle parts of the old world, the human 
complexion is black ; towards the nor- 
thern extremity of the temperate zone, it 
is white ; and, in the intermediate lati- 
tudes, it gradually verges from each extreme 
to the oppoiite, making fome allowances 
for high and low, dry and moid foils, 
with other caufes which aft on the com- 
plexion, efpecially for civilization and 
mode of life, by which it is well known to 
be greatly influenced. Now, if intellect 
had any connection with colour, we fhould 
find the like gradation in the one, as in the 
other. Thus, fince we find the Dane is 
fairer than the Frenchman, we muft con- 
clude he is proportionably more rational ; 
contrary to what would feem to be the 
fact; for Denmark has not produced nearly 
'fo great a proportion of men of genius, 
as France. But genius — original inven- 
tive genius, has (hone in nations of a much 
darker hue than the French, or than any 
nation in Europe. Not to mention that 
^ the Chaldeans were the firft adronomers, 
letit be remembered that the ^Egyptians, 

taught them arithmetic and algebra ; and 
that the Indians, who were alfo /killed in 
thofe fciences, inventedthe difficult and fci- 
entific game of chefs.* 

Again, if it bejuft to affirm that the 
blacked and the faireft nations had differ- 
ent origins, may not the fame be as juflly 
affirmed of thofe, of the intermediate 
(hades of colour ? Muft we not, then, 
conclude that the fvvarthy Spaniard, and 
the fair German or Pole,are defcended from 
two original human pairs, of their ref- 
pective complexions? At this rate, we 
(hall have Adams and Eves without num- 
ber—one pair, at lead, for every country. 
The difficulty will be, to find gardens of 
Eden in fome countries ; in Labrador, for 
example, or Lapland, or Kamtfchatfcha.j- 

But let us try whether analogy will 
throw any light on this fubjeft. Hogs, in 
this country, are very often white, and 
fheep are univerfally covered with wool. In 
tropical countries, the former are gene- 
rally black, the latter have a flight cover- 
ing of fhort fmooth hair, and the rams in 
Barbadoes have no horns. No naturalift 
regards thefe fpecific differences. Why 
then are the colour, and other peculiari- 
ties of the Negro, regarded as fpecific 
differences ? 

Mod animals are deftined for, or at 
lead, thrive bed, in particular climates. 
Man was intended to aflert his dominion 
over the inferior animals, in all climates. 
Hence he can roam, with impunity, from 
the arctic to the antarctic regions, as the 
voyages of our late great navigator evince. 
" Nous verrons evidemment qu'aucun des 
animaax n'a obtenu ce grand privilege ; 
que loin de pouvoir fe multiplier par tout, 
laplulpart font bornes et confines dans de 
certains climats, et meme dans des con- 
trees particuliers."f Man, it will be al- 

* The people of Pekin are fair ; at Canton they are 
nearly black. " The Perfians, near the Cafpian fea, 
are amongft the faireft people in the world ; near the 
gulph of Ormus, they are of a dark olive. The 
inhabitants of the ftoneyand defart Arabia are taw- 
ney; while thofe of Arabia the Happy a^ajj^ rlgck as 
the ^Ethiopians. — The Jews are fail\ii£jjfemain and* 
Germany, brown in France and in Turkey, fwarthy 
in Portugal and Spain, olive in Syria .and ChaWea,' 
tawney, or copper-coloured in Arabia-and-in Egypt/' 
Dr. S. S. Smith's Effay, p. 35 . See alio Bufff Nafc 
Hift. vol. 3. Smellie's Tranf, // 

* Wallis's Algebra, ch. 12. 

t — or Scotland, lay certain greai wits, whofe patrio- 
tic aim ever has been to unite this divided kingdom, 
and whole brilliant irradiations have penetrated the 
gloom, even of the weftern hemifphere. It is certain, 
neverthelefs, that theParadife of that country was at 
or near Eden burgh, as the name plainly imports. To 
the men of profound philological indagation wc fub- 
mnjf^hether Paris be not a mere contraction of rh« 
FTench word Paradis. Nobis enmverifimite e/l, nonu 
pr^pfium Paris a Paradis jormari elidcnda fi\ 
'Ji.'eras a et o. Having thus difcovcred the iick-ns r»l 
ancient Caledonia, and of her ancient great and "ood 
ally, we leave other nations to find out thcir's. 

* Buffon Hill. Nat. torn, xviii. p. 477. 

3 Z Extra ft from Dick/on* s 

lowed, is the mod perfect animal, and his 
being lefs incommoded by local circum- 
fiances, than moft other animals, is un- 
doubtedly one of his perfections This 
tafy accommodation to climate, and the 
dominion man every where poffcffes over 
o'.her animals, demonstrate the fuperiority 
|of his nature. And ought the being who, 
ID Africa, fubjugates the elephant, and 
founts the lion and the tyger, to be ac- 
counted inferior to him, who, in Europe, 
tames the horfe and the ox, and hunts the 
wolf and the boar ? 

From the comparatively fihort experi- 
ence we have had, of the various climates 
of the earth, we cannot, or at lead, ought 
not, to decide, with dogmatifm, on the 
effects of climate, during a long feries of 
eges. We have feldom feen climate and 
lavage manners acting, together, on Euro- 
peans, in tropical countries. But where 
thofe caufes have been combined, the ef- 
fects have been very confiderable. Ac- 
cording to Lord Kaimes himfelf, aPortu- 
cuefe colony, on the Coaft of Congo, in a 
cot.irfe of time, have degenerated la much, 
that they fcarce retain the appearance of 
men.* Another Portugutfe fettlement, in 
Sierra Leona, and the Spaniards in the 
torrid zone of America, aftord farther 
proofs of the fame effect. The former are 
afnmilated, in figure and complexion, to the 
Negroes ;f the latter are become copper- 
coloured, like the Indians.^ With re- 
fpect to the Anglo-Americans, " a certain 
Countenance of palenefs and foftnefs (fays 
Dr. S. S. Smith) ftrikcs a traveller from 
Britain, the moment he arrives upon our 
(the North American) fhore. A degree 
of fallownefs is vifible to him, which, 
through familiarity, hardiy attracts our 
observation. This effect is more obvious 
\\\ the middle, and, dill more, in the fouth- 
prn, than in the northern ftates."$ The 
effects of climate and mode of living, in 
America, is farther proved by the whites, 
who have been captivated by the Indians, 
in their infancy ; and by the Indian chil- 
dren, who have been brought up among 
the whites, and whofe colour and feat u ret 
pflume a very near refemblance to thofe of 
the people, among whom they have been 
educated. (I 

Letters on Negro Slavery. 

Upon the whole, Sir, I am, by no, 
means, fingular in thinking, that, as differ-^ 
ence of foil and culture give rife to many 
varieties of vegetables, thofe of the pota- 
toe, for example, or the apple ; and aa 
very confiderable changes are known to be 
produced on fome fpecics of animals, as 
dogs, horfes, fiieep, &c. by domellication, 
climate, and other caufes ; fo the varie- 
ties of the human fpecies may be produced 
by the^iw but long continued 'and combin- 
ed operation of foil<climate and mode of 
living ; by phyfical joined with moral caufes. 
This doctrine is evidently favoured by the 
prince of naturalifts, Linnaeus. " Afri 
pilos contortuplicatos, qtiamvis albos, in 
hue miratus fum, collatis, imprimis varie- 
tatum caujis in plantis, et antmalium gene- 
ratione ambigena, nee tamen quidquam de 
Mauris nigris et albis ftatui."* 

This opinion of Linnaeus, I fhal] rein- 
force with an obfervation of one of the 
greateftphyfiologiftsiq Europe : that moft 
animals in their wild ftate are of a dark 
colour ; and that, when domefticated, 
they generally affume a lighter hue, and 
often become perfectly white. Of this 
we have very ftriking example in the duck, 
the goofe, the dunghill fowl, the pigeon, 
the turkey, the cat, and others perhaps, 
which may occur to gentlemen /killed in 
natural hiftory. Let the apologifts for 
flavery beware, left they ftir up naturalifts 
to inyettigate this matter with redoubled 
ardour; for it feems not improbable, that 
the refult of their inquiries may be, that 
the Negroes are the aborigines of man- 

Thus, perhaps, this interefting problem 
may, one day, be completely folved. We 
may, at laft, be able to account for the va- 
rious colours of men in the old, as welj 
as for their more uniform complexion in 
the new hemifphere,f and for its general 
refemblance to that of the Tartar hoardes ; 
for the dark complexion of the Samoied 
and the clear brown complexion of the 
Otaheiteans. But this fuppofes a knovv- 

* Sketches of Man, pic!, difc. 
+ Trcatifcon the track of Great Britain to Africa, 
by an African merchant. 

% Phil Traiif. No 476 \ 4. 

S.S Smith'* Kffay, p. 37. 
|] Of this Dv. Smith, giye« remarkable inftanets it 
o,\. and his Edit Pr. JJarton, at p. -g. note. 

* Syftema Naturae, edit. 13 This great man, we 
fee, fpeaks on this fubjeci, \vith the caution xh 
hecomes a philosopher. 

+ The complexion of the Nortb-Amei In- 

dian is, by no means fo uniform, as ha*- been 
imagined. " In travelling from the great hUfcs to 
Florida, or I.ouifiania, thiqugh the Indian nations, 
there is a vifible progreffion in the darknefs of 
thtir complexion. And, at the councils of con- 
federate nations, or, at treaties for terminating 
an extenfn* war, you often lee 'acherns or wani- 
ors of very different hues." Dodtor S. S. Smith',* 
Lllay, p. 159, note. 

Extract from Dick/on* s Letters on Negro Slavery. 
Hedge of fa&s, which we are not yet pof- 
felTed of ; a knowledge not to be obtained 


from the legends of ignorant, credulous, 
book-making travellers, many of which 
have been found, by the great and juftly 
celebrated philofophexs, who, of late years, 
have explored diftant regions, to be falfe— 
fables, which lcarcely deferve a place in 
the humourous itineraries of Captain Le- 
muel Gulliver ! " Nothing, (fays Doctor 
S. S. Smith, p. i 36) can appear more con- 
temptible than phiiofophers, with folemn 
faces, retailing, like maids and nurfes, the 
dories of giants, of tailed men,* of a peo- 
ple without teeth, and of fome abfolutely 
without necks ;" to which, I may add, the 
Formofan women, who, according to 
Struys, quoted by Buffoh, have beards ; 
and the North-American (Indian) men 
who, if we believe fome travellers, are ab- 
folutely without them. 

It has been fuggefted, that the Negro 
occupies a place in the fcale of being, or 
forms a link in that chain which connects 
the white man with the Orang Outang ; 
but, here, Sir, is a chafm, which it is 
impofilble for any one link to fill 1 1 p | and* 
I am apt to think, that the modern manu- 
facturers of fyftems will have hard work 
to forge links, fufficient in ftrength and 
number, to connect creatures fo widely dif- 
tant, as a human being and a Kakurlacko.J 
The external refemblance, however, in fi- 
gure and motion, of fome 'of the monkey 
tribes, to mankind, is a itriking and a mor- 
tifying refemblancei " Simia quam fimi- 
lis, turpiffima beftia, nobis !"f This cir 
tumftance it is, which mtfleads fuperftcial 
obfervers ; for their moral ftructure is to- 
tally different from that of mankind. In- 

* '-' Among tliefe (people of Manilla), f<>me have 
been feen who had tails, four or five inches long, 
like the Jflanrlcrs mentioned by Ptohmy," L< 
Voyages de Gemtlli Garreri, v. 3. p. 87. — Mark 
] 1 lays, " that in the kingdom of Lambry, 
there are men with tails about a palm ]ongon!\s" 
— Struys expre/sly declares ,k that (in Formofj) 
he law a man with a tail mere than a foot long." 
— Les Voyages de Struys, torn. 1. p. tec. — "It 
appears (f.ys Burton) that Struys retts on the au- 
thority of Mark Paul, as Gemelli Garreri does up- 
on that -M'tjlemy." See Smellie's Buffon, v. 3. 
p 87,88 <*.. 

J Li;.; j*iiAfynonymes Of this animal are tro- 
glodyte- Initio nocfurnus, homo fylveftris, orang 
flU'aoi., x .kurlacko. Burton's fufpicion, that Lin- 
iitus has confounded the orang outang with tht 
albinoc, woud appear to be gioundlefs, from the 
P^tTage we quoted at p. 66. " Afri pilos, quamvis 
aibos," &c. mauris nigris et albis, occ. Perhaps 
t*e edition Burton quoted did not contain this pal- 
fage ? 

I Ennius. 

docile, fpeechlefs*, and, confequently, de- 
ftitute of the power of abftradtion and tin* 
moral and religious fenfe, in real and 
ufeful fagacity, they fall much behind the 
dog and the horfe, not to mention what 
we have been told of the " balf-reafoning 
elephant. "f The Creator, when he wifel/ 
allotted to every animal that portion of 
thofe myfterious faculties, inllinft and fa- 
gacity, which was molt proper for theif 
condition, feems not to have impreffed, ott 
any being, inferior to man, the leaft figna-» 
ture of himfelf. Accordingly, fome philo- 
sophers chufe to characterife mankind by 
the religious fenfe, rather than by reafon j 
the former being, in their opinion, the 
moft unequivocal criterion of his nature* 
" And God faid, let us make man in our 
image" is the decifion of revelation. 
" Homo folus Deum contemplatur,"J id 
the language of philofophy. Now it is 
certain, that the Negroes have a juft. fenfe 
of right and wrong, and make the com* 
mon moral dillindtions, with much acute* 
nefs and accuracy. — They may even be 
faid to " draw a hafty moral — a fuddetl 
fenfe of right." — If they do not, I afk 
with what justice the pretended, fuperior 
race of men infiitl or. them exemplary pit* 
ntfhmentSi and, jometimes, doom them to ex* 
pire by horrible tortures ? — Like other men» 
too, they believe in, and often appeal to 
the great God, trie acquitter and the 
avenger, who, they firmly and fondly be- 
lieve, has prepared for them a better world 
beyond the grave. Nor, Sir, does either 
natural or revealed religion, fo far, at lealt, 
as I underftand them, teach us, that evert 
fuch rude hopes, cherilhed, in the " houfe 
of bondage," by innocent, though igno- 
rant men, will be difappointed ; for, " to 
whom little is given, of them little will be 

(To be continued.) 

* Mr. Camper, in Phil. Tranf. for 1 779, hasde* 
taonftrated, that orang outangs arc, fro mine fig- 
ure of tin ir oigans, incapable of forming ipcech. 
See alfo DunbaiN Eflays, p. 203* 

f The elephant has a i'mall braiti. Sec Spatr* 
man's Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, vol. i. 
p. 319. The tkull of a rhinocero contained only 
a quart of p^a'. Id. vol 2, p. 106. 

1 Linn. S\ft. Nar. edit. (3.— Such too is the lan- 
guage ei'en of infidelity. "To believe invifible, 
intelligent power, In a rtamp fet by the divine 
workman on human nature, nothing dignities mart 
more than to be fehfted from all the other parts 
of the creation to bear this image (IvWes's word I 
of the Univerfal Creator." Hume's Natural Hii- 
tory of Religion. 

*4 Jtutes and Maxims for promoting Matrimonial Happinefs.-—On Benevolence, 

Rules and Maxims for promoting Ma- 
trimonial Happiness. 

THE likeliell way, either to obtain a 
good hu (band, or to keep one fo, 
• is to be good yourfelf. 

Never ufe a lover ill, whom you defign 
to' make. your hufband, led he mould either 
upbraid you with it, or return it, after- 
wards ; and if you find, at any time, an 
inclination to play the tyrant, remember 
ihefe two lines of truth and juftice : 

Gently (hall thofe be rul'd, who gently fway'd : 
Abject fhall thofe obey, who haughty wereobey'd 
Battle of the Sexes. 

' Avoid, both before and after marriage, 
all thoughts of managing your hufband. 
Never endeavour to deceive or impofe on 
his understanding, nor give him uneafinefs 
fas fome do, very foolifhly, to try his tem- 
per); but treat him always, before -hand, 
with fincerity, and afterwards, with affec- 
tion and refpec"t. 

Be not over-fanguine before marriage, 
rOr promife yourfelt felicity without alloy, 
for that is impofiible to be attained, in this 
prefent flate of things. Confider, before- 
hand, that the perfon you are going to 
fpend your days with, is a man, and not 
an angel : and if, when you come toge- 
ther, you difcover any thing in his hu- 
iriour or behaviour, that is not altogether 
fo agreeable as you expect, pafs it over as 
a human frailty ; fmooth your brow, com- 
pofe your temper, and try to amend it by 
chearfulnefs and good-nature. 
, Remember always, that whatever mis- 
fortunes may happen to either, they are 
not to be charged to the account of ma- 
trimony, but to the accidents and infir- 
mities of human life ; a burden which 
each has engaged to afiift the other in 
fupporting, and to which both parties are 
equally expofed. Therefore, inftead of 
murmurs, reflections, and difagreement, 
whereby the weight is rendered abundant- 
ly more grievous ; readily put your moul- 
der to the yoke, and make it eafier to 

Refolve, every morning, to be chearful 
and good-natured that day: and, if any 
accident mould happen to break that re- 
solution, fuffer it not to put you out of 
temper with every thing befides, — and 
elpecially with your hufband. 

Difpute not with him, be the occafion 
what it will ; but much rather deny your- 
felf the trivial fatisfaction of having your 
own will, or gaining the better of an ar- 
gument, than rifque a quarrel, or create a 

heart-burning, 1 which it is impofiible td 
knaw the end of. 

Be affured, a woman's power, as well 
as happinefs, has no other foundation but 
her hufband's efteem and love ; which, 
confequently, it is her undoubted intereft 
by all means poffible to preferve -and in- 
creafe. — Do you, therefore, ftudy his 
temper, and Command your own; enjoy 
his fatisfaction with him, fhare and footh 
his cares, and with the utmofl diligence 
conceal his infirmities. 

Read frequently, with due attention, 
the matrimonial fervice ; and take care, 
in doing fo, not to overlook the word 

In your prayers, be fure to add a claufe 
for grace to make a good wife ; and, at the 
fame time, refolve to do your utmofl endea- 
vours towards it. 

Always wear your wedding-ring ; for 
therein lies more virtue, than is ufually 
imagined : if you are ruffled unawares, 
affaulted with improper thoughts, or 
tempted in any kind againft your duty ; 
cafl your eyes upon it, and call to mind, 
who gave it you, where it was received, 
and what palled at that folemn time. 

Let the tendernefs of your conjugal 
love be exprefied with fuch decency, deli- 
cacy, and prudence, as that it may appear 
plainly, and thoroughly diftinft from the 
defigning fondnefs of a harlot. 

Have you any concern for your own 
eafe, or for your hufband's efteem ? Then 
have a due regard to his income and cir- 
cumflances, in all your expenfes and de- 
fires ; for if neceflity fhould follow, you 
run the greateft hazard of being deprived 
of both. 

Let not many days pafs, together, with- 
out a ferious examination how you have 
"behaved as a wife ; and if, upon reflection, 
you find yourfelf guilty of any foibles, or 
omiflions, the beft atonement is, to be ex- 
actly careful of your future conduct. 

Benevolence Recommended. 

AMoufe .coming, by accident, under 
the paw of a lion, begging hard 
for life, urging that clemency is the f ir- 
eft attribute of power. The lion j ie- 
roufly fet it at liberty. The moufe ; er- 
wards obferving the lion, entangled in* the 
toils of the hunter, flew to his afliftance, 
knawed the jict to pieces, and fet him 
free. Hence an ufeful leflon : neglect 
no opportunity of doing good ; for .even 
the lowefl: may have it in their power to 
be ufeful to the higheft. 

Account q/Tfome Public Buildings in the City of Philadelphia. 2$ 

for the Columbian Magazine 
Explanation of the Plate, exhibiting a 
Viemo of fever a 1 Public Building s?« the 
City of Philadelphia. 

Til E plate reprefents a fouth-weft 
view 'of a group of the following 
public building? in the city of Philadel- 
phia, fuuatedin the vicinity of each other. 
No. 1. The back part of the Protef- 
tant Epifcopal Academy ; a large, hand- 
fome brick building, fronting onChefnut- 
ftreet, between* Sixth and Seventh-ltreets 
► from the Delaware — Not entirely finifhed. 
, No.2.*The CountyCourt-houie; alarge, 
new building, finifned in a neat and ele- 
gant ftyle. It is fituate on the north- 
welt angle of the State-houfe fquare (the 
corner of Chefnut and Delaware-Sixth- 
ftreets, with the front on Chefnut-ftreet. 
The view here given, exhibits the welt 
fide, on Sixth-ttreet, and the back part, 
extending inco the State-houfe fquare. 

This fpacious and venerable ftru&ure, which 
was erected in the year 1 735» is fituate on 
the fouth-fide of Chefnut-ltreet, midway 
between Delaware- Fifth/and Sixth-itreets. 
Though plain, it has an air of magnifi- 
cence. It was furnithed with a lofty iteeple 

No. 5. A front view of the Hall of the 
Library Company of Philadelphia. This 
is an elegant and ftately edifice, of brick; 
and was begun in the courfe of lalt fummer. 
It is fituate in Fifth ftreet, nearly oppo- 
fite the Hall of the American Phiiofo- ■ 
phical Society. Over the front-door of 
the Library-Hall is a niche, in which it 
is defigned to place a marble it^.tue of the 
celebrated Dr. Franklin, the principal 
promoter of this valuable inft'itution : and 
a gentleman of this city has, it is faid, 
offered to have it executed by an eminent 
artift, at his own expenfe. 

No. 6. The Carpenter's Hall. This is 
a roomy brick building ; fronting a fmall 
avenue or court, leading to it, from the 
fouth fide of Chefnut-ftreet, between 
Third and Fourth Itreets. The City Li- 
brary, before mentioned, is kept here 
at prefent, and fome of the apart me;. ts 
are occupied for public (tores and offices. 
— This edifice, though more humble in 
its architecture, and lefs confpicuous in 
its fituation, than forne of the others, is, 
neverthelefs, rendered famous, by being 
the place in which that augult body, — the 
firft general Congrefs of America, affem- 
bled, and held their councils. 

■which was taken down a few years iince. The State-houfe fquare, already men- 
A north-welt view of this building, as it tioned, is bounded on the north by Chef- 

appeared in the year 1778, is given in the 
Columbian Magazine for July 1787, ac- 
companied with a defcription. 

It is intended to erect: a City Court- 
houfe, on the north-eaft angle of the State 
houfe fquare ; of the fame dimenfions and 
appearance [externally, at lealt), as the 
County Court-houfe, on the other end of 
the State-houfe. The accomplifhment of 
this defign will render the whole front of 
the fquare, noble and uniform. And, 
mould the State-houfe itfelf be put in 
thorough repair ; — the doors be fomewhat 
ornamented, — the wings be rebuilt in a bet- 

nut-ftreet, on the fouth by Walnut-ttreet, 
ion the eaft by Fifth-ftreet, and on the 
weft by Sixth-ftreet. It is inclofed, on 
I three fides, by a brick wall ; the State- 
houfe, County Court-houfe, &c. con- 
stituting its boundary towards Chefnut- 
j ftreet. This area has, of late, been judi- 
jcioufly improved, under the direction of 
j Samuel Vaughan, Efq. It confifts of a 
beautiful lawn, interfperfed with little knobs 
or tufts of flowering fhrubs, and clumps of 
•trees, well difpofed. Through the mid- 
dle of the gardens, runs a fpacious gravel- 
walk, lined with double vows of thriving 

ter ftyle,— and the iteeple reltorcd ; — the elms, and commmunicating with ferpen- 
appearance of this front would, then, be ! tine walks which encompafs the whole area, 
really magnificent. Thefe furrounding walks are not uniform- 

No. 4. The Hall of the American 
Philofophical Society. This is a large, 
neat and commodious brick building ; fitu- 
ate on the Ea(t-fide of the State-houfe 
fquare, in Fifth-ftreet, between Chefnut 
and Walnut-Streets. It has a garden- 
" front towards the fquare, being that which 
is reprefented in the annexed view. 

An account of the inltitution, to which 
this building belongs, 'is contained in our 
lafi month's Magazine and in the Supple- 
' Col. Mag; Vol. IV. No. 1. 

ly on a level with the lawn ; the margin 
of which, being in fome parts a little 
higher, forms a bank, which, in fine 
weather, affords pleafant feats. When 
the trees attain to a larger fize, it will be # 
proper to place a few benches under them, 
in different fituations, ,for the accommo- 
dation of perfons frequenting the walks. 

Thefe gardens will foon, if properly at- 
tended to, be in a condition to admit of 
our citizens indulging themlclvcs, agree*- 
bly, ia the falutary cxercifc of walking. 

An Allegory by Mr. Klopftock. 


The grounds, though not fo extenfive as 
might be wifhed, are fufficiently large to 
accommodate very confiderable numbers : 
the objects within view are pleofing ; and 
the iituation is open and healthy. If the 
ladies, in particular, would occafionally 
recreate themfelve9 with a few turns in 
thcfe walks, they would find the practice 
attended with real advantages. 


An Allegory on the Dispute refpefling 
Precedency between the Belles Let- 
tres and the Fine Arts. 

By Mr. Klopstock. Tranflated from the German. 

TH E Belles Lettres and the Fine 
Arts had often folicited Tafte, to 
decide their ancient quarrel reflecting 
precedency ; but (he had always addrefs 
enough to defer palling fentence. The ex- 
hibition of a painting, and a poem in her 
temple, revived the diipute with more 
warmth than ever, and the judge could no 
loifger find any pretence for delay. It is 
faid, that fome eager glances which (he 
call upon the poem, at the time (he ought 
to have been employed in examining the 
painting, awakened the former animofity 
of the two parties, and that (he was then 
forced to allow them to plead their caufe. 
Painting, Architecture, Engraving, and 
Mufie, commifiloned Sculpture to defend 
their rights ; and Philofophy, not that 
who, difdaining the afiiltance of the Belles 
Lettres, teaches uielefs things in volumes 
ncer read, and who, never facrificing to 
the Graces, delivers her precepts in the 
moft barbarous ftyle, but that Philofophy 
which was the friend of Socrates, fpoke 
for Poetry, Eloquence and Hiftory. 

The Belles Lettres having confented 
that Sculpture fliould open the caufe, (he 
began in the following manner : " Our 
judge will doubtlefs permit us to take no- 
tice of the reproach often thrown upon 
us, of being fometimes uncertain refpecV 
ing the object of our prefent contell. As 
we have no fhare in this reproach, we have 
fo much the greater reafon to hope that 
fhe will decide in our favour. Our claims 
are, indeed, founded upon the molt incon- 
teftible lights; do not thy favourites the 
coriuoifTeurs, and thofe who are fond of 
the beautiful, when they travel through 
cities that are honored with thy particular 
protection, ftop there only to admire our 
productions ? It is to us that cities are in- 
debted for their celebrity and fame. It is 
not the proprietor* of thofc furoptuous 

palaces, enriched with our treafureS that 
attract the attention of the ftranger, for 
few, indeed, are worthy of his attention ; 
but the eye of the connoifleur is fixed with 
complacency upon the orders and beauti- 
ful proportions of Architecture. He by 
turns admires the creative pencil of the 
painter, the fweet and bold ftrokesof the 
engraver, and the chiflel, which in my 
hands, can give animation even to the 
harded marble. He there alfo finds our 
companion Mufic, who alone has power to 
retain him by her melodious harmony ; but 
he foon haftens to traverfe gardens embel- 
lifhed by Venus and the Graces, or to re- 
turn to fome gallery where works of art 
exhibit a faithful reprefentation of nature. 
Can the fight of a library afford to thofe 
who are fond of beauty fo delicious an en- 
joyment ? They there fee buried in dud, 
works of pretended immortality, difmal 
monuments of the weaknefs and vain ef- 
forts of the human mind, which a penury 
of authors alone, or their infatiable avidity, 
revive periodically, under new forms, and 
in other languages ; but notwithftanding 
thefe (hifts, they would fcarcely find pur- 
chafers, did not Engraving deign to or- 
nament them with the productions of her 
art. Befides, nothing is fo common as 
books; their cheapnefs places them with- 
in the reach of every one, and what is 
their utility, but to amufe idlenefs, and 
often to fugged falfe ideas to the reader, 
who, by his own reflections, might have 
more eafily difcovered the truth ? With 
how much greater advantages are our 
works attended ! Architecture renders the 
habitations of men agreeable, by the cort- 
veniencies and ornaments which (he diltri* 
butes in them with talte. Painting, Sculp- 
ture and Engraving, immortalize genius 
and great men of all conditions. Would 
the remembrance of thofe who are the be- 
nefactors of mankind be preferved, did 
we not continually exhibit to admiration 
and gratitude, their lading images in pub- 
lic places, in collections of the works of 
art, and even in the houfes of private in- 
dividuals ? Pleafure and gaiety would be 
banifhed from the earth, did not Mufic de- 
tain them by the melody of her fongs, 
and the harmony of her concerts. The 
mod favage bread is touched by them, and 
it is their enchanting power which foftens 
the manners of man, by awakening his fen- 
(ibility. An ill-timed modgdy would hurt 
our caufe ; let us, therefore, boldly fay, 
that we are entitled to pre-eminence over 
our rivals. The flowers, which with a li- 

j4n Alleg»ry by 

bcral hand, we fcatter In the thorny path 
of life never fade, and every age is de- 
lighted with their charms. We imitate 
nature better than our rivals ; our pro- 
ductions fpeak directly to the fenfes, and 
by their aflillance we afford agreeable em- 
ployment to the imagination and the heart. 
Truth adds new charms to our imitations, 
whilll the Belles Lettres make painful 
efforts to give a faint copy of nature ; as they 
labour only for the heart, and the imagi- 
nation, it is the vivacity of the latter which 
xnull fintfli the picture. But let us not lofe 
ourfclves in philofophical refearches con- 
cerning thisvaluable advantage which dif- 
tinguilhec. our productions ; it is fufficient 
that it exifls, and it is univerfally acknow- 
ledged . The efteem in which we are held 
is equal to that of which the Belies Lettres 
can boaft, and we often are even fuperior 
to them, by the number and importance of 
the fuffrages which we obtain. We may be 
reproached, perhaps, with being lefs fen- 
fible than our rivals of the value of glory. 
Glory without doubt animates our labours, 
but after thtir example, we hope, we (hall 
be permitted to join it to utility ; it is an 
additional motive, to excite emulation, 
and our matter pieces by encreafing our 
fame, add alfo to our fortune." 

Philofophy next addrefied the judge, in 
the following words : " Our rivals have 
iupported their pretentions with a vivacity 
and an attention which, in a good caufe, 
pleaded before a judge fuch as ours, would 
be unneceffary. In general they do not 
difallow that at all times we have rendered 
them more juftice than they have rendered 
us. The genius necefTary for producing 
their works, acts in a fmaller circle, and has 
not, perhaps, the fame elevation, as that 
which characterifes us. It appears, there- 
fore, that this, obfervation alone, may 
prove the arrogant tone which they have 
aflumed. As for us, we think more no- 
bly, and far from refilling them that merit 
which is their due, we jirill mention fome 
circumtlances which they have omitted, 
and which they might have undoubtedly 
turned to their advantage. 

Religion may acquire more force by the 
aflillance of the Fine Arts; and its fublime 
truths, rendered fenfible, as one may fay, 
in their productions, make a much greater 
impreflion on the hearts of men. 

The fubjects which Painting and Sculp- 
ture take from the holy fcripturea, to or- 
nament thoie Tacred monuments raifed by 
Architecture, excite and keep alive piety. 
The graver cannot appear upon fo large a 

Mr. Klopjlocl. 27 

fcene, but by acting in a more confined 
fphere, its fuccefs, will receive additional 
increafe, if whatever it repreftnts unitei 
truth to expreflion. And what elevation 
may not the foul receive from Mufic in 
our churches, when, ftripped of its Super- 
fluous ornaments, it fpeaks to the heart by 
a fimple and affecting melody ; and 
difplays all its refources to celebrate in a 
becoming manner the fublime objects of 
its fongs ? 

Notwithstanding this impartial juftice 
which we render to our antagonists, we 
conceive, that we deferve the preference, 
and we fhall proceed to explain upon what 
grounds our pretenlions are founded. 

Our rivals pretend to be pofleflcd of 
more beauty than we are. The fagacity of 
hur judge, renders any difcuihon upon thif 
Subject needlefs. The effects produced by 
beauty are certain perceptions, and agreeable 
(enfations, the vivacity, delicacy, and 
force of which determine its different de- 
grees. By proving that we produce thefe 
effects, with more fuccefs, and by observ- 
ing, that the number of our means in that 
which is fufceptible of being reprefented 
in a beautiful manner, furpaffes the num- 
ber of thofe of our rivals, they will we 
truft, without hefitation, allow us the fu- 
periority. They labour for the imagina- 
gination and the heart ; fo do we : but we 
act directly, and they by the aflillance of 
the fenfes. This circumftance, which they 
coniider as fo favourable to their caule, in 
another point of view turns to their difad- 
vantage. The foul, too much engaged 
with the imprefiions conveyed by the 
fenfes, is incapable of feeling with the 
fame warmth, as when an effect is pro- 
duced by immediate action. It enjoys 
without detraction and in a fuperior man- 
ner, every impulfion that we give it. 

But even fetting afide this advantage, 
we fhould ftill have that of modifying 
without end, the reprefentation of objects, 
and of prefenting them to the imagination 
under new relations, whilft our rivals af- 
fume much confequence to themfelvcs 
for adhering to one only. By what 
kind of image or harmony can they 
follow us through the different degrees to 
which we are capable of riling ? and with 
regard to the heart, can they move it with 
the fame force as we \ What flatue, or 
what painting has ever been known to call 
forth a tear? In that refpect, Mulic alone 
approaches us. 

Every action that they prefent is, and 
can be only the action of a moment. What 


a feries of fimilar fituations, and each more 
beautiful than the other, is contained in 
the Eneid. How many artifts, and how 
much time would be required to paint 
them ? Do you think, that any one who 
had never read the Eneid would have a 
perfect knowledge of it, after having fur- 
veyed this gallery ? How many new things 
which Painting cannot reprefent, would be 
found upon reading Virgil ? If we obferve, 
that it is impoflible for the greatelt maf- 
ters to exprefs, by their arts, intellectual 
beauty, they will, perhaps, tell us that 
this kind of expreffion does not belong to 
them ; but (hall it ceafe to be a merit, be- 
caufe it is beyond their powers and ability ? 
Ought not the fublime thoughts of our 
great authors charm men of talte in all 
ages, becaufe their paintings, Itatues and 
fongs cannot exprefs them. 

But let us haiten to make known our 
molt important claim, and that which 
gives the grcateft. fupport to our caufe. 
We teach virtue with more fuccefs than our ri- 
vals can ever to expect obtain, even when their 
labours are directed to that noble end. We 
are then more ufeful than they. To give 
perfection to the moral fenfe in man, is 
our principal object ; we are even con- 
ftiained to renounce our defire of pleaiing, 
when it happens to interfere with the caufe 
of virtue. 

A nation may become flourishing by 
agriculture, commerce, wife laws, and an 
application to the learned fciences. But 
will this nation be happy ? It can only be- 
come fo by virtue. Neither riches, fci- 
ence, nor laws, the power of which is con- 
fined to the actions of men, can procure 
it this inellimable advantage ; it muft be 
indebted for it, to Religion and to moral 
truths, the inveftigation of which has been 
left by the former to the human mind. It 
is not only ufeful but even nceeflary to ren- 
der virtue amiable ; whoever will maintain 
the contrary, mull be little acquainted 
with the heart of man. 

The facred fcripture prefents fublime 
models of poetry and eloquence, the beau- 
ty and force of which furpafs every tfainf 
that the molt enlightened connoifleurs ad- 
mire in that kind. It is thu6, that in 
teaching her eternal truths, Religion hath 
conformed to the manner of thinking 
among men, in order to have more influ- 
ence upon the foul. It is, therefore, a 
great honor for us, that this daughter of 
heaven hath deigned to make ufe of our 
language. Our favourites by imitating, 
even at a dillai»c*» thefc grand models, 

An AJIegory ly Mr. Klopflcck. 

rife to the fummit of glory, becaufe their 
labours then become generally ufeful. Re- 
ligion hath revealed every important truth 
that concerns thofe duties which man ought 
to difcharge, and fhe hath left only for 
the exercife of his faculties, the explana- 
tion of a few of her fublime leiTons. To 
render ftudy eafy and agreeable, is our 
tafk. The advantage which we have, of 
directing the mind and heart of man in 
thefe important refearches, of making 
him fond of his duty, and of continually 
leading him towards that happinefs which 
awaits him, is the only juft title we have 
to affume an air of pride, and without 
which all our efforts wouldbe attended nei- 
ther with advantage nor glory. We with 
pleafure allow, that the Fine Arts are able 
alfo to diffufe certain charms over virtue, 
but we will venture to maintain, without 
dread of being refuted, that the means 
of our rivals are infufficient to extend her 
empire. According to their nature, beau- 
ty rather than utility feems to be the ob- 
ject of their productions ; for what they 
can exprefs is very much circumfcribed, 
and incapable of producing that feries of 
ideas and fenfations, which muft be exci- 
ted in the mind of man, to make him fen- 
fible of the charms of virtue. Mufic, ge- 
nerally cultivated, ferves indeed to foften 
the character of man, and to render him 
more fociable. Sculpture, and her amia- 
ble fillers, correct and form his tafle, by 
directing it to beauty, continually repre- 
lented under new forms, and they render 
him more delicate in the choice of his plea- 
fures. This merit belongs alfo to our pro- 
ductions, even to thofe of them which are 
more agreeable than ufeful. All their ef- 
forts, however, are confined to a fimple 
preparation, which difpofes the heart to 
receive, with more facility, impreffions of 
moral beauty, and are not fufficient to 
render a nation virtuous ; but let our belt 
works be difperfed through it, and it will 
foon enjoy that happinefs. 

It will be objected to us, perhaps, that 
we forget the force of the example of great 
men; but howcan we forget that from which 
we derive molt glory ? Have we not al- 
ways fcattered with a liberal hand the mofl 
valuable gifts among thofe privileged be- 
ings who do honor to humanity ? And 
whotranfmits, better than we, the example 
of their virtues to future ages? Our rivals 
have this advantage alfo, buj in a much 
fmaller degree. Is it by their works or by 
ours, that pofterity beholds Socrates fuch 
as he was ? 

An Allegory byM^Chjftock. 
Thefe great men even, whofe example I will brave the deftru&ion of time." Our 
is of fo much importance to morality, art J rivals, doubtlefs, will not dlifpute the truth 

much lefs fo when they do not enjoy ou 
favour. They do not indeed, on that ac 
count, xreafe to be virtuous, but they ar- 
deprived of a very powerful motive for 
continuing to be fo. Suppofe we were 
flrangersto a whole nation : its language 
will be poor and weak, without force ano 
without energy, and equally unfit for 
poetry as for profe ; it will be incapable 
of embeliifhing any moral beauty, or it 
will fpeak in an ignoble ftyle ; every ufeful 
and important thing, which might be hap- 
pily communicated in profe, will remain 
unknown; Hiltory, by not bringing pail 
ages before the tribunal of the public, 
will not make great events ferve for the 
inftruction of pofterity, or ihe will disfi- 
gure them entirely : and, laftly, for at 
prefent I am permitted to in fiance myfelf, 
difguifed under a fcholallic drefs, I flial! 
be employed only in futile refearches and 
vain fubtleties, tending neither to promote 
the knowledge nor happinefs of man. I 
fhould then be no longer the guide and 
friend of found reafon, and I mould in 
vain attempt to check the imagination, 
heated by exceffive curiofity. A falfe 
tafte would take poffefiion of every mind, 
and wretched quibbling, or indecent plea- 
fantry, would obfeure every idea of moral 

of this prediction, accomplifhed according 
to the unanimous content of all civilized 

Are our authors, who immortalize them- 
felves by excellent works, to be lefs ef- 
ttemed becaufe they procure them glory 
without much profit ? Many of them leave* 
their Raphael far behind ; are they there- 
fore lefs entitled to jufl preference, becaufe 
certain fortuitous circumltances, which fa- 
voured that artift, did not concur to aug- 
ment their fortunes? It would be as ridicu- 
lous to condemn the defire which one has 
of being paid for one's labour, as to efla- 
blifh upon the importance of that price, 
the excluiive meafure of the merit of a 

Philofophy having ended her harangue, 
both parties waited for the decifion of the 
judge, with that anxiety, which Virgil has 
defcribed Yft fo beautiful a manner! 

Exultantiaque haunt 

Coida pavor pulfans, laudumque arrecta cupido.* 

The Goddefs of Tafte appeared left in 
a profound reverie ; not that fhe was un- 
certain in whofe favour fhe mould determine ; 
for it is. faid, that (lie caft a foft look, mix- 
ed with pity, upon the rivals of the Belles 
Lettres, but her hefitation was probably 

beauty. But let a few only of our pro- occafioned, by doubting whether fhe fhould 

duclions be given to this nation ; what 

not pronounce equally reflecting the me> 

happy revolution will they not operate by r { t which the latter claimed, of being 
rectifying its tafte, making it acquainted " 
with real beauty, and rendering virtue more 



ferviceable to the public by their moral 
utility. This hefitation was not, however, 
of long duration, and fhe was going to 
Our rivals have confidered our produc | p a f s f en tence, when an unforefcen event 
tionsin a very unfavourable point of view ; j prevented her. 

and yet they may ferve to ornament the! Dancing, who had not afiifted at the 
mind with the moft beautiful images, and I contefl, fuddenly appeared with her ufual 

to captivate the heart with charms more 
irrefifiible, than thofe produced by all their 
forces united. The long duration of our 
works is, without doubt, the gteatefl 
fault they have in their eyes. Could we 
indeed know that Greece, fo famous in 
hiltory ; had not the works of its great 
men been handed down to us ? What re- 
mains at prefent of that country, former- 
ly the mother of the Arts, the Sciences, 
and the Belles Lettres ? Fields, once fer- 
tile, converted into barren deferts by ig- 
norance, barbarity and defpotifm, under 
which flaves fpring up, who are unworthy of 
the name of their glorious anceflors. Ho- 
race fays of his works, " I have erected a 
monument more durable than braf>, and 
loftier than the pyramids of Egypt, which 

vivacity. She foon underltood what was 
goino- forward. The Belles Lettres could 
not conceal their uneafinefs when fhe en- 
tered, nor could their rivals conceal the 
joy which they felt from her prefence ; 
for though they had not a very clear idea 
of the preference founded upon moral beau- 
ty, yet intimidated by the companionate 
glance with which Tafte had honored them, 
they began to fufpecl: that this preference 
might have a certain weight. But Danc- 
ing was aftonifhed to find, that they had 
mentioned a beauty of which fhe had not 
the leaft notion ; and fhe could not conceal 
her difcontent, at not having been invited 

* Now preis'd with beating tear* liwy hnk awaj^M 
NowUwrob with rifing hopwto win theday. 

Vir. jIxkid. B. v. 1 137. 



to be prefent at the dlfpute. With that \ 
winning air which is peculiar to her, (he 
pointed out the tucce I sful manner in which 
ihe would have pleaded her caufe, and that 
of her friends; and lhe requeued in fo pref- 
fr.ig a manner, the affair to be put off till 
another day, that the judge confented, and 
permitted the fair pleaders to retire. 

An Essay en Humour.* 
Tranjlated from the German. 

THE celebrated St. Evremond gave 
the following advice to his friend 
Count d'Olone, who had been banifhed 
from the court of Louis XIV. " The 
unfortunate ought never to read books 
which may give them occafion to be afflict- 
ed on account of the miferies of mankind ; 
but rather thofe which may amufe them 
with their follies ; prefer therefore Lucian, 
Pctrunius and Don Quixote, to Seneca, 
jpiutarch and Montaigne." In the early 
part of myyouth, I happened to meet with 
this pafiige, and I have fince often re- 
flected upon this great truth, that events 
apparently of very little importance, have 
forrjetimes the greateft influence upon our 
happinefs or unhappinefs during the courfe 
©f our lives. 

The lively imprefiion which the advice 
of St. Evrtmond made on my mind, in- 
duced me very clearly to follow it ; and 
whenever I found myfelf too much afflict- 
ed by difappointmentg, or misfortunes, I 
had recourfe to his remedy, and always 
with the happieft fuccefs. Rtfearches 
respecting the nature of that powerful an- 
tidote againfl melancholy, will not there- 
fore I hope difplcafe thofe, who, torment- 
ed by iis black vapours, may have need of 
inch afliltancc. A celebrated phyfician 
of the mind,f who with this remedy per- 
formed miraculous cures, fhad be my guide. 

* Though it is generally believed, and though 
Congreve has been at great pains to prove, that the 
words humcur and huinourijl, arc originally tnglifh, 
it is however certain, that ihey arc derived from the 
Italian. We find the word umorijla in the comedies 
#t' Buonarotti, who wrote in the beginning or the 
uxtccnth century, and it was employed alfo by feve- 
ral other writers of tint period. According to the 
Dictionary diclla Crul'ca, this word fignifies fomc one, 
the hukunwrc, pcrfona Jantdjlica ed incanflantc In the 
beginning of the lad century, there was a fociety or 
academy at Home, called Sacieta de gli humorif.i. 

The French have no expreflioii anlwcring to hu- 
mour, in the lenle in which it is here taken. Face- 
is, perhaps, that which would approach neareil 
t<- it. could 1 be ad >pted. The Germans have 
/ ie Dutch 1-uim, which correfpond per- 

Hy with he meaning of our Englifh word. 

+ Fielding in iiis CoveiK Garden Journal, No, jA. 

An EJfay on Humour. 

The Englifh call this antidote Humour, 
and its hillory is as follows. It was found 
out among the Greeks by Arillophanes ; 
and after him Lucian, and other authors- 
who fuceeded, carried it to perfection. 
Plautus, Horace and Petronius, among 
the ancient Romans, employed it with ad- 
vantage ; among the modern Latinifts, 
Erafmus, Sir Thomas More and Holberg; 
among the Italians, Pulci Ariofto, Caelar 
Caporali, PafTeroni, Gozzi and Goldoni ; 
among the Spaniards, Cervantes, Quevedo, 
Hurtodo de Mendoza, Diego de Luna, 
Luis Velez de Guevera and Father Ifla } 
among the French, Rabelais, Cyrano do 
Bergerac, Sorel, Moliere, Regnard, Du- 
frefny, la Fontaine and Scarron in his Ro- 
man Comique ; and among the Englifh, 
Shakefpeare, Ben Jonfon, Butler, Con- 
greve, Shadwell, Swift, Addifon, Steel, 
Arbuthnot, Fielding, Smollet, and Sterne, 
Of the Germans, I fhall fay nothing ; by- 
naming no one in particular, none of my 
countrymen, who have pretenfions to Hu- 
mour, can reproach me with having treat* 
ed them with neglect.* 

England produces more characters of 
this kind than any country in Europe, and 
the caufe of this is attributed to that li- 
berty, which diftinguifhes the Englifh go- 
vernment from all others. This opinion 
appears very probable ; but I fhould be- 
lieve it to be better founded, were we to 
take the word liberty in a more extenfivo 
fenfe, and to confider it not only as the ab- 
fence of arbitrary power, and of all re* 
flraint impofed by the laws, but as a ne- 
glect of thofe rules of conduct, which are 
exprefled by the words urbanity and po-> 
litenefs. Thefe laws are not written, and 
the execution of them does not depend on 
the fovereign power; but in the circle, 
where they are adopted, they are perhaps 
better obferved than thofe which, under 
the fanction of government, have been 
formed into a code. An entire freedom, 
from fuch rules, is, if I miftake not, ab- 
folutely nectfTary for humour Fielding's 
Squire Weflern, and Sir Andrew Free- 

* The principal humourous writers among the 
Germans, arc Henry Alcmar, who wrote a heroi, 
comic poem, Rollinhagcn, whom they confider as 
their Rabelais, Lifcow, Wieland, Michalis, Lavater, 
&c. The Dutch have Van Moonen, Rutting. Weyer- 
man, Doeyden, Dekkcr, Huygens, Langendyk and 
Fokenbrog, who is accounted the Dutch Sparron. 

To the Englifh writers of this clafs mentioned by 
the author, we may join Garth, Philips and Prior. 
Among the Italians we may reckon alfo, Dolce, Aru 
tin and the Arehbilhop de la Caia, author of a wo?k 
cntitulcd Capitolo id Forte. 

An Effdy on Humour* 
port, in the Spe&ator, may ferve as ex- 
amples. Politenefs and good breeding 
tend indeed to extirpate all thofe feeds of 
humour, which nature has implanted in 
our fouls. To convince the reader of the 
juftnefs of thisobfervation, I mud explain 
in what humour confifts. Several authors 
have fpoken of it, as an impenetrable 
myftery ; but what is mod extraordinary 
is, that others have given a very clear and 
juft definition of it, affuring us, at the 
fame time, that they did not know what it 
was. Congreve fays, in a letter to Den* 
nis, " We cannot determine, what hu- 
mour is," and a little after, " there is a 
great difference between a comedy in which 
there are many humourous paffages, that is 
to lay, expreffed with gaiety; and thofe, the 
characters of which are fo conceived, that 
they ferve to diftinguim in an effential 
manner the perfonages from one another. 
This humour," continues he, " is a lin- 
gular and unavoidable manner of fpeaking 
and acting, peculiar and natural to one 
man only, by which his fpeech and actions 
are diltinguiflied from thofe of other men. 
The relation of our humour with ourfelves, 
and our actions, refembles that of the ac- 
cidental to the fubftance. This humour, 
is a color and a tafte, which is diffuied 
over the whole man. Whatever be the 
diverlity of our adions in their objects 
and forms, they are, as one may fay, 
all chips of the fame block." This defi- 
nition of Congreve, has been attacked by 
Home.* According to this author, a 
majeftic and commanding air, and juft- 
nefs of expreffion in converfation, ought 
alfo to be called humour, if the opinion 
of Congreve be true j and he adds, that 
we cannot call humour any thing that is 
juft or proper, or any thing that we efteem 
and refpeft, in the actions, the converfa- 
tion, or the character of men. 

Ben Jonfon, whom I fhall quote as one 
of the firft humourifts of his nation, fays, 
in one of his comedies, f 

* Humour as (tis ens) we thus define it* 

To be a quality of air, or water, 
And in itfelf holds thefe two properties, 
Moifture and fluxure : as for demonfiration, 
Pour water on this floor, 'twill wet and run : 
Likewife the airforc'd through a horn or trumpet 
Flows inftantly away, and leaves behind 
A kind of dew ; and hence we do conclude, 
That whatfoe'er hath fluxure and humidity, 
As wanting power to contain itfelf, 
Is humour. So in every human body, 
Thecholer, melancholy, phlegm, and blood/ 
By reafon that they flow continually 

* Elements cf Criticifm, vol. ii. page^. 
■+ Every M»n out of his Humour. 

In fome one part, and are not continent* 
Receive the name of humourous. Now thus far 
It may, by metaphor, apply itfelf, 
Unto the general difpoution : 

-s when fome one peculiar quality 
Doth fo poffefs a man, that it doth draw 

-11 his affects, his ipiiits and hij, powers 
In their conttruftious, all to run one way. 

Thefe three explanations may enable 
us to give a fourth. Humour, then, in 
my opinion, is a ilrong impulfe of the 
foul towards a particular object, which a 
perfon judges to be of great importance, 
although it be not fo in reality, and which, 
by conftantly engaging his molt ferious at- 
tention, makes him diftinguifh himfelf* 
from others in a ridiculous manner. If this 
explanation be juft, as I hope it will be 
found, the reader will readily obferve, how 
much humour muft offend againft the rules 
of politenefs and good breeding ; fince 
both eonfift in the art of fuiting our con* 
du£t to certain regulations, tacitly adopt- 
ed and generally followed by all thofe who 
live with us in focieiy. 

Thus far have I fpoken of humour, as 
belonging to chara&cr : I fhall now con- 
fider that which is to be found in compo- 
fition. Singularity, and a certain air of 
fcrioufnefs, indicate humour in character, 
and they are alfo the marks of humour in 
writing. This Angularity and rifibility 
are found either in the invention* or the 
ftylef. An author poffeffes real humour, 
when, with an air of gravity, he paints ob* 
jecls in fuch colours as promote mirth and 
excite laughter ; and in company, we of- 
ten obferve the effeft which this humour 
produces on the mind. When, for exam- 
ple, two perfons amufe thcmfelves in tell- 
ing ludicrous tales, he who laughs before 
he begins to fpeak, will neither intereft 
nor entertain the auditors half as much, as 
he who relates gravely, and without the 
lead appearance even of a fmile. The 
reafon of this, perhaps, is the force that 
contraft has upon the mind. There are 
fome authors, who treat ferious fubje&s in 
a burlefque ftyle, as Taffoni in the Raps cf 
the Bucket, and Scarron in his Typhon. 
Such authors, without doubt, excite mirth; 
but as they are different from real hu» 
mourifts, we cannot properly rank thtm 
in that clafs. They poffefs only the bur- 
lefque, which is very *diftin<ft from hu- 
mourj. However, if their works are 
good, they are no lefs deferving of prailc. 

* Gulliver's Travels, 
t Tom Jones, hy Fielding. 
% Fielding, ia his differ tation prefixed to Jofcpf- 

gt Effay by the King of Prufia, on 

No kind of poetry is contemptible, from| 
the epopea and tragedy to fairy tales and 
farces. Everything confiftsin treating a 
fubject well ; and the D:vll let Loofe,* may 
be as good in one kind, as Zara is another. 
Irony and parody, are great helps to au- 
thors who are humourifts. Of this Lucian 
furnifhes proofs without number. 

In this fpecies of writing, comic com- 
panions have a great effect, efpecially when 
one part is taken from morals and the other 
from nature. Of this, the firlt chapter of 
Tom Jones may ferve as an example. The 
author there compares himfelf to a perion 
who keeps a public ordinary ; his work is 
the dimes provided for his gueits, and the 
titles to the chapters are his bill of fare. 
The lingular character of Uncle Toby in 
Tnltram Shandy, and many paffages in 
*he Spectator and Tatler, are of the fame 
km.?, and may all ferve as models of true 

In Dr. Johnfon's Idler, we find alfo a 
pafiage of this kind, where the author 
proves, that the qualities requiiite to con- 
vention, are very exactly represented by a 
bowl of punch. 

" Punch," fays he, " is a liquor com- 
pounded of fpirit and acid juices, fugar and 
water. The fpirit, volatile and fiery, is 
the proper emblem of vivacity and wit ; 
the acidity of the lemon will very aptly 
figure pungency of raillery and acrimony 
of cenlure ; fugar is the natural represen- 
tative of lufcious adulation, and gentle 
complaifance ; and water is the proper hie- 
roglyphic of eafy prattle, innocent and 

Authors who poSfefs humour in charac- 
ter, Show it alfo in their writings ; ilrokes 
of it even efcape involuntarily from them, 
when they wilh to treat a Subject in a grave 
and ferious manner. Sir Roger L'Ei- 
trange, in his tranflation of Jofephus, 
fpeaking of a queen extremely violent and 
paffionate, who was fo much difpleafed 
with a propofition made to her by a certain 
ambaffador, that fcarcely had the latter <fi- 
nilhed his Speech, when She rofe up fud- 
denly and retired, tranflates the latter part 
of this fentence in the following manner, 
fcarce had the ambajfador finijhed his fpeech, 
ivhen up ivas mafavi. No one will be 
altonifhed at the humour which reigns 
throughout the works of Fontaine, when 
we are told that this author alked an ec- 
cltfiallic one day, with much gravity, whe- 
ther Rabelais or St. Auguftine had molt 

the Forms of Government, &c. 

wit.j* An author who is a humourift will 
do better to attack fmall foibles than great 
vices. As men fall into the former every 
hour, without reflecting, they have more 
need to be reminded of them ; while the 
laws take care to fupprefs thedatter. The 
archbifhop of la Cafa, was therefore right 
in faying, that he would be more obliged 
to one who fhould tell him the means of 
Securing himfelf from the ftinging of in- 
fects, than to one who fhould teach him 
how to prevent his being bit by tygers or 

Thefe are my obfervations refperSting this 
powerful antidote againlt melancholy, and 
I advife all thofe who may be fubject to 
frequent fits of it, to read a few pages of 
Lucian, Don Quixote, Tom Jones, Trif- 
tram Shandy, or fome other work of the 
fame kind; the falutary effects of which, I 
am certain, they will foon experience. 

The following article is replete with im- 
portant political truths: — The fenti- 
ments it contains, reflect great honor 
on its magnanimous author ; and the 
exalted Source from which they fpring, 
gives them fuperior weight and dignity. 
The fubject is peculiarly interelting to 
the citizens of this free country. In 
defining the duties of a virtuous and 
patriotic chief magistrate, he has deli- 
neated a truly noble character : and eve- 
ry American muft exult, with a virtu- 
ous pride, in the reflection, — that, how 
nearly foever Marcus Aurelius may have 
refcmbled the portrait, the characteristic 
features indicate a very ltriking likenefs 
to the illtittrious Prefident of our Union. 

* A German coaicdy i'o called. 

Extr acts from an Essay on the Forms 
^/"Government, and the Duties of 
Kings. By the late King of Prussia. 
Sent, in 1 7 8 1 , to his Secretary of State, 
de Hertsberg; but written in 1776, or 
1777, as appears from his Letters to 
" Laws teach men to prefer the general good to the 

inteietl of individuals." 
r ~\~^ HIS great truth, to do unto others 
J_ what we would they fhould do unto 
us, is the foundation of law, and of So- 
ciety ; from thence Springs the love oS our 
country, confidered as the afylum of our 
own happinefs. But as laws could not be 

t It is well known that Fontaine alked thisqueftion 
of theAbbc Boilcau, brother of the ctlebrated poet, 
who made no other anfwer than to tell him, that he 
had put on one of his ftockings with the infide out, 
which was really the cafe. 

Effay hy the King of Prujpa, on the Forms of Government, life. 

fupport^J.or executed without fomebody 
to watch over them conftantly, this gave 
rife to magiftrates, chofen by the people, 
and fubmitted to by them. This was the 
true origin of fovereignty. The magiftrate 
is the firft fervant of the ftate. Some 
thought that the greattft political happinefs 
was to be found in being ruled by wife and 
good men. Hence arofc ariftocracies. O- 
thers preferred an oligarchy. Athens, and 
the greater part of the Greek republics, 
chofe a democracy. Perfia and the Eaft, 
gave way to the government of a defpot. 

But, however wife the legiflators, and 
however good their inftitutions, there is 
none of thefe governments which hath 
maintained itfelf whole and entire ; and 
why? becaufc men are imperfect, and their 
works are fo of courfe; becaufe the fubjects 
of each government, excited by their paf- 
fions, are blinded by their private intereft, 
which often overturns that of the public ; 
in ftiort, becauie nothing in this world is 
permanent. In ariftocracies, the abufe of 
authority is oidinarily the caufe of revolu- 
tions. The democracy of the Romans was 
overturned by the Romans themfelves ; 
and this is the fate which England muft 
expect, if the Houfe of Commons mould 
not prefer the true intereft of the nation to 
that vile corruption which debafes it. As 
to the monarchical form, we have feen ma- 
ny different fpecies ; the true monarchical 
form of government is either the beft or 
the word of all, according as it is admi- 

We have already remarked, that man- 
kind has only conferred pre-eminence on 
one of their own fpecies, on account of the 
fervices they expect from him. Thefe 
confift in maintaining juftice and the laws, 
in counteracting the corruption of manners, 
in defending the ftate againft its enemies. 
The tir.ft magift rate ought to have a conftant 
attention to agriculture, to promote plen- 
ty, to encourage induftry and commerce. 
He is like a permanent centinel, whofe 
duty it is to watch over his neighbours, 
and the conduct of thofe who are, or may 
be, enemies to the ftate. It is expected of 
him, that his forefight and prudence mould 
form connections, and choofe allies, mod 
" conducive to the interefts of his people. 
There mould be joined to this a deep ap 
plication to the peculiar fituation of the 
country he is to govern, and a thorough 
knowledge of the genius of the nation ; 
becaufe the Monarch is as much to blame 
if he err through ignorance, as ij he erred 
from defign. The one indeed proceeds 

Col. Mag. Vol. IV. No. t. 


from malice, the other fmm mdolence; but 
the evils that refuit from it to fociety, are 
the fame. Princes and Kings, then, are 
not clothed with the fupreme authority, in 
order to plunge themfelves into luxury and 
debauch. They are not raifed above their 
fellow-citizens, that their pride, pluming 
itielf in idea, may look down with contempt 
on innocence and poverty. Th>.y are not 
at the head of the ftate, to enrertain 
their perfons a herd of drones, whofe h'le- 
nefs and ufelefTnefs engender every vice. 
The ill adminiftration of monarchies pro- 
ceeds from various caufes, which have their 
origin in the character of the Monarch. 
Thus, a Prince devoted chiefly to women, 
will be governed by his miftreffes and his 
favourites, who, abufing the influence they 
have over him, will employ that afcendmcy 
to commit injuftice, to patronile bad men, 
to fell or difpofe of public employments to 
unworthy objects, and to other difgraceful 
adf ions. If the Prince, through indolence, 
totally abandons the government of the 
ftate to mercenary hands, one pulls to the 
right, another to the left, none of them 
adt on any general plan; each minifter over- 
turns what he finds done before h m, how- 
ever falutary, in order to have the credit 
of fomething new, and to realife his whims, 
often at the expenfe of the public : others, 
who fucceed them, are in hafte to overturn 
all thefe arrangements with the fame foli- 
dity, and for the fame reafons with their 
predeceffors ; and thus this continual vari- 
ation of fyftem prevents any from taking 
root. From hence arife diforder, confufion, 
and all the evils of a bad government. 
Thefe diffemblers have always an excufe 
ready; they cover their bafenefs undei their 
perpetual alterations; and, as minifters of 
this fort are perfectly fatisfied if their con- 
duct efcapes inquiry, they take care not to 
fet the example, by complaining of thofe 
under them. Men are attached to what 
property belongs to them ; but the admi- 
niltration does not belong to fuch minifltrs; 
they have not, therefore, the true intereft 
of the ftate at heart. Every thing is exe- 
cuted with indifference and eareleuhefs ; 
from whence arifes the decay of juftice, of 
the revenue, and cf every public eftablifh- 
ment. From a monarchy it degenerate* 
into a pure anilocracy, under which gene. 
rals and minifters govern according to their 
caprice. A general fyftem i no longer 
purfucd. Every one follows his own par- 
ticular ideas; the central point, the joint 
of unity, that connects the whole, is loft 
and ^one. As the different fprings of * 


EJfay by the King of Prufia, on the Forms of Government, &c. 
watch cor.fpire to the fame end, which Is \ which thofe appellations announce. He ii 
that of meafuring the time, fo the fprings only the firji fervant of the ftate, under a 

of government mould be wound up in the 
fame manner, that all the different parts of 
the adminiftration may equally concur to 
that important object, which fhould never 
be loll fight of, the greateft good of the 
ftate. Befide9, the perfonal interefts of 
minifters and generals frequently counter- 
act everything, and fometimes obftruct the 
execution of the beft plans, becaufe they 
are not defigned by themfelves. But the 
evil arrives at its height, if perverfe minds 
fhould fucceed in perfuading the Monarch 
that his interefts are different from thofe 
of his fubjects. Then the Monarch be- 
comes the enemy of his people, without 
knowing the reafon. Through mifunder- 
ftanding he becomes cruel and fevere ; for 
the principle on which he proceeds being 
falfe, the confequences mud be fo of courfe. 
The Monarch is united to the ftate by in- 
diffoUible bands ; confequently, he feels, 
in a duplicate proportion, all the evils that 
affec\ his people ; and they equally fuffer 
from thofe evils which affect him. There 
is but one good, which is that of the ftate 
in general. 

If the Prince lofes any of his provinces, 
he is not equally able to protect his people. 
If, unfortunately, he has been under a ne- 
cefftty of contracting debts, it will fall on 
his fubjects to pay them. On the other 
hand, if population diminishes, if the peo- 
ple become poor, the Monarch is deprived 
of every refource. Thefe are fuch incon- 
teflable truths, that it is not neceflary to 
dwell further upon them. 

I repeat it then, the Sovereign reprefents 
the Hate. He and his people form only 
one body, which can only be happy as 
they are united. The Prince is, to the 
country which he governs, what the head 
is to the body. He ought to think and 
act for i he whole in fuch a manner as to 
procure it the greateft advantages of which 
it is capable. This is the idea I have of 
his duties. 

The royal author proceeds to expatiate 
on the particular duties of Kings in the 
various departments of government, and 
then goes on : 

Thefe are, in general, the duties which 
a Prince ought to difcharge ; and, that he 
may never forget them, he ought often to 
recal to his mind, that he is a human be- 
ing, as well as the lowed of his fubjects. 
If he is the firft magitlrate, the firfl gene- 
ral, the firfl officer of the ftate, it is not 
to reprefent only, but t9 fuUil the duties 

folemn obligation of acting with prudence, 
probity and difintereftednefs, as if he was 
liable, every moment, to give an account 
of his adminiftration. Thus he is culpable 
if he fquanders the produce of the taxes, 
which is the money of his people, in pomp, 
luxury, or debauch : he, who ought to 
watch over the morals, the beft guardians 
of the law; who ought to improve and 
bring to perfection the national education, 
not to pervert it by bad example. The 
prefervation of the public morals is an ob- 
ject of the greateft importance. The Mo- 
narch may contribute much to it, by di- 
ftinguifhing and rewarding thofe who are 
eminent for their virtue and merit, and by 
fhovving his difapprobation of thofe who 
are not aftiamed of their own depravity. 
He ought to difapprove loudly every dif- 
honorable action, and to decline taking 
notice of thofe who are not to be reclaim- 
ed. It is likewife an interefting object, 
which ought not to be loft fight of, and 
which, if neglected, would be an irrepara- 
ble injury to the public morals, that the 
Prince fhould not diftinguifh unworthy 
perfons merely on account of their riches. 
Honors lavimed in this manner would con- 
firm the public in the common opinion, 
that, to be diftinguifhed, it is enough to 
be rich. From that moment, felfifhnefs 
and depravity throw off all reftraint; every 
one is intent on accumulating wealth ; the 
moll iniquitous means are ufed for main- 
taining it ; corruption thrives, it take* 
root, and becomes univerfal. Men of abi- 
lities, men of merit, are difregarded ; and 
the public, dazzled by its fplendour, is 
taught only to refpect wealth, however ac- 
quired or delerved. To prevent the nation- 
al manners from being perverted to this 
(hameful degree, the Prince mould be con- 
ftantly on his guard, not to diftinguifh any 
but men of merit, and to fhow a contempt 
for all wealth that is not accompanied with 
morality and virtue For the reft, the 
Monarch is properly the head of a family 
of citizens, the father of his people : he 
ought on all occafions, to ferve as the laft 
refuge to thofe of diftinguifhed merit who 
are unfortunate; to be a parent to the or- 
phan, to fuccour the widow, to have an 
eye of pity and compaffion on all, and to 
extend his hand to thofe who, having no 
other refource, can only be relieved by his 

This, according to the principles laid 
down in the beginning of this, Effay, is 

Purport of a Letter on Sheep. , c 

the precife idea that one ought to form of them with thofe of your country : to fpeajc 

the duties of a King, and of the only 
manner which can render the monarchical 
form of government advantageous, if there 
are many Princes who hold a different 
conduct, it is owing to their having little 
reflected on their own elevation, and the 
duties that refult from it. They have un- 
dertaken a trufl, the weight and import- 
ance of which they are ignorant of, and 
have been mifled for want of confideration; 
for in this age, ignorance is the caufe of 
more crimes even than wickednefs. This 
character of a King will perhaps appear 
to the critics like the archetype of the 
ftoics, the idea of their imaginary wife 
man, who never exilted, and to whom M. 
Aurelius approached the neareft. 

I could wilh that this feeble Efiay may 
contribute to form fuch monarchs as M. 
Aurelius. It would be the noblefl reward 
I could expert, and at the fame time a 
fervice to mankind : but I ought to add, 
that a Prince, who mould take the pains I 
have been pointing out, would not arrive 
at abfolute perfection ; becaufe, with the 
beft inclinations poflible, he may be de- 
ceived in the choice of thofe whom he 
employed in the administration of affairs; 
becaufe things may be reprefented to him 
in a falfe light ; his orders may not be 
properly executed ; abufes and enormities 
may be hid from his fight ; perfons em- 
ployed to execute them may ule too much 
feverity and haughtinefs in their deport- 
ment: in fhort, becaufe, efpecially in ex- 
tenfive dominions, the Prince cannot 

every where himfelf. — Such then is, 

always will be, the fate of every thing here 
below, that the perfection of government, 
requifite to make a people completely hap- 
py, can never be obtained ; and that in 
this, as in every thing elfe, one mud be 
content with what has the feweft imper- 
fections. B. 

Purport of a Letter on Sheep. 

Written in Maryland, March 30, 1789. 
By J, J- B. Efquire, and read to the 
Philadelphia Agricultural Society* 

THE increafing of wool, and to that 
end the enlarging flocks of fheep, 
ought to be a capital objeel with the farm- 
ers in America. 1 have endeavoured to 
oromote the idea in this part of the coun- 

It may entertain the Society, wheu they 
(hall have exhibited to them the manner of 
keeping fheep here, in comparing the dif- 

of my own, is to fpeak with the greater 

I ufually fhear near 130 fheep, moftly 
they paflure through the fummer, 


with little other attention to them than from 
now and then counting them. In winter 
they alfo fhift for themfelves in fields un- 
fown, without being houfed, or fed with 
aught elfe than a few corn blades, when a 
fnow is fo deep as to deprive them of their 
common paflure food, and fome green food 
from tailings of fmall grain fown for the 
purpofe, and roots, to about 20 : muttons. 
The flocks however have a large range, are 
fheltered by pines at the heads of coves, 
and find food amongfl bufhes and fomc 
woods in points and broken grounds along 
the margin of a fait water river and it* 

An eftimate might be made of a flock of 
fheep fuppofed to be improved, when in. 
numbers affording a fhepherd conflantly to 
attend them, feed them, and ufe the beft 
means to preferve them in fafety and in 
high cafe; but the flatement below is only 
of 100 fheep, as they are kept by me, 
Eltirnates vary greatly : fcarcely two men 
are found to agree in the articles of charge 
and difcharge : the attention and the ne- 
glects of fheep — the manner of keeping 
them, are various: let thefe apologize for 
the venturing to expofe my eftimate, fo 
different from the eltirnates of others. In 
this flatement no charge is made of intereil ; 
—it is but ideal when not really paid, and 
when, inltead of paying interefi, I rather 
receive it from the fheep in the income they 
give, of not only fix per cent, but above h\ 
times fix. No charge is made for common 
cafualities, becaufe a flock fytlematically 
managed is not leflened by them, below the 
defigned number, whilfl new fheep are an- 
nually railed at no perceptible expenfe, and 
inflantly take place of thofe loll: it is fo of 
the aged fheep fold ; their place is filled up 
by the flock lambs yearly kept over for the 
purpofe, It may be faid of fheep fo attend- 
ed to as is faid of kings — they never die. 
When inftead of cafual loffes of fheep they 
are fold or ufed in the family, we receive the 
value; for which the fiock is to have credit; 
in the account kept of them. A lambcolta 
fo little in raifing him, that by the time he 
ceafes to be a lamb, his wool pays the coft. 
A charge might be made again ! l % (luep for 
damage in untilling the foil, in their tread- , 
ing it» and thereby eventually injuring the 
future crop of wheat, on an anble fano^ 
more than their dung fcattered in fcrapa 

ference of the expenfc and valuation Q f : improves it ;. but tUcr. t agnail U& difiex- 


Purport of a Letter on Sleep. 

ence may be fet off the advantage derived 
from their eating down and preventing to 
riff up into feed many fticky Itout weeds, 
which other live Hock fuffer to grow up, 
foul the paltures, and exhauft the foil. 1 
have had notable inftances of this benefit 
from (beep eating down thofe weeds. I 
make no charge againlt my (beep for their 
paiturage, becaufe in an arable fyftem of 
hufbandrv, fume fields muft neceffarily reft 
under grals, fpontancous or (own, for the 
fake of future corn crops; but on a graz- 
ing hum il is otherwife, for as there i;> 
no corn crop on thy, grafs is the only te- 
nant that can pay the rent; befides it would 
be nice and difficult to latisfacftorily appor- 
tion the rent between arable and grazing 
fields. If upon the whole, between tread- 
ing the foil and the deftru&ion of weeds, 
and the giving Tome fmall quantity of dung, 
whdft palUiriog, Iheep do no notable da- 
mage to the foil of an arable farm, I fee 
n t iufficient caufe for charging the flock 
for the pickings they obtain from fields 
turned oui from tillage, at prefent, for the 
benefit of future corn crops or as being ne 
cefTiry in an arable fy It em. The little be 
ncfit that foil receives from (beep pafturing 
on it, where there is neither fummer fold- 
ing nor winter keeping upon litter, maybe 
about balanced by damage in compacting 
the foil with their feet, as it feems to me. 
An ellimatc of the income and expenfes 
of i oo (beep as kept by J. B. B. at Wye, 
in Maryland : 

£. s. d. 

Corn blades, occafionally, other 

winter food, is, in pafturing, 
Winter green food and roots to 

20 muttons, 
Some attendance, flight, 
Taxes, wafhing, {hearing, 


Word, 338lbs. at ts. fid 

Lambs, 50 out of 78, fold at 9s. 

Muttons, 20 at 1 8s, 

Manure in pafturMg and tread- 
ing the foil clofe, oppofed to 
each other, 

1 10 












2 S 





£• 65 


Annual income, 
Annual txpenfe, 

Annual profit, 

£ : 







This profit on the 100 Cheep, is tts. c^d. 
ach. In England, the Duke of Grafton's 
very accurate account of feven years fheep 
f)ulinefs, gave an average of but 4s. gd. 
currency profit on each fheep. His charges 
were on high keeping of fheep that yielded 
but about x|lb. of wool each, and were on 
grafs, rent, county, poor and parifh rates, 
>ye, ryepafturage, turnips,) hay, barley, 
wafhing, fhearing, carriage of wool, tithe, 
intereft. The Duke's 4s. 9d. a-head is 25 
per cent, on his capital. Others in Eng- 
land reckon they make 8s. 4d. to 30s. cur- 
rency and upwards a-head, on their Iheep. 
I reckon 7s. fid. current money equal to 
4s. 6d. fterling. 

So far as dung improves foil, it ought 
•o be allowed for ; and this is for all dung 
applied from winter littering or fummer 
folding : but how far, if at all, it is to 
be prized when flowly dropt about in pa- 
fturing, is a queftion. Beads conftantly 
ramming the foil of a pafture into a clofe 
compact ftate, untill it more than is com- 
monly apprehended. — That the foot of the 
beaft does more damage to the foil, than his 
dung fo difperfed and expofed to exhala- 
tion does good, is probable from feveral 
inftances, related by ferious good people, 
of clover fields having been divided and 
the one half paftured on, all the fummer; 
the other mown twice, and both fown at 
the fame time with wheat on one plowing; 
when the mown gave confiderably the belt 
crops of wheat. Let us fuppofe a lay of 
grafs has been left unpad ured, and even 
uncut, for three years; another like field at 
the fame time is paftured clofe, as is ufual 
during the fame three years : now let the 
farmer walk into thefe, and obferve how 
mellow, light, and lively the one is, — how 
firm the other. Which of thefe will he 
prefer for a crop of grain ? — If the former, 
it then may be fufptded, that pafturing 
doth not improve the foil ; that on the 
whole it even injures it. When, however, 
palture ground has been of many years 
(tandifig, efpecially if cloathed with grafs 
to Ihieldthc foil from the midfummer fun, 
it will have gained advantages from the 
atmofphere and the fcraps of dung, toge- 
ther, that will be greater than the difad. 
vantage from treading the ground. After 
two or three years, we may conceive the 
fettling and compa&ing the ground cannot 
be much further encreafed. 

Amongft the attentions to iheep, it is 
particularly recommended to farmers, that 
they let only a few ewes run at large with 
a ram, for giving a kw early lambs j that 

A Care for the Rot in Sheep — Culture and Produce of Turnip-rooted Cabbage. 37 

the reft of the ewes be kept feparate from 
the rams till the middle of October, and 
then be allowed a ram to 20 or at mod 25. 
Their lambs will come from the middle to 
the end of March. It is alfo advantage- 
ous to keep ewe and ram lambs apart 18 
or 20 months, from January or Marcn till 
October come twelve months, before they 
are fuffered to be together. It is bell that 
there be not more than one ram with a di- 
vifion of ewes at a time, where they can 
be parcelled off into diffeient fields or lots 
for two or three weeks. 

To obferve the ages of fheep is import- 
ant. Some age ought to be fixed on by the 
farmer, beyond which nothing fhould in- 
duce him to keep them. At {hearing time 
the mouth of every fheep and lamb is to be 
infpected; when the lambs having blackifh 
gums or that are not Itraight, well made 
and promifing, are marked for fale ; as alfo 
are the aged rams, ewes, and wethers ; 
whatever is the age fixed on by the farmer 
for clearing his flock from old fheep, be it 
four or five years ; which feem to be the 
ages for governing us in this particular, in 
the climate of America. As many lambs, 
the belt, are to be turned out for breeders 
and for muttons, proportioned, as there 
are to be fheep difpofed of as being aged, — 
and a few more to fupply lofTes whilit they 
are growing up. 

The farmer will firfl determine on the 
number of grown fheep to be kept by him: 
then on the age he means to obferve for 
difpofing of them,— for he is to have none 
in his flock that are not in full vigour. 
Dividing the number in the whole flock, 

we indulge more, — you work more ; and 
which affords the moll comfort, temperance 
with employment) or intemperance with idle* 
nefs, no ferious perfon can be at a lofs to 
decide. B. 

A certain Cure y3r £/ta Rot in Sheep. 

TAKE of Roman wormwood and Spa- 
nish radifh, equal parts, and reduce 
them to powder. For one hundred diftem- 
pered fheep, take two ounces of this powder, 
four ounces of pounded juniper berries, 
and about feven or eight pounds of nief- 
ling of oats : add a fmail handful of fait, 
and half the weight of the whole of com- 
mon wormwood powdered. Throw this 
compolition into the troughs or mangers 
where they feed, every week, or at ieaft, 
once in the month of March, again about 
Eafter, and laflly in the latter end of June. 
Thus they will be preferved againtt the 
di (temper ; or if they fhould catch it, it 
will make but fmall progrefs. 

Account of the Culture and Produce of the 
Turnip-rooted Cabbage. By Sir 
Thomas Bevor, Bart. 
[From the 3d. vol. of the Bath Society Papers.] 

INthefiril or fecond week in June, Ifow 
the fame quantity of feed, hoe the 
plants at the fame fize, leave them at the 
fame diftance from each other, and treat 
them in all refpe&s like the common turnip. 
In this method I have always obtained a 
plentiful crop of them ; to afcertain the 
value of which, I need only inform you, 
that on the 23d day of April lad, having 
then two acres left of my crop, found and 

by the age he means to difpofe of them, iu great perfection, I divided them by fnld 
gives the number of lambs he is to turn hurdles into three parts of nearly equal di- 
out as a fupply to the fame number of mentions. Into the firft part I put 24 fmall 
fheep to be difpofed of from the old bullocks of about 30 (tone weight each 
flock ; — and a few more lambs are to be I ( 14'ib. to the itone), and 30 middle lized 
turned out with the (tock lambs, for mak-|f a t wethers, which at the end of the firft 
ing good any lofTes. If five years are fixed j week, after they had eaten down the greate r 
on, for the full age, and there are ioo part of the leaves, and fome part of the 

flieep, the fives in a hundred being 20 
times, direct to the difpofing of 20 aged 
flieep, and to the turning out 20, more 4 
or 5, in all 25 lambs for a fupply to the 
flock. After fix years of age, flieep de- 
cline in figure and in wool. Brambles are 
charged, by common farmers, with taking 
off all the wool that flieep appear to have 
loft: but when fheep decline in vigour and 
good plight, they decline in the quantity 
of their wool, and look mean, even in 
paflures clear of brambles. 

Your wool is dearer, — your meat cheap- 
er than with ua; — a ftrong indication that 

roots, I fhifted to the fecond diviiion, and 
then put 70 lean fheep into what was left 
of the firft : thefe fed off the remainder of 
the turnips, left by the fat frock ; and fo 
they were fhifted through the three divifi- 
ons, the lean flock following the fat as they 
wanted food, until the whole was con- 

The 24 bullocks, and 3c fat wethers, 
continued in the turnips until the 3 1 11 of 
May, being exactly four weeks ; and the 
70 lean flieep until the 29th, which is one 
day overfour weeks: fo that the two acres 
kept me 24 fmall buliocks, and one hun- 

38 A Method to dye Cloth a Sea-green Colour. —The Voluptuary's Soliloquy. 

dred fheep four weeks (not reckoning the 
overplus day of the 70 lean fheep). The 
value, at the rate of keeping at that feafon, 
cannot be eilimated in any common year 
at lefs than 4d a week for each flieep, and 
is. 6d. per week for each bullock, which 
would amount together to the fum of 15I. 
13s 4d. for two acres. 

A Method to dye Cloth of a fine, frefJj 
Sea-green Colour ; difcovered by M. 
Albert, Metnher of the Royal Society 
of Sciences at Montpelier. 

FO K three pieces of cloth, each feven- 
teen ells in length, and five quarters 
breadth, diflblve fix pounds of Caiiile foap 
in water, and pour it into the bath of the 
great copper, when it begins to boil : mix 
it well ; then dipping the cloths which had 
been before wetted at the fulling-mill, turn 
them round gently for an hour, taking care 
that the bath does not boil outright ; other- 
wife, it will become violent and outrage- 
ous. After this boiling, while the cloth 
is taken out to cool, pour into another 
copper or boiler, a folution of nine pounds 
of Cyprus vitriol prepared for the purpofe : 
this being mixed with the bath when it 
begins to be luke-warm, mufl be (lirred for 
ahout feven or eight minutes ; then fliut the 
door of the fire place with the fire in it ; 
and dipping the cloth, turn it about very 
quick for a quarter of an hour, and af- 
terwards gently, for half an hour longer; 
taking care that the bath fhall be always 
about the fame degree of heat ; for, if 
the bath is too hot, the colour will not 
take, but become rufty ; and this will al- 
fo be the cafe after the colour is we!l ilruck, 
if, in the dreffing, it be put in the prefs 
too hot. 

The colour thus given is of a beautiful 
green, fo admired in foreign markets, 
that there is a great demand for it at Con- 
flaminople, and through every part of the 
Levant ; where it is greatly preferred to 
the Engiiih green cloth, which is fallen in 
its price accordingly. 

The Voluptuary's Soliloquy. 

F'om the Obfnver, a ColieCiion 0} EJfays, by Mr. Cum- 

IFiud myfelf in pofleffion of an eflate, 
which has devolved upon me, with- 
out any pains of iuy own: I have youth 
and health to enjoy it, and I am de- 
termined fo to do : pleafure is my ob- 
ject, and I mull therefore fo contrive as 
to make thai object tailing andfatisfa&ury: plcufure is my object, and marriage is m^ 

If I throw the means away, I can no longer 
compafs the end ; this is felf-evident. 1 
perceive therefore, that I mull not game; 
for though I like play, I do not like to 
lofe that, which alone can purchafe every 
plcafure I propofe to enjoy ; and I do not 
fee that the chance of winning other peo- 
ple's money, can compenfate for the pain 
I mufl fuffer if I lofe my own : an addi- 
tion to my fortune can only give fuper- 
fluities : the lofs of it may take away even 
the neceflaries ; and in the mean time, I 
have enough for every other gratification 
but the deiperate one of deep play : it is 
refotved therefore, that I will not be a game- 
Iter : there is not common fenfe in the 
thought, and therefore I renounce it. 

But if I give up gaming, I will take my 
fwing of pleafure ; that I am determined 
upon. 1 mull therefore afk myfelf the 
queftion, what is pleafure ? Is it high liv- 
ing and hard drinking ? I have my own 
choice to make, therefore I mull take fome 
time to confider of it. There is nothing 
very elegant in it, I mufl confefs ; a glut- 
ton is but a forry fellow, and a drunkard 
is a bead : befides 1 am not fure my con- 
flitution can fland againfl it : I fliall get 
the gout, that would be the devil ; I (hall 
grow out of all fhape ; I fhall have a red 
face full of blotches, a foul breath, and 
be loathfome to the women : I cannot 
bear to think of that, for I doat upon the 
women, and therefore adieu to the bottle 
and all its concomitants ; I prefer the 
favours of the fair fex to the company of 
the foakers, and fo there is an end to all 
drinking ; I will be fober, only becaufe I 
love pleafure. 

But if I give up wine for women, I 
will repay myfelf for the facrifice ; I will 
have the finell girls that money can pur* 
chafe — Money, did I fay ? What a fouDd; 
has that ! — Am I to buy beauty with mo- 
ney, and cannot I buy love too ? for there 
is no pleafure even in beauty, without love. 
I find myfelf gravelled by this unlucky 
qu:ilion: mercenary love! that is non- 
lenfe ; it is flat hypocriiy ; it is difgulling, 
I fhould loath the fawning careffes of a 
JilTembling harlot, whom I pay for falfe 
fondnefs : I find am wrong again : 1 can- 
not fall in love with a harlot ; ftie mud be 
a modell woman } and when that befall* 
me, what then ? Why then, if I am terri- 
bly in love indeed, and cannot be happy 
without her, there is no otherchoice left me; 
I think 1 mufl: even marry her ! nay I am 
fure I mull ; for if pleafure leads that way» 

On the National Character of the Spaniards. 

lot { 1 am determined therefore to marry, 
only becaufe I love pleafure. 

Well ! now that I have given up all 
other women for a wife, I am refolved to 
take pleafure enough in the poffeffion of 
her ; I muft be cautious therefore that no- 
body elfe takes the fame pleafure too ; for 
otherwife how have I bettered myfelf? I 
might as well have remained upon the com- 
mon. I (hould be a fool indeed, to pay 
fuch a price for a purchafe, and let in my 
neigbours for a fhare ; therefore I am de- 
termined to keep her to myfelf, for plea- 
fure is my only object, and this I take it is 
a fort of pleafure, that does not confift in 

T^he next queftion is, how I muft con- 
trive to keep her to myfelf. — Not by foi e ; 
not by locking her up ; there is no \ a- 
fure in that notion ; compulfion is out of 
the cafe : inclination therefore is the next 
thing ; I mull make it her own choice to 
be faithful : it feems then to be incumbent 
upon me to make a wife choice, to look 
well before I fix upon a wife, and to ufe 
her well when I have fixed. I w ; U be very 
kind to her, becaufe I will noS deftroy 
my own pleafure ; and I will be very 
careful of the temptations I expofe her 
to, for the fame reafon. She (hall not lead 
the life of your fine town ladies ; I have a 
charming place in the country ; I will pafs 
moii of my time in the country ; there (he 
will be fafe, and I (hall be happy. I love 
pleafure, and therefore I will have little to 
do with that curd intriguing town of Lon- 
don ; I am determined to make my hoiife 
in the country as pleafant as it is poffible. 

But if I give up the gaieties of a town 
life, and the club and the gaming-table, 
andthe girls, forawifeandthecountry, I will 
have the fports of the country in perfection; 
I will keep the bed pack of hounds in 
England, and hunt every day in the week. 
—But hold a moment there ! what will be- 
come of my wife all the while I am fol- 
lowing the hounds? Will (he follow nobo- 
dy ; will nobody follow her ? A pretty fi- 
gure I (hall make, to be chacing the (lag 
and come home with the horns ! At lead 
I (hall not rifque the experiment ; I (hall 
not like to leave her at home, and I can- 
not take her with me, for -that would 
fpoil my pleafure ; and I hate a horfe-dog 
woman ; I will keep no whipper-in, in pet- 
ticoats. I perceive therefore I muft give 
up the hounds, for I am determined nothing 
fhall (land in the way of my pleafure. 

Why then, I mud find out fome amufe- 
ments that my wife can partake in ; we 
muft ride about the park in fine weather ; 


we mud vifit the grounds, and the gardens 
and plan out improvements, and make 
plantations ; it will be rare employment 
for the poor people — That is a thought 
that never druck me before; methinks there 
mult be a great deal of pleafure in fetting 
the poor to work — I (hall like a farm for 
the fame reafon ; and my wife will take 
pleafure in a dairy ; (he (hall have the mod 
elegant dairy in England ; and I will build 
a confervatory, and (lie fliall have fuch 
plants and fuch flowers ! — I have a notion 
I (hall take pleafure in them myfelf— And 
then there is a thoufand things to do with- 
in doors ; it is a fine old manfion, that is 
the truth of it : I will give it an entire re- 
pair ; it wants new furniture ; that will 
be very pleafant work for my wife : I per- 
ceive I could not afford to keep hounds and 
do this into the bargain. But this will give 
me the mod pleafure all to nothing, and 
then my wife will partake of it — And we 
will have mufic and books — I recollect that 
1 have got an excellent library — There is 
another pleafure I had never thought of-— 
And then no doubt we fliall have children, 
and they are very pleafant company, when 
th*y can talk and underdand what is faid 
to them ; and now 1 begin to reded, I find 
there are a vail many pleafures in the life 
I have chalked out, and what a fool (bould 
1 be to throw away my money at the gam- 
ing-table, or my health at any table, or 
my affections upon harlots, or my time 
upon hounds and horfes, or employ either 
money, health, affections, or time, in any 
other pleafures or purfuits, than theie, 
which 1 now perceive will lead me to folid 
happinefs in this life, and fecure a good 
chance for what may befal me hereafter. 

of the 

On the National Character 
Spaniards * 

IFthe Spaniards haveeverhad diftinguifh- 
ing marks applicable to all the inhabi- 
tants of their peninfula, it was when the 
Arabs, by eftabli(hing themfelves among 
them, imprinted on them a peculiar cha- 
racter, and notwithstanding the different 
caufes which feparated them, communica- 
ted to them a part of their manners, their 
turn of thinking, their tafte for the 
arts and fciences, and whatever other traces 
we find of them, in thofe provinces in which 
they remained longed ; and when the high 
idea which they encertained of their na- 
tion, and which was jullified by circum- 
dances, rendered them all like the portrait 
drawn of them at prefent, in which they 
are reprefented as grave, aullcre, and ge- 

* iron* Nauvwiu Vuyaye ea League. 

. On the National Cbaracler of the Spaniards. 

nerous fond of war and romantic adven- ; circumltances,thisfplendourbecame eclipf- 
tures ;' and laltly, when in their general jcd, and thofc pretenlions which it excufed, 
iffembliei, which they called Cortes, they [have furvivcd it. The Spaniard of the 
all had moie or lcfs an active part in the fixteenth century has disappeared, but his 

government ; when they directed or watch 
ed over its operations, and when they en- 
tertained more lively fentiments than at 
ptefent, of that patriotism which has fo 
powerful an influence over the opinions, the 
affections and the manners of thofe whom 
it animates. But thefe three caufes of 
uniformity in the national character have 
almoit difappearcd, and have given up the 
Spaniard to the mure immediate influence 
of climate, laws, and the productions of 
different provinces; fo that in order to 
paint thefe people fuch as they are at pre- 
fer! t, it would be neceffary to fubdivide 
them into Callilians, Catalans, Arrago- 
nefe, Navarrefc, Andalufians, Bifcayans 
•nd Allnrians, and to delineate a particu- 
lar character of each of thefe ; a difficult 
and difagreeable talk, which one could not 
execute, without placing almoit always the 
exception by the fide of the rule, and in 
difcharging which, it would be difficult to 
be exact without being too minute, to be 
juil without appearing fevere, and to be an 
apologill without feeming a flatterer. 

This revolution, however, has not been 
fo general, as not to leave fome characte- 
ristic marks, by which the whole Spanifh 
nation may Hill be known. A part of their 
manners has furvived thofe events which 
changed them. The empire of its climate 
has been modified, but not deft royed. In 
many refpects the provinces live under the 
fame form of government. The court of 
a monarch, almoit abfolute, is Hill the cen- 
tre of the vows and affections of the whole 
kingdom. All the modern Spaniards pre- 
ftfs the fame worfhip. In literature, they 
have Hill the fame models, and the fame 
talte. In thefe refpects they have preferved 
marks of refernblance with their ancestors, 
and thefe we (hall endeavour to difplay. 

At the period when Spain acted fo great 
a part on the public theatre, when it dif- 
covered and conquered the new woild, and 
when, not contented with ruling great 
part of Europe, it convuifed and (hook the 
other, either by its intrigues or military 
expeditions, the Spaniards were intoxica- 
ted with that national pride which appear- 
ed in their external actions, in their gef- 
tinea, in their dilcourfe, 3nd in their wri- 
tings. As it then had a caufe, it gave 
them an air of grandeur, which thofe at 
Jtalr. pardoned, in whom it did not create 
refpect. liut by a concourfe of unhappy 

malic has remained : hence that exterior 
pride and gravity which diftinguifh him 
itill in our days, and which have often re- 
called to my remembrance the following 
lines of one of our poets, refpecting ori- 
ginal fin, notwithstanding the confequences 
of which, the augult deltination of man 
may (till be perceived. The poet calls 

A fallen king, in whofe exalted mien 
Strong traces ftill of majefty are fecn. 

The modern Spaniard preferves ftill in 
his, the marks of his former confequence. 
Whether he fpeaks or writes, his exprefii- 
ons have a peculiar turn of exaggeration, 
which approaches near to rodomontade. The 
Spaniards, I hope, will forgive me, for 
treating them with a little feverity upon 
this point : for they ought to keep in 
mind, that every nation has its faults, as 
well as good qualities, and that thefe are 
fo intimately connected, that faults are of- 
ten the confequences or an excefs of good 
qualities, in the fame manner, as the lat- 
ter are often the confequences of the for- 
mer, and plead their excufe. 

I will venture, therefore, to repeat, that 
the Spaniard entertains a high idea of his 
nation and of himfelf, and exprefles this 
fentiment openly and without referve. His 
felf-love does not appear in thofe ludicrous 
exaggerations of Ipeech which provoke 
laughter rather than anger, and which 
characterize the inhabitants of one of the 
provinces of France.* Whenever heboafts, 
it is with gravity, and with all the pomp 
of his language. In a word, a Spaniard, 
as a man of genius faid to me one day, is 
a Gafcon in bufkins. 

I am, however, very much inclined to 
believe, that the genius of his language 
may account for the bombaft of his ftyle. 
The Spaniards have not only adopted many 
of the words and expreflions of the 
Arabians, but they have been tinctured 
alfo with the oriental fpirit, which, 
thefe people naturalifed in Spain. This 
fpirit is found in all Spanifh works of ima- 
gination, in their books of piety, in their 
comedies, and in their romances. It is, 
perhaps, one of the caufes of the flow pro- 
gress which found philofophy makes among 
them; becaufe, carrying every thing be- 
yond truth and reality, loading the fimplefl 

* Gafcony, 

On the National Chara^er of the Spaniards. 
dea with images, and fond of eve 

- ery thing 
marvellous, they furround the fanduaryof 
truth with illufions, and render it inaccef- 
fible. They are fo fertile, and fo flighty 
in their conceptions, that it has" be- 
come cultomary to fay, when we fpeak of 
a perfon who produces brilliant chimeras, 
and embraces them as truth, he builds caf- 
tles in Spain, an expreffion, for the ety- 
mology of which, I think it would be in 
vain to feek elfewhere. But this haughti- 
neis, which would be noble, were it more 
moderate, and that gravity, which always 
commands refpe&, and which is fometimes 
difgulling, are compenfatcd by very valu- 
able qualities, or rather are the fource of 
them. The pride of individuals, like that 
of the nation, elevates the foul, and puts 
it on its guard againil meannefs, and fuch 
is, indeed, the pride of the Spaniards. 
In Spain, as well as elfewhere, there are 
vices and crimes, but, in general, pride is 
the mod prominent feature in the national 
character of the Spaniards. It appears 
among the lowed clafTes, even in a dungeon 
and under the rags of mifery. It regulates 
in a certain degree, the genius of a lan- 
guage naturally diffufe, in which the ear 
feems to delight in throwing together fo- 
norous words, and in which abundance of 
phrafes is often taken for abundance of 
ideas. Pride is generally concife ; it dif- 
dains details, and delights in thofe enig- 
matic expreffions, which leave employment 
for the thoughts, and often even much to be 
gyefled. Hence it happens, that the Spa- 
niards, who when their imagination is in 
the lead animated, difplay all the luxury 
of their language, are very laconic when 
their minds are free from the turbulence of 
paflion. I could mention an hundred ex- 
amples, but I {hall be contented with one. 
Havinghad occafionto fpeak to a Spaniard, 
who lodged on a lower floor, and having 
found him careffing a young child, with 
much gravity, I faid to him, are you the 
father of the child ? A Frenchman of the 
fame rank, would have modeftly replied, 
Tes, Sir, or at lead, / have reafou to be- 
lieve fo, and would have told me much 
more than I wifhed to know ; but the Caf» 
tilian, without the lead emotion, and even 
without fmiiing at my quediou, replied 
coldly, he ivas bom in my houfe, and then 
changed the converfation. 

This gravity of the Spaniards, which 
is now become proverbial, is, however, 
far from beiug what it is commonly thought ; 
it indeed generally banifhes from among 
them what we call affability and pre-pof- 

Cot. Mag. Vol, IV. No. i. 

felling manners. They do not go to meet 
you, they wait for yen. But this exter- 
nal feventy conceals often a good and oblig- 
ing difpohtion, which may be eafily dif- 
covered by thofe who gave themfelvcs the 
lead trouble to fearch fcr it. Strangers to 
the vain levities of Trench politenefs, 
they are very fparing of demonftrations. 
Their fmile of benevolence is not the mafic 
of duplicity, and their hearts expand, for 
the moll part, at the fame time as their 
features. Often have I been difcouraged 
by the exterior of a Spaniard, and remain- 
ed a long time without venturing to accod 
him ; but having at length overcome my 
repugnance, I have found him complaifant, 
not in words, but in actions; and obliging, 
not in promising, but in performing. The 
Spaniards, peihaps, are deditute of that 
urbanity which is the effeft of a refined 
education, and which often ferves as a 
cloak for falfehood and contempt ; but they 
make ample amends for this want, by that 
franknefs which is not feigned, and by 
that benevolence which both announces and 
jnfpires confidence. Their great lords are f 
deditute of dignity, if we call dignity that 
haughtinefs which is always circumfpeft in 
its advances, for fear of producing famili- 
arity, and which cares little for being lov- 
ed, provided it be refpe&ed. Without 
forgetting what they are, they do not fhow 
in an offenfive manner the difference of 
nnk, and they do not difdain to form con- 
nexions in thofe which are below their own. 
One no longer fees among them a duke of 
Alva, a Don Louis de Haro, or a Penn- 
randa, whofe characters, difplayed to the 
eyes of all Europe, have without doubt 
greatly contributed to propagate that idea 
which is dill entertained of the imperiou3 
haughtinefs of the high nobility in Spain ; 
it is at lead, much lefs than what it was. 
formerly. If fome of them have retained 
any traces of it, they appear only in eold- 
nefs, timidity and embarrafiment, which 
they fhare in common with the red of the 

This exterior gravity in all clafics, con- 
ceals a gaiety which needs only be called 
forth to appear. I (hall not quote as a 
proof of this aflertion, thofe Spanilh amufe- 
ments in which buffoonery is fo well re- 
ceived ; this would rather be an argument 
againil: my opinion, fince it has been re- 
marked, that the th?atre of gay nations, 
is more ferious than that of grave nations, 
as if the mind delighted prineipal'v in emo- 
tions which draw it from its habitual 


On the National Character of the Spaniards. 

But to judge whether the Spaniards are 
fprightly, I (hall conduct the reader into 
their circles when they are there at their 
cafe ; to their repafts before the vapours of 
their food and wine have didurbed their 
brains ; I fhall make him take a (hare in 
their convention, full of lively (allies, 
pkafantry and quibbling, all children either 
lawful or illegitimate of mirth, and 1 (hall 
a(k him, if it appears lefs free or worfefup- 
ported than in our clubs and petit foupers. 
I (hall be doubtlefs told, that this gaiety 
is too noify and difagreeable ; but, how- 
ever it may be condemned, it is certain, 
that it exilts, fpite of every prejudice to 
the contrary. 

The cafe is almod the fame refpecting 
other faults which are continually attribu- 
ted to the Spaniards. If I have not acquitted 
them altogether of the charge of lazinefs, 
I have, however, taken the liberty of af- 
ferting, that it is owing to changeable cir« 
cumilances, and with them it may difap- 
pear. Indeed, when one fees the activity 
wliich reigns along thccoallsof Catalonia, 
in all the kingdom of Valencia, in the 
mountains of Bifcay, and, in a word, in 
every part where indudry is encouraged, 
where provilions are cheap, and can be 
readily procured ; and on the other hand, 
when oneconfiders the hard and laborious 
life of thofe mule-drivers and carters, who 
courageoudy climb the deeped roads, thofe 
hufbandmen, who in the plains of Anda- 
lufia and la Mancha, inure themfelves to 
i he labours of the field, which the nature 
of the foil, the dillance of their habita- 
tions, and the fcorching heat of the warm- 
eft climate in Europe, render more pain- 
ful than they are elfewhere ; when one 
conliders that quantity of Callicians and 
Afturians, who, like the inhabitants of 
Auvergne and JLi.noufin in France, go to 
a great dillance to feek for the tedious and 
painful means of fubfiltence, and laftly, 
when one fees that lazinefs with which the 
Spaniards are fo much reproached, con- 
fined within the bounds of the two Caftiles, 
that part of Spain which has the fewelt 
roads, canals or navigable rivers ; has not 
onea right to conclude, that this vice is not 
an indelible feature in the national charac- 
ter of the Spaniards, that it depends upon 
changeable circumflances, and that the 
government, active and enlightened as it 
is at prefent, may make it foon difappear 
entirely I 

There is another fault, which has much 
affinity to lazinefs, or which at lead difco- 
?e.s itfclf by the fame fymptoms, and 

from which it would be difficult to excul- 
pate the Spaniards. This fault is downefs. 
Enlightened knowledge, it muft be con- 
feffed, makes a very dow progrefs among 
them. In politics, in war, and the other 
operations of government, and in thofe 
even which occur in the ordinary courfe of 
life, when others are in action, they are 
ftiil deliberating. Diftruftful and circum- 
fpect, they ruin as many affairs by downefs 
as other nations by precipitation ; and 
this is the more furpridng, as their imagi- 
nation, fo lively, ought rather be irritated 
by delay. But among nations, as among 
individuals, there is not a fingle quality 
which is not often modified by a contrary 
quality, and in this conteft, the triumph 
inclines to that fide to which the mind is 
carried with the greateft force by the cir- 
cumftance of the moment. Thus the 
Spaniard, naturally cool and collected, 
when agitated by nothing extraordinary, 
is enflamed even to enthufiafm, when his 
pride, his refentment, or any of thofe paf- 
fions which compofe his chara&er, is rouf- 
ed by infult or contradiction. Hence, 
therefore, this nation, the graved, the 
cooled, and apparently the flowed in Eu- 
rope, becomes fometimes the mod violent, 
when particular circumdances take them 
from their date of habitual tranquillity, 
and deliver them over to the empire of 
their imagination. The mod formidable 
animals are not thofe which are fubject to 
the mod violent agitations. When we 
look at the lion, his vifage appears as grave 
as his dep, his motions have all fome object, 
and his voice is not fpent in vain noife. As 
long as one refpects his inaction, he loves 
iilencc and peace ; but if provoked, he 
(hakes his mane, his eyes dart forth fire, 
lie roars, and is immediately acknowledged 
as the king of animals. 

It is this combination of downefs and 
violence which conditutcs, perhaps, the 
mod formidable fpecies of courage, and 
fuch is, in my opinion, that of the Spa- 
niards. Thofe caufes which kept it in con- 
tinual activity have difappeared. For a 
long time they have not had as neighbours 
the Moors, who daily added fuel to it ; 
nor have they been fo much actuated by 
hatred, jealoufy, and fanatifcim, three 
united motives, which increafed its inten- 
lity. The wars of the lad century, and 
thofe of the fucceffion, have not been fuf- 
licient to prefcrve it in the fame degree of 
fermentation in which it was formerly. The 
courage of the Spaniards feems, therefore, 
o be dormant ; but it may be eafily rou£- 

On the National Charatter of the Spaniards. j* 

t6, and It is indeed routed on the leaft fig- j under the name of hat, encouraged in£o - 
nal. Thereyolution which has been brought lence, by infuring impunity, ha^entirely 

about in this refpect is not fenfible, but in 
circumftances, where courage, ufelefs, and 
fometimes fatal, is rather the vice of a 
ferocious people, than the virtue of a po- 
lifhed nation. The times when the name 
only of the infidels excited fury, and the 
age of Pizarro, and an Almagro have dif- 
appeared, much for the happinefs of Spain 
and of humanity. The inhabitants of the 
colonies in Spanifh America, and the na- 
tives which are ftill preferved, no longer 
groan under the yoke of the mother coun- 
try. If religious intolerance fubfifts It 111 
rn Spain, it appears only in declamation, 
and the fpirit of persecution is much aba- 
ted. People have even begun to perceive, 
that religion may allow policy to confider 
as ufeful neighbours thofe in whom they 
hitherto beheld irreconcileable enemies. In 
Spain, as elfewhere, the progrefs of know- 
ledge and philofophy, though flow, has 
fenfibly foftened the manners of the inha- 
bitants, and the traces of ancient barbarity 
fucceflively difappear. Formerly affafiina- 
tions were very common in Spain ; every* 

difappeared, and the cloke, a veument 
very convenient for thofc who know how 
to ufe it, no longer favours any thing but 

The ufe of the fatal poignard fubfifts yet 
in fome parts of Spain, and above all in 
the fouthern provinces, but only among 
the lowed of the people. There are ilill 
bravadoes who make it the terror of the 
weak, and violent men, to whom it is the 
inftrument of fpeedy vengeance. The ec- 
clefiaftics have exerted themfelves much to 
difarm their hearers, by their influence, 
and by cha-rity. The Archbifhop of Gre- 
nada, in particular, has employed preach- 
ing with great fuccefs for this purpofe. The 
poignard and aflaflination are Itill, howe- 
ver very common in Andalufia, and one 
may there fee how powerful the influence 
of climate is, when it is not counteracted 
by moral remedies. During fummer, a 
certain wind in that province caufes a fpe- 
cies of phrenfy, which renders thofe ex- 
cefles much more common than at any 
other time of the year. But let the 

man of the lealt diftinction kept affcfiins jphyfical face of Spain be changed, let ca- 
nals and roads be formed, in places which, 
have hitherto been inacceffible, let readier 
means of communication facilitate and ren - 
der more aftive the watchful care of the 
agents of government ; let a more exten- 
five population keep under the eye of pub- 
lic vengeance thofe villains, whofe folitude 
proves their fecurity, as wild beads reign 
only with impunity in the defcrt ; let the 
progrefs of agriculture, induftry and corn- 

in his pay, and they were hired in the pro 
vince of Valencia, as falfe witnefles are 
hired in fome of our provinces in France. 
The weapon ufed in this horrid cuflom was 
21 triangular poignard, which concealed un- 
der the cloke, was taken forth with impu- 
nity on the firft fit of refentment, the 
wounds of which were more dangerous 
than thole of a fword, as the latter can- 
not be ufed privately, and as the manage- 

ment of it requires fome dexterity. The j merce, give employment to idlenefs, which is 
ufe of this perfidious weapon is not abo-lthe fource of all mifchief ; in a word, let 
lifhed entirely, and leaves room for fome [ the plan formed by the prefent govern- 
of thofe inculpations with which foreign ment be put in execution, and we (hail 
nations are continually blackening the Spa- • fee in this refpedr, as in others, the influ- 
niards. The manners of a people are not I ence of climate yield to thefe 'powerful 
corrected by violent and fudden means : a! caufes. The revolution which has been, 
minilter under the late reign experienced operated in the manners of the Spaniards 
this to his coft. Lonor clokes and flouch- within thefe fifty years attefts the certainty 

the citizen. Defirous of reforming fuch 
abufes, he had recourfe to coercive laws, 
and even to force, in order to aboliflh thefe 
modes in the capital ; but the people mu- 
tinied, and the minifter was facrificed. Fa- 
(hion, rudely attacked, furvived him in 
part ; but milder and flower means, the 
example of the court, and of thofe who 
depended on it, and the activity of a vigi- 
lant police, have greatly removed thefe in- 
conveniencies. That kind of maflc which 

ed hats favored every diforder, and in par- of this prognottic. It is in the pre fen t 
ticular thofe which endanger the fafety of century, that twa barbarous cuftoms have 

been almofl: gradually abolilhed, the Ron- 
dalla and the Pedrantes, which reafoa and 

humanity ought to have proscribed long 
ago. One of them was a kind of chal- 
lenge given by two bands of mnficians ene 
to another, without any other motive than 
that of trying their valour. They prefent- 
ed themfelves before one another, with fire- 
arms and f words, and after having uifeharg- 
ed their fufees, they commenced their at- 
ttack with their fide weapons. Will any 

44 A Sketch of the Character of the President of the United States. 

one believe, that this cudom dill fubfids 
in Navarre and Arragon. That of the Pe- 
drades has not difappeared long. This was 
alfo a kind of combat, between two bo- 
dies of people, armed with flings, who at- 
tacked each other with Hones. Such man- 
ners undoubtedly equally impeach thofe 
who preferve them, and the government 
which tolerates them. However, as there 
isfcarcely any pernicious ufage, which has 
not fome caufe and advantages, at leaft in 
appearance, there are fome people who re- 
gret that thofe inliitutions are attacked, 
which, while they difplay ferocity, prove 
and fupport bravery. But thofe are to be 
pitied, who by fuch opinions prove, that 
in their cone > ( »tion, reafon is incompatible 
vrith true courage, theonly courage, which the 
glory and fafety of a nation requires; as if in 
the wars whichone nation carrieson with ano- 
ther, armies of barbarians have never been 
feen to contend fuccefsfully againd difci- 
plined troops, and as if being accuftomed 
to unredrained diforder, fecured the fuc- 
cefs of military operations. It has been 
without doubt, the favourers of fuch para- 
doxes, who have regretted the revolution 
brought about by Cervantes in the man 
nets of the Spaniards, by throwing indeli- 
ble ridicule upon thofe adventurers, who 
neglecting the duties of their iituation, and 
the care of their families, created to them- 
feives dangers, that they might have the 
viin glory of braving them ; who gratui- 
tously offered the alfidance of their redlefs 
valour to thofe who did not feek for it, 
and whofe importunate fervice is, at lead, 
ufeltfs tn a country where charity affids the 
wretched, and the police protects the weak. 

A Sketch of the Character of the Presi- 

df.nt of the United States. 
[From Dr. Rawfafs Hiftory of the Ameri- 
can Revolution."] 
AN attempt to draw the character of 
this truly great man would look like 
flattery. Poderity will doubtlefs do it 
juftice. His actions, efpejially now, while 
frefh in remembrance, are his ampled pa- 
negyric. Suffice it, in his life time, only 
to particularife thofe qualities, which be- 
mg more common, may be mentioned 
without offending the delicate fenfibility of 
the molt inodell of men. 

General Wafhington was born on the 
nth of February 1732. His education 
was fuch as favoured the production of a 
folid mind and a vigorous body. Moun- 
tain air, abundant exercife in the open 
Country the wholefomc toils of the 

chace, and the delightful fcenes of rural 
life, expanded his limbs to an unufual but 
graceful and well proportioned fize. His 
youth was fpent in the acquifition of ufe- 
ful knowledge, and in purfuits, tending 
to the improvement of his fortune, or the 
benefit of his country. Fitted more for 
active, than for fpeculative life, he devoted 
the greater proportion of his time to the 
latter, but this was amply compenfated by 
his being frequently in fuch lituations, as 
called forth the powers of his mind, and 
drengthened them by repeated exercife. 
Early in life, in obedience to his country's 
call, he entered the military line, and be- 
gan his career of fame in oppofing that 
power, in concert with whofe troops, he 
acquired his lad and mod diftinguifhed 
honors. He was with General Braddock 
in 1755, when that unfortunate officer 
from an excefs of bravery, chofe rather to 
facrifice his army than retreat from an un- 
feen foe. The remains of that unfortunate 
corpfe were brought off the field of battle, 
chiefly by the addrefs and good conduct of 
Colonel Wafhington. After the peace of 
Paris, in 1763, he retired to his eftate, and 
witk great induflry and fuccefs purfued the 
arts of peaceful life. When the proceed- 
ings of the Britifh parliament alarmed the 
Colonifls with apprehenfions that a blow 
was levelled at their liberties, he again 
came forward into public view, and was 
appointed a Delegate to. the Congrefs, 
which met in September 1774. PofTefTed 
of a large proportion of common fenfe, di- 
rected by a found judgment, he was better 
fitted for the exalted itation to which he 
was called, than many others, who to a 
greater brilliancy of parts, frequently add 
the eccentricity of original genius. En- 
gaged in the bufy fcenes of life, he knew 
human nature, and the moft proper method 
of accomplifhing propofed objects. His 
paffions were fubdued and kept in fubjec- 
tion to reafon. His foul, fuptrior to party 
fpirit, to prejudice and ; illiberal views, 
moved according to the irupulfes it receiv- 
ed from an honed heart, a good under- 
danding, common fenfe, and a found judg- 
ment. He was habituated to view things 
on every fide, to confider them in all rela- 
tions, and to trace the pofiible and proba- 
ble confequences of propofed meafures. 
Much addicted to clofe thinking, his mind 
was condantly employed. By frequent 
exercife, his underftanding and judgment 
expanded fo as to be able to difcern truth, 
and to know what was proper to be done 
in the molt difficult conjunctures. 

The tiijliry of Arabella; 6r the Unfortunate Couple. 


the History of Arabella ; or the Un 


YE falfely wife, who in contemplating 
virtue, neglett her milder, yet more 
permanent influence, and gaze on her more 
in her meridian luftre, than when fhc gent- 
ly rifes towards her zenith, or prepares to 
fink beneath her horizon ; deign to bellow 
fome degree of attention on the hiftory of 
Arabella. Weigh her failings and her 
virtues in the fcales of philofophical pre- 
cifion, and tell us, fince minute calculation 
is your glory, which in yeur opinion pre- 

The daughter of a man, eftimable in the 
eyes of the multitude (for he was isich), 
and not contemptible in the opinion of the 
few (for he was learned) — Arabella enter- 
ed her eighteenth year. Her Father im- 
proved thofe talents, with which nature 
had liberally endowed her. But as with the 
one hand he endeavoured to eradicate lux- 
uriant vice, with the other he unfortunate- 
ly fcattered thofe feeds, which, whiia they 
feemed to flourifh by the culture of philo- . 
fophy, were at length deltrudUve both of and fang, as a decent maiden 

religion and morality. 

Unwilling to lhock her tender years (for 
fhe had experienced 'till her fourteenth 
year the cares and example of her maternal 
aunt), he at firft gently infinuated, that 
appearances, or, in another word, deco- 
rum, were the certain bafis of eileem; that 
Worldly prudence could alone infure happi- 
nefs; and that happinefs confided in wealth 
and fplendour. He marked the difference 
between the fortunes of Aitomera and Ifa- 
bella. He mowed, that the former was fol- 
lowed, admired and almoft adored, how- 
ever fhunned by the envious part of her own 
fex, or fneered at by the hypocritical of the 
other ; that wit was her conftant gueft ; - 

that learning often vifited her; that nvifdotnl feflivity and grandeur. Competency 
was fomctimes known to affift at her enter- j belt their lot ; but how fcanty mud be that 
tainments; and that even religion was morel pittance, which their numerous offspring 


mrant graces ! How often did they anti- 
cipate thofe bleifings, which her beauties 
i" their opinion, could not fail to pro. 
cure her? and not only dwell on her petfow 
a beauties, but on thofe mental accom- 
phfhmenta, which they flattered themfelves, 
they would be able to beflow on her. They 
inttructcd her in the duties of religion and 
morality. They taught her by their ex- 
ample not to look with envy on the fplcn- 
dour of affluence, or with contempt on the 
gloom of poverty ; that compliance was 
due to thofe, who had not forfeited all 
claim to it; that wealth was not always a 
bleffing, but was capable however of pro- 
moting happinefs; that health was general- 
ly infured by temperance, and that true en. 
joyment was invariably the refult of a good 
confeience. Thus initructed, continued 
this parental monitor, Ifabella was mild, 
unaffuming and timid. She drtffed with 
neatnefs, never calling to her alliftance the 
glare of fuperfluous ornament. She con- 
vened with eale and delicacy, difdaining 
thofe faliies of imagination, which procure 
the applaufe of the falfely wittv, and the 
contempt of the truly wife. She danced 

iden oug!;t to 
dance and ling. But with ali thefc accom- 
plilli.nents, none regarded her with elieem, 
and few with even complacency. She was 
looked on by the gay as a mere expletive 
m fociety, whofe company, it it did not 
excite abfolute difguft, was far from conci- 
liating the fmiles of wit, or the approba- 
tion of fafhicn. In fhort, fhe married a 
man, whofe mind unfortunately refembled 
her own. They retired to a farm, which 
the hufband cultivates with his owrf-'hands, 
whillt the wife dedicates to the dairy thofe 
hour?, which fhe can fpare from the educa- 
tion of her children. The nifties {peak 
much of their happinefs, if that can be 
called happinefs, which is a itranger to 

than once feen an unwelcome intruder at 
her feftivals. Yet thus flattered, careffed 
and almoft idolized, on how (lender a 
thread would the confequence of Aitomera 
depend, fhould fhe be left unfupported by 
riches > Learn then, my daughter, to efli-: 
mate that bleffing, which calls a veil over 
every failing, and adds luftre to every vir- 

" Ifabella !" he exclaimed, " unfortunate 
Ifabella ! the dupe of extreme refinement, 
of exquifite fenlibility ! How often did 
fcer fond parents hang enraptured over her 

lay expect to inherit from them ?" 
By fuch examples and precepts did the 
father of Arabella inflame the (perhaps na- 
turally afpiring) heart of his daughter. 
She liltened with extreme attention to his 
leffons, efpecialiy as they coincided with 
her wifiies. Wealth became the fole ob- 
ject of her hopes, and chefs and diffipation 
the f-de means of accomplishing that ob- 
ject. The gay fluttered round her in glit- 
tering aflemblage. Flattery hailed her 
morning-tours with melody particularly 
grateful to her ears, and uihercd iu that 

^5 Eulogium on America. 

repofe, which enabled her to fupport the 
fatiguing pleafures of the day. 

Amidft the very numerous admirers, 
which her beauty and accomplifhments 
(fuchasthey were) conciliated, Mercutio 
was foon diftinguifhed by her for the fupe- 
rior elegance or his drefs, and the fuperior 
emptineis of his converfation. He fpoke 
his paffton with confidence ; and was there- 
fore liltened to with prompt attention. He 
promifed fplendour, which her heart could 
not refill ; and, whilft he fafcinated her 
imagination, degraded her unfeeling mind. 
They were foon married. Mercutio, from 
motives far from honorable, exulted in the 
charms of his fpoufe, who in turn readily 
parted with (at lead) that delicacy of fen- 
timent, which, in conjunction with virtue, 
gives dignity and happinefs to the married 


Since they are deficient in the graces of 
the mind, fatiety is their portion. Dif- 
conterrted at home, they in vain expect 
happinefs abroad ; but are ever difappoint- 
ed. The tumult of falfe pleafure is inva- 
riably fucceeded by difguft and reproach. 
Their days are imbittered by incefiant and 
mutual clamour. Not having aimed at 
electing happinefs on the bafis of efteem 
and virtue, they experience all the keennefs 
of hatred, and all the horrors of vice 
amidft feeming gaiety and oftentatious 

Ye, who anticipate happinefs in the 
married ftate, reflect on the merited fuffer- 
ings of this guilty pair; and whilft ye con- 
demn their crimes, learn to imitate the con- 
dud of Ifabella, and her fpoufe. Thus 
(hall ye avoid the woes, which too often at- 
tend on matrimony; and experience thofe 
blelhngs, which it is calculated to bellow. 

is little more than a great trading compa- 
ny, with luxurious manners, and an ex- 
haufted revenue ; with little ftrength and 
lefs fpirit. Switzerland is alone free and 
happy within the narrow inclofure of its 
rocks and vallies. As for the ftate of this 
country, my Lords, I can only refer myfelf 
to your own fecret thoughts. I am difpof- 
ed to think and hope the bed of public 
liberty. Were I to defcribe her accord- 
ing tc my own ideas at prefent, I mould 
fay that fhe has a fickly countenance, 
but I trull (lie has a ftrong conftitution. 

But whatever may be our future fate, 
the greatelt glory that attends this country, 
a greater than any other nation ever ac- 
quired, is to have * formed and nurfed up 

Eulogium on America. By Dr. Jona- 
than Shipley, Bijhop of St. Afaph. 

TExtrafted from a Speech intended to have been 
fooken by his Lordlhip, on the bill for altering the 
Charters of the (then) Colony of Maffachulctts- 

MY Lords, I look upon North-Ame- 
rica as the only great nurfery of 
freemen now left upon the face of the 
earth. We have feen the liberties of 
of Poland and Sweden fwept away in the 
courfe of one year, by treachery and ufur- 
pation. The three free towns in Germany 
are like fo many dying fparks, that go out, 
one after another ; and which mud all be 
foon extinguished under the deftruclivc 
greatnefs of their neighbours. Holland 

* Mr. Charles Townftnd, a member of the 
Britifh Houfe of Commons, concluded his fpcech 
in favour of the (lamp-aft, with words to this pur- 
poTe : u And now, will thefe Americans, chil- 
dren planted by our care; nourifhed up by our in- 
du'jrence, until they are grown to a degree of 
ftrength and opulence ; and protected by our arms; 
—will they grudge to contribute their mite, to re- 
lieve us from the heavy weight of that burden 
which we lie under ? 

On this Colonel Barre rofe, and after explaining 
fome paflages in his fpeech, took up Mr. Town- 
fend's concluding words in a moll fpirited and in- 
imitable manner, faying, " They plaited by your 
care/ No, your oppreffions planted them in Ame- 
rica. They fled from your tyranny, to a then un- 
cultivated and unhofpitable country, where they 
expofed themfelves to almoft all the hardfhips to 
which human nature is liable; and among others, 
to the cruelties of a favage foe, the moll fubtle, 
and I will take upon me to fay, the mod formida- 
ble of any people upon the face of God's earth ; 
and yet, actuated by principles of true Englifh li- 
berty, they met all hardfhips with pleafure, com- 
pared with thofe they fuffered in their own country, 
from the hands of thofe that fhould have been their 
friends. — They nourijbtd up by Y ou R indulgence! They 
grew by your neglctt of them. As foon as you be- 
gan to care about them, that care was exercifed in 
fending perfons to rule them, in one department 
and another, who were perhaps, the deputies of 
fome members of this houfe, lent to fpy out their 
liberties, to mifreprefent their aclions, and pry 
upon tbem---men, whole behaviour on many oc- 
calions, has caufl-d the blood of thofe J>m of liberty 
o recoil within them — men promoted to thehigh- 
c ft feats of juftice; fome who to my knowledge 
were glad, by going to a foreign country, toefcape 
being brought to the bar of acourt of juftice in their 
own.— They ptoteSled by your arms ! They have 
nobly taken up arms in your defence ; have exert- 
ed a valour, amidft their conftant and laborious in- 
duftry, for the defence of a country, whofe fron- 
tiers was drenched in blood, while its interior 
parts yielded ill its little favings to your emolu- 
ment. — And believe me, remember I this day told 
you fo, that fame fpirit of freedom, which aclua- 
ted that people at lirft, will accompany them ftill 
— but prudence forbids me to explain myfelf further. 
---(Jod knows, I do not at this time fpeak from 
motives of party heat; what I deliver are the ge- 

The Fatal Effecls of Duelling. 

to fuch a Hate of happlnefs, thofe colonic 
whom we are now fo eager to butcher. Wt 
Ought to cherifh them as the immortal mo- 
nument of our public jultice and wifdom; 
as the heirs of our better days, of our 
old arts and manners, and of our expiring 
national virtues. What work of art, or 
power, or public utility has ever equalled 
the glory of having peopled a continent 
without £uilt or bloodfhed, with a multi 
tude of free and happy common -wealths ; 
to have given them the bell arts of life 
and government; andto have fufferedthem 
under the fhelter of our authority, to ac 
quire in peace the fkill to ufe them. In 
comparifon of this, the policy of govern- 
ing by influence, and even the pride of war 
and victory are difhonefl tricks and poor 
contemptible pegeantry. 

A Remarkable Instance of the Fatal 
Effects ^Duelling //zFrance. 

"IN the month of January 1627, Count 
■*■ de Boutteville*, and the celebrated la 
Frette, having fought between PoifTy and 
St. Germainen-Laye, Boutteville's fecond 
; was killed in combat, by Doinbille, the 
fecond of la Frette. 

After this duel f, Boutteville fearing 
that he fhould be arretted, retired into 
Flanders, to the court of the Archduchefs. 
The Marquis de Beuvron, who was deiir 
ous of avenging the death of his friend 
Thorigny, killed by Boutteville, having 
learned, that he refided at Bruflels, haf 
tened thither with his Squire, Buquet, to 
find him ; but being both known immedi- 
ately upon their arrival, notwithstanding 


the two antagonifts. He therefore invited 
Boutteville, Dts Chapelles, and Beuvron 
to dinner at his hotel, where a number of 
people of the firft quality were aflembled, 
in prefence of whom each of the parties, 
after a cordial embrace, folemnly promif- 
ed, that be would never do any thing which 
might give the leall offence to the other. 

Some days after this reconciliation, 
Boutteville, who was probably finc/re, 
having repaired to Nancy, received no lefs 
than eight different letters from Beuvron, 
in which he informed him, that being too 
prudent to go and meet him in Lorraine, 
he begged he would be fo obliging as to 
approach Paris. Des Chapelles* wrote 
alfo to Beuvron, " you make a great deal 
of noife, Sir, giving out every where, that 
you intend to fight ; but this I (hall never 
believe till I fee you in action." 

The Archduchefs, in the mean time, 
had requeued letters of remiffion for Bout- 
teville; but the King declared, that he 
could not in confeience grant them, and 
that all he had in his power to do, to oblige 
his aunt, was not to give orders for his 
being arretted, unlefs he returned to court, 
or to Paris. 

When Boutteville was informed of this 
refufal, he faid, he would fight in Paris, 
and even in the Place Royale ; and having 
polled thither with all fpeed, fent word 
to Beuvron, that he was ready to give him 
fatisfaction. At nine in the evening, they 
repaired to the Place Royale, where Beu- 
vron faid to Boutteville, " Let us now let- 
tie our quarrel, without putting our friends 
to pain." — " By no means," replied Bout- 
teville, " I wilh the fun to be witnefs to 
our actions. Be fides, I am under a par- 

eir diiguife, guards were appointed to . . 

. u ^ 1 r 1 • j . J ticular engagement with two friends, who 

watch them clolely, in order to prevent! ._ 1 r .u * ™i ...... -~ 1 ,* 

c l t l- r -d mi Iwifhto be of the party, and weie I to 

any further milchief. Bouttevwle, upon!.., T „ ,, , . \> \ »„,»:„_ ,u-«, r u 
. , / , • a j* l a Li «.r fad, I fhould be obliged to give them la- 

this, having proteited to the Archduchcls, . r ' . , r x-. „,-■.!„„ i7„ • _-. n t 

h . /, *,,' p i • 1 • ■ tisfaction alio: Des L-hapeiies it> one ot 

that he would never hVht in her territories, 
the Marquis of Spinoia was commiflioned 
by that Princefs, to endeavour to reconcile 

ruine fentiments of my heart. However fuperioi 
to me in general knowledge and experience tru 
refpctlable body of this houfe may be, yet I clairr 
to know more of America titan moll of you, hav- 
ing feen and been converfant in that country.--- 
The people, I believe, are as truly loval as any 
fubjedts the king has; but a people jealous of theii 
liberties, and who will vindicate them, if evo 
they fhould be violated— but the fubjeci is too de- 
licate 1 will fay no more." 

* Francis de Mantmorenci, father of the famou 
Marfha! de Luxemburg. 

+ In 1624, he had fought with Pongihau't; anr 
and in 1626, he had killed the Count de 'J'hoiigny 
in another private rencounter. 

them, and La Berthe is the other. For 
this reafon, let us meet here to-morrow 
about three in the afternoon, and do yoUj 
Sir, endeavour to bring with you two 

When Beuvron quitted his antagonifl, 
he ran to St. Martin's in the Fields, to 
Prefident de Mefmes, in order to fpeak 
with the Marquis d'Amboiie, fon-iri-law 
of that magittrate, whom he found ill, 

* Des Chapelles was one of the moll defpertte dil- 
ellifts of that period Blot, the famous long writer, 
fpeaks of him in the following CcMptet. " PlotO 
enchanted with his arrival in hell, n:ailc h'in a cap- 
um ot his guards." 


The Fatal Effetts of Duelling. 

and very weak through lofs of blood. 
*' What a misfortune," faid Beuvron ! 
" the opportunity you fo much wifhed for, 
i? now arrived. Boutteville expefts me to- 
morrow with two friends. The Countdes 
Chapelles, whom you are defirous of fee- 
ing with his fword in his hand, is one of 
them, but weakened as you aie, you mull 
ftot think of it." " Not think of it," 
cVied d'Amboifc ! " were I certain of ex- 
piring the next moment, 
the party." 

Next morning the combatants met, and 
after each of them had been examined by 
a gentleman, to fee that none of them had 
private armour, each took his adverfary. 
Boutteville attacked Beuvron; Des Cha- 
pelles, Butfy d'Amboiie ; La Berthe, Bu- 
quet'; and the combat began with fwords 
and poignards. Boutteville and Beuvron, 
vuihlng forward and fazing one another 
by the collar, threw their fwords on the 
ground, and held their poignards elevated 
without linking. At length, Boutteville, 
as they lay, full propoftd to put an end 
to the combat, and they reciprocally beg- 
ged their lives from one another. Buffy 
dWmboife, however, was not fo fortunate; 
D^s Chapelles gave him a mortal wound in 
thf breaft, and La Berthe was alfo wound- 
ed d ingeroufly by the Squire of Beuvron. 
A duel fo public, and of which thou- 
fands had been fpeftntors, having foon 
reached the tars of the King, Louis XIII. 
an order was fent to the Grand Prevot, to 
feize Boutteville and Des Chapelles, but 
they had betaken themfelves to flight, as 
is Beuvron and Buquet, who retired 
to England*. 

The two former, lefs prudent, or lefs 
diligent, were arretted at Vitry le-Brule, 
conduced on foot as far Vitry le Frangols, 
and there put into an apartment, clolely 
guarded, where they pall, feven days, du- 
ring which they appeared to be very quiet, 
and amufed themfelves in playing at pi- 

ten they arrived in Paris, and were fhut 
w~> in the Baltille, commiffaries were ap- 
p inted to interrogate them. Boutteville 
confeffed everything ingenuoufly, but Des 
Chapelles did not (how tbe fame candour. 

Madam de Boutteville, alarmed for the 
fate of her hu (band, threw herfelf at the 
Ming's feet, in order to fo'icit for his par- 
don. The Prince and Princefs of Conde, 
Duke and Duchefc of Montmorency, 
the Duke and Duchefs of Angouleme, Car- 
dinal de la Valette, and the Count d' Alais, 
all endeav. u red to fecond her petition, and 

to excite the monarch's pity, but without 
effect. His majefty remained inflexible, 
and the parliament received orders tobring - 
the two criminals to trial. 

The Bifhop of Nantz, who had liberty 
to fee them, attended them regularly, and 
prepared them for death. " Madam," 
faid the Count de Boutteville to the lady 
of the preildent de Mefmes, in a letter 
which he wrote to her, " Were I not truly 
I would be of jfenhble of the crime 1 have committed 
jagainft God, and of the wrong which I 
have done to you, I mould not have taken 
the liberty to requell you to do the great- 
eft aft of piety which can proceed from a 
generous and Chriftian mind, which is, 
Madam, to forgive me, for having torn 
from you your dear and only child, not by 
hatred, or a defire of revenge, having never 
had any caufe but to efteem him, but thro* 
a vain and falfe idea of worldly honor, 
which I mud confefs, is contrary both to 
the law of God and to natural reafon. Be 
fatisfied with my blood, which I mail fhed 
for the expiation of my crime } I hope di- 
vine juftice will be fo, and that you will not' 
call for the vengeance of Heaven againll 
me, while, by my prayers, I endeavour to 
repair the injury you have received from 
an unhappy wretch, who dies, madam, 
yours, &C 1 ' 

At the fame time he fent the following 
letter to Madame de Boutteville. 

"The BiPnop of Nantz will tell you, my 
dear wife, in what difpofition of mind I 
am about to quit the world, and I flatter 
myfelf, that it will afford you fome confo- 
lation for the lofs which you mult fuilain. 
You will confider with him, what "may be 
bell for the fafety of my foul, and take 
care to pay whatever debts I may owe. 
Prayers may be of much fervice to me ; 
but the principal thing will be to fatisfymy 

creditors. Adieu. 1 will not tell you 

how much I love you, left that might in- 
creafe your affliction." 

On the nth of June, Boutteville and 
Des Chapelles were condufted to the Palais. 
Boutteville appeared lirft in the Grand 
Chamber, and was interrogated* after 
which Des Chapelles was brought in, and 
having anfwered fome cjuellions put to him 
by the firll prefulent, he begged permiffion 
of the judges to fay a few words, and 
having obtained it, addreflcd them as fob 
lows : 

♦•Gentlemen, finceyou have done me 
the favour to aifemble here on my account, 
and fince my crime has brought me intc 
your prefence, I mull beg two things u, 

Hijtory of the American IVar. 

you : the firft. is, that juftice maybe fatisfied 
inmyperfon, and the fecond, that you would 

(how mercy towards my coufin. Though I 
am fenfible, that you are not ignorant of 

his merit, for all France is fenfible of it ; 

yet as I have the honor of knowing him 

more intimately, I can with jullice affert, 

that itis fuperior to that which the applaufes 

of the public give him ; a regard to his 

family, and the fervices which his ancef- 

tors have done to the kingdom, ought al- 
1 fo to make you incline to the fide of mercy. 

It appears to me, that by Caving an excel- 
lent officer and a valiant general, you will 

contribute to the good of the public, and 

prevent the lamentations of potterity, who 

undoubtedly will be fenfible of this lofs, 

His paffion for duelling will grow cool 

with age, and a man like him, who has no 

other object but the glory of the ltate, 

and of his prince, may be employed on 

every occalion. With regard to myfelf, I 

expeft from your juilice what is due to the 

action I have committed, for I do not pre- 
tend to plead any excufe, but only to beg 

you would confider the family, the merit 

and the actions of my coufin Boutteville." 
Next day, about eleven in the forenoon, 

their fenttnce ^as read to them, which 

had been paffed the evening before, and 

wiiich was, that they fhould both be be- 
headed. The Princefs of Conde, the 

Duchefs de Montmorency, the Duchefsof 

Aungouleme, the Countefs de Boutteville, 

and feveral other ladies, haftened to the 

L'ouvre, to fpeak to the King, who con- 

fented, but with great difficulty, to fee 

them. All the ladies threw thernfelves at 

his feet, and implored mercy. The Coun- 
tefs de Boutteville fainted, and the red 

buril into tears, while the King, who was 

rather teazed than foftened by their felici- 
tations, faid to the Princefs of Conde, *' I 

feel as much for their fate as you, but my 

confeience forbids me to pardon them." 

About' five in the evening, the two cri- 
minals, having arrived at the place where 
'they were to go through the laft fcene, 

the executioner cut Boutteville's hair be- 
hind, and the latter putting his hand 

towards his beard, the bifhop of Nantz 

faid to him, " Did you not promife, 

my fon, to thifck no more of the things cf 

this world, and yet you think of them 

flill !" He was then afked whether he 

w^uld have his eyes covered with a ban- 
dage, but he replied in the negative, and 
. I , moment after his head was feparated from 
3 > body. 

L Des Chapel'es, who had remained in 
f "ol. Mag. Vol, IV. No. i. 

the cart, and who had his back turned 
towards the fcaffold, having learned that 
Boutteville had fatisfied jullice, cried out, 
" My coufin is dead, let us pray to God 
for his foul." When he mounted the fcaf- 
fold, perceiving Boutteville's body, he 
faid, u This then is the body of my cou- 
fin !" Then retting upon the arm of a 
youngeccl^fiaftic, who was near, he kneeled 
down, rofe up again, and having laid his 
head upon the block, fubmitted to the fate 
of his unhappy companion. 

After the death of the Count des Cha- 
pelles, many letters were handed about in 
Paris, which he had written to different 
people the evening before his execution. 
That which he wrote to Madam de Boutte- 
ville was as follows : 

*' My dear coufin, were you lefs virtu- 
ous, I fnould not attempt to give you 
confolation. You have loft every thing 
that you could lofe, but all France lofes 
with you. Yourhufband was ftill young, 
but he could not have acquired more ho- 
nor in this world. What could you ex- 
pert from his courage, but an untimely 
end ? You enjoyed him only amidft conti- 
nual fear and terror, and God, who as by 
a miracle always preferved his life, gives 
you this powerful confolation, that he hath 
taken him from you in order to bring him 

near to himfelf. Rejoice then, Madam, 

if you fincerely love him, as I am convinc- 
ed you do. Let not your grief make you 
abandon your children, who have need of 
being educated under your protection. 
Teach them, what you know fo well, to 
live in the world in the bofqm of virtue. 
Change not your condition, if you wifli 
to be the moft efteemed female of the age, 
as your hufband was the moft efleemed of 
men. Dear Coufin, I give you part of 
the confolation, which I mall find in ac- 
companying him, and I recommend to 
you with my whole foul, my poor mother. 

May God blcfs and comfort her ! I 

am, &c." 

History of the American War. 
[Continued from page 723, of Vol. III.J 

TH E MafTachufetts committee of 
fafety had direfted, in the begin- 
ning of January, that all the cannon, 
mortars, fhot and fhells, fhould be depo- 
fited at Worcelter and Concord ; and, 
while the Provincial Congrefs were fitting 
(Feb. 13, 2i>) voted, "That the com- 
mittee of fupplies fhould purchafe all the 
powder they sould, and alfo all kinds of 


Hiflory of the American War. 

warlike {tores, fufficient for an army of 
fifteen thoufand men to take the field." 

General Gage having received intelli- 
gence that fome brais cannon, and carri- 
ages, were depofited in the neighbour- 
hood of Salem, fent a detachment of 
P , ^ troops from the Caille, un- 

' / '- > * der the command of Lieu- 
. tenant Colonel Leflie, on bc%d a tranf- 
porc, to feize upon and bring them to 
Boiton. The troops having landed at 
Marblehead, proceeded to Salem, but 
Weredifappointed as to finding the cannon ; 
but fuppofed they had only been removed 
that morning, in confequence of their ap- 
proach, they were induced to march farther 
into the country, in hopes of overtaking 
them. They pafTed on to the drawbridge 
leading to Danvers, where a number of 
the. country people were afiembled i and 
thofe on the oppofitc fide had takeri Up 
the bridge, to prevent their eroding. The 
officer ordered the bridge to be let down, 
which the people peremptorily refufed, fay- 
ing that it wasa private road,sndthathe had 
no authority to demand a paffage that way: 
for, to the lad moment, the language of 
peace was preferved ; and, until the fvvord 
was decisively drawn, all refiilance was 
carried on, upon fome legal ground. On 
this refufai, the officer determined to make 
life of the boats which were at hand : but 
the country people perceiving his intenti- 
on, the owners leapedinto their own boats; 
and, with their axes, rendered them ufe- 
lefs for the time. During this tranfaction, 
fome pJuffle enfued between the people and 
the foldiers, in and about the boats. 

Matters were now tending lb extremi- 
ties ; as the commander feemed determin- 
ed to force his paffage, and the others as 
refolutely bent on obdructing it. In this 
fituation, the Rev. Mr. Bernard, a con- 
gregational clergyman of Salem, and 
other gentlemen, who had attended tht 
whole tranfaction, remondrated with the 
Lieutenant-Colonel, upon the fatal confe- 
quences which would inevitably attend his 
making ufe of force. But finding that 
the point of military honor, with refpedt 
to making good his paffage, was an im- 
portant object with that officer, — it being 
then too late in the evening to effect his 
original defiun, much time having been 

fpent in the altercation, — they prevailed 
upon the people to let down "the bridge. 
During this interval, the articles which 
were the object of Colonel Leflie's pur- 
fuir, were conveyed to a piece of greater 
fecurity. When, therefore, the oppor- 
tunity cf ci tiling cfTeredj he marched about 

thirty rods, to the fpot where the artificer^ 
had been employed in making carriages* 
and the like ; but finding nothing, and the 
night advancing, he returned ; and em- 
barked with the troops, on board the trari- 
fport, without meeting any farther mo- 
ledation. This expedition took place on 
a Sunday ; which circumdance, probably, 
contributed to its ending without mif- 
chief. Had it been undertaken on any other 
day, when the people Were not attending" 
public worfhip, but difperfed about and 
following their fecular employments ; the 
landing of the troops would have been 
dilcovered, and perhaps would have been 
vigorously oppofed. The apprchenfion of 
fuch an oppofition may have induced the 
Britifh general to fix on Sunday, for the 
accomplishment of his purpofe ; knowing* 
as he did, the ftrict obfervance of the Sab- 
bath, among the people of New-England. 
Enough appeared, from the refult of this 
expedition, to fliow upon how (lender a 
thread the peace of the empire hung ; and 
that the lead exertion of the military 
would, certainly, lead to extremities. The 
people of Maffachufetts, fince the acts for 
annulling their charter, and for protecting' 
the foldiery from any trial in the province* 
confidered themfelves as placed under mi- 
litary govern went. Every motion of that 
body, in confequence, became fufpected, 
and was, in their eyes, an exertion of the 
moft odious and moft dreadful tyranny. 

The Maffachufetts Congrcfs continued 
their feffian, and recommended the Sixteenth 
of March to be obferved as the annual 
day for fading and prayer, which was kept 
accordingly, by the inhabitants of Boilon, 
no lefs than of the country. But they 
did not prefume to rely upon religious ex« 
ercifes in the neglect of thofe civil means 
which prudence prefcribed. The people* 
both within and without, ufed every de- 
vice for conveying fafely from Boilon into 
the country, all kinds of military articles, 
which might be wanted in cafe of a rup- 
ture. Cannon, balls, and fuch like heavy 
ilores, were put into carts and carried out 
over the neck, under the appearance of 
loads of dung. Half barrels of gunpow- 
der were put into butcherV peds, or the 
hampers of the market people, and brought 
out under fome flight negligent and un- 
fufpected cover, as they returned home in 
the evening. Cartridges were packed u e 
in candle-boxes, and fent off under that d, t 
fcrption ; but fome were at length difcov; ta 
ed. The foldiers on the neck did not ra« Jj 
many prizes; however one day [March i 

Hiflory of the American War. 

they feized 13,425 mufket cartridges, 
with 30001b. weight of ball, which, though 
private property, the general was warrant- 
ed in refilling to rellore, on the applica- 
tion of the owner. 

That Gen. Gage might not fucceed in 
feizing any military ftores in the country, 
fhould he fend out troops upon that errand, 
the committee of fafety had voted four 
days before, " that members from this com- 
mittee belonging to Charleftown, Cam- 
bridge and Roxbury, be defired to procure 
at leaft two men, for a watch every night 
to be placed in each of thefe towns, and 
that faid members be in readinefs to fend 
couriers forward to the towns where the 
magazines are placed, whenfallies are made 
from the army at night." 
. .. The feledtmen of the town of 

* 3* BtHerica prefented a moll Spirit- 

ed remonftrance to Gen. Gage, on account 
of an inhabitant of that town's being 
tarred and feathered, and much abufed 
.on the 8th of the month, by a party of his 
Majtlty's 47th regiment, under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Colonel Nefbit. The 
firmnefs, refolution and freedom, with 
which the people both of town and coun- 
try conducted things, when their bufinefs 
called them to an intercourse with the go- 
vernor, had often embarrafled, and con- 
vinced him, that they were not wholly de- 
stitute of fterling courage. There might 
be fome ground for punifhing the perfon, 
whofe cafe produced the remonftrance ; 
but the punifliment fhould have been under 
fhe direction of a civil and not a military 
officer, and of another kind ; for, though 
it might be deemed a retaliation upon the 
country, it tended greatiy to irritate. 

The Maflachufetts Congrefs were feli- 
citous to keep their proceeding from com- 
ing to the knowledge of General Gage ; 
but from feveral circumflances which oc- 
curred, they entertained a ftrong fufpic.on, 
that they had fome * one among them, 
who betrayed their couofels. 
,, , General Gage marched cut 

*> "about eleven hundred men into 
.the country ; who, doing much damage 
by throwing down the ftpne fences, occa- 
fjoned a committee's waiting upon the 
Maffachufetts Congrefs on the Saturday, 
when upon the point of adjourning ; which 
kept them fitting till they received on the 
Monday following," accounts by a vefTcl 
from Falmouth of what parliament had 

* Dr. Church. 

done and was doing, in relation to their 

It was a providential eircumftance 
that they had fo early intelligence, and 
obtained it before General Gage had receiv- 
ed his difpatches : they were careful to 
improve it. The intelligence fpread fall, 
and induced more of the inhabitants of 
Bofton to remove out of the town. A 
number had been for fome time withdraw- 
ing themfelves. The town was liable to 
be converted inflantty, at the discretion 
of the governor, into a fecure prifon ; and 
the people of it might be held as hoftages 
for the conduct of the province at large, 
or be kidnapped and fent to England, to 
Hand trial for fuppofed offences. Conti- 
nuance in it W2S hazardous to manv, who 
had diftinguifhed themfelves by taking an 
active part againft the meafures of govern- 
ment. But the dauntlefs courage of fome 
fuch inclined them to remain, though there 
was no knowing what private orders might 
be fent to General Gage; who was no/ inat- 
tentive to the fervice in which h? was em- 
ployed, while he evidenced a prevailing 
defire after a peaceable accommodation. 
He fent private, orders to the commanding 
officer at New-York, to purchafe up all 
the duck, blankets, pick-axes, pots, and 
other articles proper for camp fervice. Ap- 
plication was made by the officer to the 
Philadelphia merchants, who penetrated 
the defign, and no lefs nobly thanunani- 
moufly, refufed a compliance. Three of 
the New- York merchants had for fome time 
been buying up, felling and fending the 
feveral articles to Bofton ; but at length a 
ftop was put to their proceedings by the 
influence of Captain Sears, who upon his 
return from Philadelphia, urged that they 
mig;ht want thofe things themfelves, and 
madeaconfiderable ftir upon the occafion. 
But a great number were purchafed at Portl- 
moujth, before the difcovery of the Gene- 
ral's intention. 

The news of the parliamentary proceed- 
ings encouraged the foldiery to infult the 
oeople more than ever :. their conduct 
Seeming 1 }' intimated, that they meant to 
provoke the other to begin a quarrel j 
while thefe bore all with patience, as they 
were determined not to be the aggreuW. 
Nothing was wanting, but a Ipark to fet 
the whole continent in a flame. The im- 
portant moment, big with inconceivable 
confequences, was evidently approaching, 
when, through accident or defign, it would 
be applied to thofe combuftrbleej wlnctv 
had been long collecting. 

5 2 

Hi/lory of the American War. 

The grenadier and light infantry com- 
panies were taken off duty, upon the 
plea of learning a new exercife, which 
made the Boftonians jealous, that there 
was fome fcheme on foot. A daughter of 
Liberty, unequally yoked in point of poli- 
tics, fent word, by a trufly hand, to Mr. 
Samuel Adams, reliding in company with 
Mr. Hancock, at Lexington, about thir- 
teen miles from Charleftown, that the 
troops were coming out in a few days. 
Upon this their friends at Bofton were ad- 
vilcd to move out their plate, &c. and the 
committee of fafety voted, " that all the 
ammunition bt depofited in nine different 
towns ; and that other articles be lodged, 
fome in one place, fome in another, fuch 
as the ,5 medicinal chefts, 2000 iron pots, 
2000 bowls, 15,000 canteens, and 1100 
tents ; and that the fix companies of ma- 
troffes be Rationed in thefe different towns." 

Mr. Adams inferred from the number to 
be employed, that thefe were the objects, 
and not himfelf and Mr. Hancock, who 
might be more eafily feized in a private way 
by a few armed individuals, than by a large 
body of troops that muit march, for miles 
together, under the eye of the public. 

The provincial ftores had been hitherto 
depofited at Worcefter and Concord. To 
the laft of thefe places, but half the dif • 
tance of the other from Bofton, the gene- 
ral turned his attention; and, being con- 
tinually peltered by the repeated folicita 
tions of the American tories, with whom 
he was furounded, and who perfuaded him 
there was no danger of refinance, their 
whig countrymen being too cowardly, he 
determined, without the advice of the 
council, when and in what way to attempt 
the feizure of the many ftores luppofed to 
be in the place. 

. ., A number of officers dined 
Mpril 18. , ./-,!•. j 

* together at Cambridge, and tow- 

ard night featured themfelves upon the 
road leading to Concord ; and took their 
ftation fo as to be ready to intercept any 
expreffes going from Bofton to alarm and 
raife the country, with intelligence of the 
troops being upon their march. When 
the corps was nearly ready to proceed up- 
on the expedition, Dr. Warren, by a mere 
accident, had notice of it juft in time to 
fend meffengers over the neck and acrofs 
the ferry, on to Lexington, before the 
oiders for preventing evtry peifon's quit- 
ting the town was executed. The officers 
intercepted feveral, but fome being well 
mounted, efcaped their vigilance ; and 
the alarm, being once given, fpread apace, 

by the ringing of bells, and the firing of 
fignal guns and vollies. By eleven at night, 
eight hundred grenadiers and light infan- 
try, the flower of the army, embarked at 
the common, proceeded and landed at 
Phipps's farm, from whence they marched 
for Concord, under the command of Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Smith, aided by Major Pit- 
cairn, who led the advanced corps. 

Provifions were alfo collected and ftored) 
in different places, particularly at Concord 
about 2C miles from Bofton. General 
Gage, though zealous for his royal matter's 
intereft, difcovereda prevailing defire after 
a peaceable accommodation. He Mifhed 
to prevent hoftilities, by depriving the in- 
habitants of the means neceffary for car- 
rying them on. With this view, he deter- 
mined to deftroy the ftores which he knew 
were collected for the fupport of a pro- 
vincial army. Wifhing to accomplifh this 
without bloodfhed, he took every precau- 
tion to effect it by furprife, and without 
alarming the country. Neither the fe- 
crecy with which this expedition was 
planned — the privacy with which the troops 
marched out, nor an order, that no one in- 
habitant ftiould leave Bofton, were fuffi- 
cient to prevent intelligence from being fent 
to the country militia, of what was going 
on About two in the morning 130 of 
the Lexington militia had affembled to 
oppofe them ; but the air being chilly, and 
intelligence refpecting the regulars uncer- 
tain, they were difmified with orders to ap- 
pear again at beat of drum. They collect- 
ed a fecond time to the number of 70, be- 
tween four and five o'clock in the morning, 
and the Britifh regulars foon after made 
thtir appearance. Major Pitcairn, who 
led the advanced corps, rode up to them 
and called out, " Difperfe you rebels, 
throw down your arms and difperfe. '' They 
ft ill continued in a body, on which he ad- 
vanced nearer — difcharging his piftol — 
and ordered his foldiers to fire. This was 
done with a huzza. A difperfion of the 
militia was the confequence, but the fir- 
ing of the regulars was neverthelefs conti- 
nued. Individuals finding they were fired 
upon, though difperfing, returned the 
tire. Three or four of the militia were 
killed on the green. A few more were 
fhot after they had begun to difperfe. 
The royal detachment proceeded on to 
Concord, and executed their commif- -' 

fion. They difabled two 24 pounders 
— threw 5001b. of ball into riversand wells, 
and broke in pieces about 60 barrels of 
flour. Mr. John Butterick of Concord, 

Hijlory of the American War. 

mnjor of a minute regiment, not knowing 
what had paffed at Lexington, ordered his 
men not to give the firft fire, that they 
might not be the aggreffors. Upon his 
approaching near the regulars, they tired, 
and killed Captain Ifauc Davis, and one 
private of the provincial minute men. The 
fire was returned, and a fkirmifh enfued. 
The King's troops having donetheir bufi- 
nefs, began their retreat towards Bofton. 
This was conducted with expedition, for 
the adjacent inhabitants had affembled in 
arms, and began to attack them in eve 
direction. In their return to Lexington, 

53 each other by defcent, man- 
ners, religion, politics, and a general 
equality, that the killing of a fingle indi- 
vidual interefted the whole, and made them 
confider it as a common caufe. The blood 
of thofe who were killed at Lexington and 
Concord proved the firm cement of an ex- 
tenfive union, 

April 22. „ To P revent the P-°ple within 
Bolton, from co-operating with 

their countrymen without, in cafe of an 
in afTault, which was now daily expeaed, 
ry General Gage agreed with a committee 

of the town, that upon the inhabitants 
they wee exceedingly annoyed, both by lodging their arms in Faneuil-hall, <or any 
thofe who preffed on their rea-, and others, other convenient place, under the care of 
who pouring in from all tides, fired from the feleamen, all fuch inhabitants as were 
behind ftone walls, and fuch like coverts, inclined, might depart from the town, with 
which fupplied the place of lines and re- their families and eftVas. In five days af- 
doubts. At Lexington the regulars were i ter the ratification of this agreement, the 
joined by a detachment of 900 men, un- 1 inhabitants had lodged 1778 fire arms,' 634 
der Lord Piercy, which had been fent out pillols, 2/3 bayonets and 38 blunderb'uffes. 
by General Gage to fupport Lieutenant- The agreement was well obferved in the 
Colonel Smith. This reinforcement, hav- t beginning, but after a fnort time, obftruc- 

ing two pieces of cannon, awed the pro- Jtions were thrown in the way of its final 
vincials, and kept them at a greaterdiftance, j completion, on the plea that perfous who 
but they continued a conftant, though ir- went from Boiton to bring in the goods of 
regular and fcattering fire, , which did great j thofe who chofe to continue within the 
execution. The clofe firing from behind town, were not properly treated. Con- 
the walls by good markfmen, put the re- grefs remonflrated on the infraaion of the 
gular troops in no fmall confufion, but t agreement, but without effea. The Ge- 
they neverthelefs kept up a briflc retreating I neral, on a farther confideration of the 
fire on the militia and minute men. A | confequences of moving the whigs out of 
little after funfet the regulars reached! Boiton, evaded it in a manner not confift - 
Bunker's-hill, worn down with exceffive fa- j ent with good faith. He wa9 in fome 
tigue, having marched that day between j meafure compelled to adopt this difhonor- 
thirty and forty miles. On the next day able meafure, from the clamour of the to- 
they croffed Charleftown-ferry, and re- ries, who alledged that none but enemies 

turned to Bofton. 

There never were more than 4.C0 pro- 
vincials engaged at one time, and often 

to the Britilh government were difpofed to 
remove, and that when they were all fafe 
with their families and effeas, the town 

not fo many. As fome tired and gave | would be fet on fire. To prevent the pro 

; vincials from obtaining fupplies which they 
'much wanted, a quibble was made on the 
j meaning of the word effeas, which was 
conftrued by the General as not including 
merchandize. By this conftruaion, un- 
warranted by every rule of genuine inter- 
pretation, many who quitted the town 
l were deprived of their ufual refources for 
a fupport. Paffports were not univerl'ally 

out, others came up and took their 
places. There was fcarcely any difcipline 
obferved among them. Officers and pri- 
vates fired when they were ready, and faw 
a royal uniform, without waiting for the 
word of command. Their knowledge of 
the country enabled to them to gain op- 
portunities by croffing fields and fences, 
and to aa as flanking parties againtt the 
King's troops who kept to the main road. 
The regulars had 65 killed, 180 wound- 
ed, and 28 made prifoners. Of the pro- 
vincials 50 were killed, and 38 wounded 
and miffing. 

j refufed, but were given out very flcwly, 
and the bufinefs was fo conduaed that fa- 
milies were divided,— wives were feparated 
from their hufbands, children from their 
parents, and the aged and infirm from their 

As arms were to decide the controverfy, j relations and friends. The General diico- 
it was fortunate for the Amtricans that the 5 vered a difinclination to part with the wo- 
|fir(l blood was drawn in New-England. J men and children, thinking that, on their 
The inhabitants of that country arc fo con- J account, the provincials would be rcftraia- 

** Hiftory of the American War. 

ed from making an afTault on the town.] honor, religion, and love of country, ta 
The feleftmen gave repeated aflurances that do whatever their public bodies dire&ed 
the inhabitants had delivered up their for the prefervation of their liberties. Hi- 
arms, but as acover for violating the agree- therto the Americaro had no regular ar- 
-rneot, General Gage iflued a p. oclamation, j my. From principle of policy, they 
in which he afferted that he had full proof cautioufly avoided that meafure, left they 
to the contrary. A few might have fe- might fubjed themfelves to the charge of 
creted fome favourite arms, but nearly all being aggreffors. All thei/ military regula- 
the training arms were delivered up. On [jtions were carried on by their militia, and 
this flimfy pretence the general facrificed junder the old ellablifhcd laws of the land, 
his honor, to policy and the clamours of 
the tories. Contrary to good faith, he de- 
tianed many, though fairly entitled by 
agreement to go out ; and when he ad-? 
mitted the departure of others, he would 
riot allow them to remove their families and 

The Provincial Congrefs of Maffachu- 
fetts, which was in fefiion at the time of 
the Lexington battle, difpatched an ac- 
count of it to Great-Bricain, accompanied 
with many depofitons, to prove that the 
Britifh troops were the aggreflors. They 
alfo made an addrefs to the inhabitants of 
Great-Britain, in which, after complaining 
of their fufferings, they fay, ■* theft have not 
yet detached us from our Royal Sovereign ; 
we profefs to be his loyal and dutiful fub- 
jecls, and though hardly dealt with, as 
we have been, are ftill ready with our lives 
and fortunes, to defend hisperfon, crown, 
and dignity. Neverthelefs, to the perfe- 
ction' and tyranny of his evil Minidry, 
we will not tamely fubmit. Appealing to 
Heaven for the juftice of our caufe, we 
determine to die or be free." From the 
commencement of hoftilities, the difpute 
between Great-Britain and the Colonies 
took a new direction. 

Intelligence that the Britifh troops had 
marched out of Bofton into the country 
on fome hollile purpofe, being forwarded 
by exprefies, from one committee to ano 
ther, great bodies of the militia, not only 
from Mafiachufetts, but the adjacent co- 
lonies, grafped their arms and marched to 
oppofe them. The Colonics were in fuch 
<x (late of irritability, that the lead (hock 
[a any part was, by a powerful and 
iympathetic affe&ion, ijidantaneoufly felt 
throughout the whole. The Americans 
who fell, were revered by their country- 
* men, as martyrs who had died in the caufe 
of liberty.' Refentment againd the Britifh 
burned more ftrongly than ever. Martial 
rage took poffeflion of the breads of thou- 
faiids Combinations were formed, ^ and 
affociations fubferibed, binding the inha- 
bitants to one another, by the facred ties or 

For the. defence of the colonies, the inha- 
bitants had been, from their early years, 
enrolled in companies, and taught the ufe 
of arms. The laws for this purpofe, had 
never been better obferyed, than for fome 
months previous to the Lexington battle. 
Thefe military arrangements, which had 
been previoufly adopted for defending the 
i colonies from hoitile French and Indians, 
were on this occafion, turned againfl the 
troops of the parent date. Forts, maga- 
zines, and arfenals, by the conditution of 
the country, were in the keeping of his 
Majedy. Immediately after the Lexington 
battle, thefe were for the mofr. part taken 
pofleflion of throughout the colonies, by 
parties of the provincial militia. Ticon- 
deroga, in which was a fmall royal garri- 
fon, was furprifed and taken by adventur- 
ers from different dates. Public money, 
which had been collected in confequence 
of previous grants, was alfo feized for com- 
mon fervices. Before the commencement 
of hodilities, thefe meafures would have 
been condemned by the moderate, even, 
among the Americans ; but that event 
judified a bolder line of oppofition than 
had been adopted. Sundry citizens having 
been put to death by Britifli troops, felf- 
prefervation dictated meafures which, if 
adopted under other circumdances, would 
have difnnited the colonifts. One of the 
mod important of this kind was the railing 
an army. Men of warm tempers, whofe 
courage exceeded their prudence", had fop 
months urged the necclTity of railing troops; 
but they were rcftrriucd by the more mo- 
derate, who wi (lied that the colonies might 
avoid extremities, or at lead that they 
might not lead in bringing them on. The 
Provincial Congrefs or Mafiachufetts, be- 
ing in feCion at the time the battle of 
Lexington was fought, voted that •* an 
army of 30,000 men be immediately raifed, 
that 13,600 be of their own province, and 
that a letter and delegate be fent to the 
feveral colonies of New-Hampfhire, Con- 
necticut, and Rhode-lfland." In confer, 
quence of this vote, the bufinefs of recruit-] 

Dreadful Fate 

jng was begun, and in a fhort time a 
provincial army was paraded in the vicinity 
of Bolton, which though far below what 
had been voted by the Provincial Congrefs, 
was much fuperfo*- in numbers to the roy- 
al army. The command of this force was 
given to General W..rd. 

Had the Britifh troops confined them- 
felves to Bolton, as before the 18th of 
April, the affembling an American army, 
though only for the purpofe of obfervation 
and defence, would have appeared in the 
.nature of a challenge, and would have 
made manylefs willing to fupport the peo- 
ple of MafTachufetts; but after the Britifh 
had commenced hoitilities, the fame mea- 
fure»was adopted without fubjetting the 
authors of it to cenfure, and without giv- 
ing offence or hazarding the union. The 
Lexington battle, not only furnifhed the 
Americans with a juflifying apology for 
railing an army, but infpired them with 
ideas of theif own prowefs. 

Amidft the mofl animated declarations 
of facrificing fortunes and rifquing life 
itfelf for the fecurity of American rights, 
a fecret figh would frequently efcape from 
the breads of her mofl determined friends, 
for fear that they could not ftand before 
the bravery and difcipline of Britifh troops. 
Hoary fages would fhake their heads and 
fay, " your caufe is good, and I wifh you 
fuccefs, but I fear that your undifciplined 
valour mult be overcome, in the unequal 
-conteft. After a few thoufands of you 
have fallen, the provinces mutt ultimately 
bow to that power, which has fo repeated- 
ly humbled France and Spain." So confi- 
dent were the Britifh of their fnperiority 
in arms, that they fcemed defirous that the 
conteft might be brought to a military de- 
cifion. Some of the dirt inguilhed fpeakers 
in Parliament, had publicly affected, that 
the natives of America had nothing of the 
foldier in them ; and that they w<re in no 
refpetl qualified to face a Britifh army. 
European philofophers had publifhed theo- 
ries, fetting forth that not only vegetables 
and beafls, but that even men degenerated 
in the weftern hemifphefe* Departing from 
the fpirit of true philofophy, they over- 
looked the ftate of fociety in a new world, 
and charged a comparative inferiority, on 
every production that was American. The 
colonilts themftlves had imbibed opinions 
from their forefathers, that no people on 
earth were equal to thofe with whom they 
were about to contend. Impreffed with 
high ideas of Britifh fuperiority, and diffi- 
dent of themfclves, their beft informed 

of a Mifer. 

citizens, though willing to fun all rifquesj 
feared the confequence of an appeal to arms. 
The fuccefs that attended their firft mi- 
litary enterprize, in fome degree banifhed 
thefe fuggeltions. Perhaps in no fubfequent 
battle did the Americans appear to greater 
advantagethan in their firft effayat Lexing- 
ton. It is almoft without parallel in mili- 
tary hiftory, for the yeomanry of the 
country to come forward in a fingle dis- 
jointed manner, without order, and for the 
raoft part without officers, and by an irre- 
gular fire to put to flight troops equal in 
difcipline to any in the world. In oppo- 
fition to the bold afTertions of fome, and 
the defponding fears of others, experience 
proved that Americans might effectually 
refift Britifh troops. The diffident grew 
bold in their country's caufe, and indulge 
ed in chearful hopes that heaven would fi- 
nally crown their labours with fuccels. 

Soon after the Lexington battle, and 
io confequence of that event, hot only the 
arms, ammunition, forts and fortifications 
in the colonies were fecured for the ufe or 
the provincials, but regular forces were 
railed, and money ftruck for their fupport. 
Thefe military arrangements were not con- 
fined to the New-England States, biife 
were general throughout the colonies. The 
determination of the King and Parliament 
to enforce fubmiflion to their acts, and the 
news of the Lexington battle, came to the 
diltant provinces nearly about the fametimd 
It was fuppofed by many that the latter 
was in confequence of the former, and 
that General Gage had recent orders to 
proceed immediately to fubdue the refrac- 

tory colonilts. 

\_To be continued.'} 

Dreadful Fate of a Miskr in Paris. 

rr* , an opulent financier, had pro* 

J; cured an iron door to be made fof 
an obfeure vault, in which he concealed his 
gold and filver ; and where he daily went 
to pay his adorations to the deity Mammon. 
The maker of the ingenious lock, warned 
him to be particularly attentive to a cer- 
tain fpfing, left it might prove fatal to 
him: becaufe if he neglected to fallen if 
whiltl in the vault, he would be himfelf 
irrecoverably c.aught in the fnare he ha.I 
laid for others. 

Many years elapfed : the tnfatiate mifer 
continued his accumulation?, and regularly 
viiited his hoard. He laid himfelf down 
among his treafure, numbered his bajj 
with the feelings cf a volupWary, and 
rano-edlheminorder,in that obfc.rt vault, 


Contentment andtlejtgnation. — Againfl idle D if pates. 

the only fhrine of his worfhip. — One day 
in his tranfports, whilft animated by the 
idol he adored, and enjoying all the plea 
fures of avarice, he neglected to fix the 
fatal fpring ; — the door clofed upon him, 
and he remained for ever entombed with 
his money and his defpair. In vain he 
cries and roars, for he was in a dungeon 
diflant and inacceflible to every living crea- 
ture, and from which no found could be 
heard : his only companions were gold and 
hunger: and he there died diftracted in 
the midll of his bags, piled one above ano- 
ther, all of which he would gladly have ex- 
changed for a glafs of water or a morfel of 
bread. Tedious and dreadful fufferings 
preceded his death ; and the horror of his 
fate was not leffened or alleviated by the 
recollection of one generous or benevolent 
action. What a (hocking exit for a finan 
cier, affording a new and terrible fubject 
for the drama, where it may be exhibited 

as a dreadful lefTon to mifers. 

In the mean while, his family, ignorant 
of his fate, fearch every where for him 
without fuccefs, as no body knew of the 
hiding place, which the caution of avarice 
had caufed to be dug fecretly. This fud- 
den difappearance came at length to the 
knowledge of the lockfmith ; who 
immediately fufpecting the caufe, difco- 
vered the myftery to the widow; by whofe 
orders the iron door of the cave being forced 
open, a fhocking fpeclacle appeared : the 

unhappy T ftarved to death, extended 

upon his treafure, having in his anguifh 
torn and devoured the flefh from his own 
arms. The poor, whom he defpifed whilil 
alive, and to whofe tears and fupplications 
he turned a deaf ear, were moved by this 
(hocking cataftrophe ; and even they de- 
plored fo melancholy a fate. 

{Tableau de Paris. 

Contentment and Resignation. 
N the fuburb St. Marcel, where mifery 

reigns, a fpotted fever mowed down the 
poor in hundreds. The confeflbrs laboured 
night and day ; the arms of the grave-dig- 
ger failed ; the hearfe rolled from door to 
door, and was never empty. A reinforce- 
ment of priefts was called in to afiilt the 
dying. A venerable capuchin entered a low 
hovel, where one of the victims of conta- 
gion fuffered. An old man in dirty rags 
fay dying. A bundle of draw ferved him 
for a covering and a pillow. Not a move- 
able, not a chair in the houfe : he had 
fold all, the firft days of his ficknefs, for 
a little broth ; on the naked wall hung an 

ax and a law. This was his whole pofTef- 
fion, along with the flrength of his arms, 
but then he was not able to lift them up. 
Take courage, my friend, faid the confeffor ; 
/'/ /'/ a great blefing Cod btflcws on you to- 
day. You are going to depart from a world 
'where you have known nothing but mifery. — 
But mifery ! replied the dying man, with a 
feeble voice : 2~ou are mifaken ; 'I have 
lived content, and never complained of my 
lot, I never knew hatred nor enuy. My 
jleep was tranquil. I laboured in the day, 
but I refled at night. The inflruments which 
you fee, procured me bread, which I have eat- 
ten with pleafure. I never envied the table 
of the rich. I have olferved the rich tnore 
fubjecl to difeafes than their neighbours. I 
was always poor, but 1 was never fick till 
now. If I recover health, which 1 do not 
expeel, I will return to labcur, and continue 
to blefs the hand of God which has hitherto 
cared for me. The aftonifhed comforter 
knew not well what tone to take ; he could 
not reconcile the miferable couch with the 
language of him who lay on it : recover- 
ing himfelf, he faid, My fon, though this 
life has not been unpleafant to you, you mufi 
neverthelefs refolve to quit it ; for we owe fub- 
mijjion to God's will. Without doubt, replied 
the dying man with a firm tone and com- 
pofed countenance ; all the world muft pafs 
in their turn. I have known how to live ; / 
know how to die. I thank God for having 
given me life, and for conducing me through 
death to himfelf. I feel the moment ap- 
proach. Adieu, my father. This is the 

death- bead of the fage. 

\Tableau de Paris. 

A N 
L\ A 

Again]} idle Disputes. 
ancient Britifh Prince fet up a 
ftatue to the Goddefs of Victory 
where four roads met. In her right 
hand was a fpear ; and the left refted on a 
lhield, one face of which was gold, the 
other filver. It happened one day, that two 
knights completely armed, the one in black, 
the other in white, came up to this ftatue 
from oppofite parts. This golden fliield, 
lays the black knight — golden (hield, in- 
terrupted the white knight, if I have eyes, 
it is filver. I know nothing of your eyes, 
replied the black knight ; but I know that 
the fhield is gold. The difpute ended in 
;» challenge. After fixing their fpears, they 
flew with impetuofity at each other ; and 
both of them fell to the ground mychbruifed. 
A Druid who came by, mowed thern their 
miflake; and gavethem thisleffon, •* Never 
to enter into a difpute till you have fairly- 
confidcred both fides of the queftion." 


T/ta Columhian Parnafiad. 



Columbian Parnaffiad. 


SINCE war with all his horrid train is fled, 
And rapine hides his ignominious head ; 
Since law and liberty united claim 
From virtue rapture, and from genius fame; 
Since equal rights the rich and poor protect, 
And Heav'n propitious fmiles on every left;. 
Let us, good friends, our confidence repole 
In him, who blifs imparts orfjftens woes; 
Let us to him in grateful rapture bend, 
Alike the wealthy, and the poor man's friend ; 
Who feeds alike the raven and the dove; 
The God of power, of mercy, grace and love! 

And hark ! the voice of Union charms our ears, 
Hence, pining melancholy ! boding fears ! 
And hence, diftruft! with all thy cruel train- 
Virtue returns; religion charms again. 
No more the peaceful artifan fhall dread 
The ruffian's fabre waving o'er his head ; 
Jvo more the peafant in his native foil 
Shall for a cruel hireling dread to toil. 
Grief fhall no more bedew the matron's cheek, 
Or helplefs pity hear the virgin's lhriek. 
Duty and love fhall every breaft infpire ; 
The lire fhall clafp his babe; the babe his fire; 
Affection fhall adorn the wedded pair ; 
The faithful youth efpoufe the tender fair ; 
Virtue fhall charm with foft, but awful mien, 
And mild religion fanftify the fcene. 
Union! from thee thofe wond'rous joys fhall flow, 
Which bid the heart with genuine rapture glow ; 
Which nobly fhall complete Heav'n's glorious plan, 
And form the facred brotherhood of man. 

Aulpicious Union! from Columbia's land 
Difpenfe thy joys o'er every foreign ftrand ; 
'Till from the Turk's fierce grafp the fword fhall drop ; 
The Ruffian in wild conquefts fury Hop ; 
The Gaul no more his foil with flaughterftain, 
And Europe, Afia, Afric, own thy reign. 

And fee ! the bright example Hands confehVd ; 
Thirteen concordant ftates united reft. 
Heav'n fhall each bofom cheer, each heart fcrene, 
And blefs the mild, benevolent thirteen. 

Come, Indujiry!— congenial Union greet; 
How true the rapture, and the blifs how fweet! 
Rufh, Union! into Jndu/hy's embrace, 
And blefs at length th' unh'-ppy human race. 
Let all confpire the happy knot to bind, 
A~od who fhall difunite, whom Heav'n has join'd ? 

Thou Pmoa Supreme! — if thee I dare addrefc — 
Yet thou haft promis'd fufi'i ing man to blefs — 
Complete the glorious fyftem ; raiie each '.oul 
Above each meaner paffion's bafe controul ; 
Grant us thofe bleffings to enjoy and prize, 
Which cladden earth, and promife us the flues ; 
Teach us to value, in this mean abode, 
Freedom, Humanity, Religion, God! M -_ 


GODDESS of golden dreams, whofe magic pow'i 
Sheds fmiles of joy o'er mis'ry's haggard face, 
And lavifh ftrews the vifionary flow'r, 

To deck life's dreary paths witn tranhent grace. 

I wo'o'd thee, Fancy ! from thy fairy cell, 
Where 'midft the endlefs woes of human kind 

Wtapt in ideal blifs, thou lov'ftto dwell, 
And fport in happier regions uncontin'd: 

Col. Mag. Vol. IV. No. i. 

Deep funk, O goddefs! in thy pleafing trance, 
Oit let me feek yon low fequefter'd vale, 

Whilft wifdom's felf fhall fteal a (ide-lona- glance, 
And fmile contempt — but liften to thy tale. 

Alas! how little do her vot'ries guefs 

Thofe rigid truths, which learned fools revere, 

Tending to prove (O bane to happinefsj 
Our joys delulive — but our woas iincere. 

Be't their*s to fearch where cluft'ring rofes grow, 
Touching each thorns' lharp point to prove how 

Be't mine to view their beauties as they blow, [keen; 
And catch their fragrance where they blufh unfecu. 

Haply my path may lie thro' barren vales, 
Where nigcard fortune all her fweets denies, 

Even there fhall Fancy fcent the ambient gales, 
And fcatter flow'rets of a thoufand dies. 

Nor let the worldling feoff Be his thetafk, 

To form deep fchemes, and mourn his hopes be- 

Be mine to range unfeen, 'tis all I afk, [tray'd, 

And form new worlds beneath the filent fhade. 

To look beyond the views of wealth and pride, 
Bidding the mind's eye range without controul, 

Thro' wild extatic day — dreams far and wide, 
To bring returns of comfort to the fouk 

To bid groves, hills, and lucid ftreams appear, 
The lofty fpire, arch'd dome, and fretted vault; 

And fweet fociety be ever near, 

Love ever young, and friends without a fault. 

I fee entrane'd the gay conceptions rife, 

My hopes of love and friendfhip ftrongly thrive; 

And ftill as Fancy pours her large fupphes, 
1 taftethe god-like happinefs to give. 

To check the patient widow's deep-fetch'd fighs, 
And fhield her infant from the North blalt rude; 

To bid the fweetly glift'ning tear arife, 
That fwims in the glad eye of gratitude. 

To pin the artlefs maid, and^honeft fwain, 
When fortune rudely bars the way to joy ; 

To eafe the tender mother's anxious pain, 

And guard with foft'ring hand her darling boy; 

To raife up modeft merit from the ground, 
And fend th' unhappy fmiling from my door; 

To fpread content and che-ai fulnefs around 
And banquet on the bleffing of the poor; 

Delicious dream! How oft beneath thy pow'r, 
Thus light'ning the fad load of other's woe, 

I fteal from rigid fate one happy hour, 
Nor feel I want the power to beftow. 

Delicious dream ! How ftrongly doft thou give 
A. gleam of blifs which truth would but deftroy! 

Oft doft thou bid my drooping heart revive, 
And catch one inftant'sglimpfe of fleeting joy. 

O but for thee, e'er this the hand of care 

Had mark'd with livid pale my woe-worn cheek, 
Long fincc the fhiv'ring gripe of cold defpair, 

HadchilPd my heart, and fore'd its ftnngs to break. 
For ah ! affliction fteals with traftlefs flight; 

Silent the ftroke fhe gives, but not iels keen: 
\iu\ bleak misfortune, like aneaftern blight, 

Sheds black deftruftion, tho' it flies unlcen. 
O come then Fancy, and with lenient hand 

Dry my moift check.and fmooth my wnnkl dbrow, 
Bear me o'er fmiling tracts of fairy land, 

And give me more than fortune can ucftow. 

Give me thy hope which fickens not the heart; 

Give me thy wealth, which has no wings to fly ; 
Give me the pride thy honors can impart, 

Thy friend (hip give rue. warm in pov«rty. 

i H 


Give me a wifh the worldling may deride, 

The wife may cenfure, and the proud may hate, 

Wrapt in thy dreams to lay the world afide, 
And fnatch a blifs bevond the reach ol fate. 


The following lines were, during the laic war, ad- 
dreffcd to Mrs. O — 11, of Burlingion, N. J. by 
her Hufband, the Rev. J — n O — 11, then within 
thcSritifh lines. 

To the beft of Wives, with her Hujband's Pifture. 

THOUGH cruel fate condemns me (till to mourn, 
An exile, from thy chafte embraces torn ; 
Prolongs, from year to year, my tour ol grief, 
While hope defer' d tlill mocks my fond belief) 
Yet, in ihe midft of heart-corroding pains, 
Beloved of my foul! One'py remains. 
My Nancy! 'lis the joy to call thee mine! 
And. while I live, to boaft I am thine. 

Well may I glory in fo dear a claim, 
Beyond the mifer's wealth or hero's fame! 
No wealth or fame had I to win thy heart. 
No comely perfon, nor alluring art ; 
No magic pencil dipp'd in azure fkies, 
To paint the kiltie ot thy fparkling eyes, 
Or, from the lilly and the rofe to trace 
The loft gradations of thy blooming lace; 
No flatt.'ring tongue to count thy beauties o'er, 
To call thy charms divine, and then adore. 

I faw thee lovely as the blufhing morn; 
But had I told thee fo. thy riling fcorn 
Had taught me to revere thy brighter mind! 
I gaz'd in, and I found thee kind. 

Who prais'd thee for thy beauty, onlv prov'd 
It was thy perfon. riot tlnfcif he lov'd. 
All piaife lrom fuch a lover, though addrefs'd 
To real merit, were a bribe at bell. 
I fcarcelv told my love, no arts effay'd, 
No foft complaints, no protections made. 
Nancy was fair, and I, with rapture warm, 
With eNtacv beheld her lovely ioim; 
But, more enamour'd by her charming mind, 
1 gaz'd in filence, and I ionnd her kind! 
My love was in my heart; fhe read it there, 
And I was bleil ! — Ah ! cruel fate, forbear, 
Forbear thy perfeciuicn ; give me reft; 
R ftore liie paradile I once poffefs'd 1 

Though on my birth fairfcience iook'd,and fmil'd. 
Yet long 1 wancler'd, fad misfortune's child. 
Ar.d yet v.o fhamefn! vi< e my youth decoy'd j 
The healing art my bufy fcarch employ 'd. 
This Jed me to the held of deadly Imfe, 
Where, cout ting fame and prodigal of life, 
The fmiling heroes bled. My talk, indeed, 
Was not fo perilous ; yet chance decreed 
My fnare ot danger, nor did coward fear 
Reproach my heait, when threat 'fling death 'flood near. 

I then had courage, death had few alarms; 
For life piefented, then, no tempting charms. 
But nozv! — prefcrve me Heav'n! — I have been bleft! 
Reflore the paradife I once poffefs'd ! 

My weary bark, I thought, had found, atlaft, 
A port fecure from angry fortune's blaft. 
Long years of piin and peril I forgot, 
My Nancy fmil'd, love crown'd my humble cott ; 
The mother's charms were in her babes conlefs'd, 
Two fported round, a third her bolom prels'd ; 
My joy was full, the fky was all fcrcne, 
Nor fear in r doubt obfeur'd the fhinir.gfcene. 
But ah ! how foon the florm began to ioar! 
A deluge came, and fwept me lrom the fhore. 
Again 1 wander, weeping and unblcft. 
Far from the paradife I once poffefs'd ! 
Puffcls'd, alas! like Adam, for a day! 
And then ! — O harder fate ! — alone 1 ft ray, 
Not "hand in hand," with Eve to grace my fide; — 
But yet, I trull, with " Providence my guide/' 

ThV€olu??ihian Parnafjiad. 

For though cxpell'd from blifs, I mourn my fatf t 

Xoguilt is mingled in my cup of gall. 

Hope vet furvi\es — O Providence Divine, 

O'er N T anc\ 's dwelling let thy banner fhme! 

Proteft the mother and het infant care, 

Be thou her guard, her refuge froni defpair; 

And, for her fake, let me again be bleft; 

Reflore the paradife I once poffefs'd ! 

Subdue the bloody rage of civil ftrife, 

Reflore me to the mother and the wife; 

To love and joy, to peace and cheerful eafe, 

And Love's dear pledges clinging round my knees! 

Yes, Nancy, yes, beloved of my foul ! 
Methinks already I perceive the goal 
That terminates the bitter pangs we fhare; 
For whv fhould love and innocence defpair ? 

Meantime, accept this image of a face 
Which in thy partial heart has found a place; 
At thy requcfl it comes to greet her eyes, 
Whofe love alone could deem the gift a prize* 

New-York, March 3, 1780. ' J. O. 

An Elegy on the Death of Mifs T~ 0. liy Mi ra. 

FOR fair Lavinia, let each virgin weep; 
And pity, o'er her grave, fad vigils keep : 
Let every youth in elegiac ftrain, 
Of fate remorfeltfs, as they mourn, complain} 
* nd let the breall of age thofe forrows know, 
Which mildly for another's fufferings flow. 
Yes, thou wall lair, Lavinia! as the morn ; 
Thee, worth and education did adorn — 
Thy infancy the faireft hope difplay'd, 
And culture fweetly form'd the rip'ning maid. 
For, tho'of both thy parenrsfoon bereft, 
In pity, Heav'n a tender guardian left; 
Who form'd thy gentle mind with care and art* 
Thy genius guided, and improv'd thy heart 
The (acred volume oft to turn, and learn 
Thofe awful leffons, which our fouls c»ncern. 
Fair grew the maiden, graceful to the eye; 
For her } Palemon bieath'd the pureft figh. 
Het virtues to the. old were folly known, 
Who wilh'dto call the lovely maid their own;— ■ 
Fondly toclafp her in parental arms, 
And dwell, in rapture, on her filial charms. 
E'en rival maidens without enVy gaz'd, — 
Admir'd in lecret, or with candour prais'd. 
Ye gentle fair! who lov'd her, weep no more; 
She now rejoices on a happier fhore. 
Ye fwains! let grief no more your bofom movc> 
Lavinia blooms in brighteft realms of love. 
Ye fond relations ! Hop your flowing tears; 
No more your cares fhe wants, or forrows hears 5 
Remoy'd from troubles to the Licit abode, 

Her love, her thoughts, are all transfcr'd to God. ■ 

O world! with rapture, thee the maid forfcok ; 

And fearce, in dying, gave a partinglook — 

Her foul was lodg'd in Heav'n, ere ihe was there,— 

Prcpar'd by viitue, and by frequent prayer — 

Yet, fhall the Muf: indulge the Stoic's vein?— 

'Tis her s to weep in elegy's foft ftrain : 

'Tis her's to wake the fympathetrc figh — 

Teach us to live — inftruCt us, too, to die : 

'lis her's to weep, when earth refigns to Heav'n 

Mannersand lenfc, lor men's improvement giv'n ■ 

Soft elegy ! lament the maid belov'd; 

By tendernefs, by genius — worth — approv'd. 


MORN fmiles around; thefun, with kindlier be; m, 
Gladdens the rural fecne : The feathcr'd tribe 
Carol their varied long of grateful joy. 
Yet, what to me the mufic of the grove, 
The varied carol of the feather'd tribe? 
Yet, what to me the gorgeous lord of day, 
Gladd'ningwith kindly beam the rural feene? 
Me, no fun gladdens !— And no morn revhee { 

The Columbian Parnafflad. 
Arife, thou fun of Elidurus' foul, 
With kindlier beam arife ! — In vain the wifh! 
My fun of happinefs is ever fet : — 
Loft, ftrangely loft is (he, the faithful fair, 
Whofe voice was melody, whole look was love, 
Whole touch was Pdradile, whofe kifs was Heav'n!-*- 
Dear emanation from the fount ol bills! 
Queen of the grace. 1 -, paflionof the loves! 
In elegance, in fentimem, in tafte, 
In wit, in fy in pa thy with joy or woe, 
In ev'ry lovelinefs alike lupreme! 
Deign once again to thefe lad, forrowing eyes, 
One partial fmile ; — Look but as tnou waft wont, 
When, in the dimple of thy cherub-cheek, 
Affeclion lay. Speak, kindly fpeak! and chage 
The fiend defpair. — Fond, froward heart, no more ! 
My fun of happinefs is ever fet ; 
And night — dark, mental night, alone is mine! — 



ODE to Bryan Edwards, Esq. By]. L. Wjnm. 

Occajwned by his indefatigable and entree tic ejfoiU in the 
caufe of jujlicc and humanity, b\ whlc A the law fur re. 
paining cruelty, and for Jecurine to Slavics in Ja. 

. maica more impa, tial trials and other important benefits, 
has at length been carried through, again} reiterated op. 

T Beati qui funt mifericordes : quoniam ipfis miferU 

" cordia tribuetur. 
" Bene eft, lerve bone et fidelis: ingredere in gau 

" dium Domini tui." 


Bleak blows the hollow wind ; and night, old night. 
Affumes her filent, folitary reign. 
*' The yellow moon-light fleeps upon the hill ;" 
Play's thro' the quiv'ring umbrage of the trees, 
With beam capricious, on the yielding wave, 
And fheds a luftre o'er the folemn fcene. 
Now nought is heard, fave Philomela's plaints — 
Melodious mourner ! She, from yonder thorn, 
Warbles fuch foft, fuch folemn-breathiug founds, 
So queruloufly fweet, fo fadly wild, 
That all but "treafon, ftratagem, and fpoil," 
Delighted liften, where 'tis Heav'n to hear. 

Is there not magic in thefe love-lorn notes, 
Thefe thrilling ftrams of agony fupreme ? — 
Yes, there is magic. — Sympathy of woe, 
And more than fympathy, alas! is mine. 
I mourn alike the death and life of love; 
I mourn a bleffing loft, a bleffing gain'd. 


On the Absence of a Friend. 

ALAS! my friend, my dear young gen'rous friend; 
Snatch'd from my fide by hard relentlefs fate; 
While I my days in folitude muft fpend, 
I like the turtle, mourn an abfent mate. 
My happy days by thy dear prefence bleft, 
Swift througii the glafs of fteady time have flown ; 
Ne'er more to be recall'd, but in my breaft 
By recollection, and by that alone. — 
No mote, for me, you tune the vocal firing; 
Nor, with melodious breath, your flute infpire, 
Whofe fwelling notes the vaulted roof made ring; 
Or foft, mellifluent, breath'd celeftial fire. 
No more, your fmiles and converfation cheer 
Your faithful friend, as wonted heietotore : 
A fpace far diftant and a falling tear 
Supply their place, nor can thole iweets reftore. 
But fnendfhip, faced friendfhip, is the fame, 
Nor with the tickle hand or fortune turns; 
Its birth celeftial and divine its name, 
And in the breafts of feraphs ever burns. 
This, this for you, (hall ever warm my breaft, 
Whilft from your dear fociety debarr'd ; 
Of tliis no length of time can me diveft, 
And hope in this, vour conftant dear regard. 
But, ah! methinks I feel a glad'ning lay 
Of expectation, beaming on my mind, 
Which points to fome aufpicious tutu>e day, 
That with thy prefence only is combin'd. 
Then hafte, ye wheels of time! on pinions fly, 
And bring my friend to ble!s my longing eyes, 
To cheer my fpirits, and fupprefsthe figh, 
Which, iu you.rabfencejceafe^ not tonle.— ■» 

WHILST birds obfeene (a ravening train) 
Low hovering prowl th' enfanguin'd piain, 
Or darkling fhun the light; 
Confcious of ftrength and dijnity, 
Th' afpiring eagle (oars on high, 
Soars an irnmeafurable height! 

Aloft on his flrong pinions borne, 
Above the clouds he meets the morn, 
And, fixing on the fun his ftedfaft eye, 
The radient orb with rapture hails! 
A mid ft a flood of glory fails! 
Sublimely fails the Iky ! 

So in the moral world we view 
The fons of vice, a fordid crew, 
Lab'ring with wretched arts to gain 
What virtue views with horror or difdain,— « 
'Tis virtue's nature ever toafpire, 
T'exalther vot'ries higher ftill and higher. 
Till quitting time for long eternity, 
She foars triumphant to her native fky, 
Nor Hoops her wing, till in the bright abodes 
Sublimely plac'd amidft her kindred Gods, 
f On fainted feats" her votaries receive 
Th' unfading palms prepar'd for her to give. 
The generous patriot there, in blifs complete, 
-. mongft applauding angels takes his (eat. 
Among!! the good and wife, now perfect made, 
There, Edwards, fhall thy generous toiis be paid! 

When all thv arduous tafk is o'er, 

Each part peilor.n'd, and duty done, 

The race of virtue fairly run, 

And time to 'thee (hall be no more. 

From this perturbed fcene, whate mortals jar, 
\nd good and evil v/gge perpetual war. 
From this dim (pot call'd up to higheft Heaven, 
Where virtue's !ure and rich reward is given i 

mongft the fons of light there ihait thou ihinc [ 
Glory and immortality be thine r 
Myriads of golden harps for thee be fining, 
\nd rapt'rous longs of giatuLtion lung! 

Scared from the ilormy fen of life, 

Thy toil?, thy dangers, now are o'er ; 

Safe from malevolence and ftnfe, 

Hail, patriot, to the peaceful lhorc! 

Approv'dor. high, thy rmfltarM name 

No more (ball envy now defame*; 

No more malignant cjts employ, 

The excellence the thought too great, 

The worth !hc could not emulate, 

With f.end-:!ike rancour to deftioy. 

Lo this th' irrevocable word, 

In Heaven's indelible record : 

' The battle's fought, the race is run, 

' Well hall thou, faithful fervant; done; 

■ « Enter the mantions of thy Lord! 

1 Kis bounteous hand will here bellow 

; The freedom that thou lov'd'il be 

1 When, labouring on iie.-M Vs gracious plan, 

! The friend of liberty and mm, 

■ Thou fought'ft (how meicif«il are all the brave!) 
1 To eafe the umkiin.: chain; and i etWK oi 


To bind fell cruelty with penal laws, 

And bring Aftrea down, to plead the wretch's caufe. 

* Hail, denizen of Heaven ! approv'd 
« Of God, and of the Lamb belov'd! 

Secure of bleffednefs, of joys divine! 

* Hcii of eternity now made, 

* The radient crown that nt'er fhall fade, 
1 Glory and immoitalitv are thine !' 

AFTER the death of Mofes the people of Ifreal 
were governed by various Judges ; of whom 
was the firlt. To him fucceeded Othniel Ehud, and 
Shamgar the fon of Anath. After his death the Jews 
became tributary to Jabin king of Canaan, who 
reigned \nHazcr. He oppreffed them twenty years; 
till at length Dcbo>ah, who was then judge over Ifrael, 
excited Barak, to collect an army of io.coo men on 
Mount Tabor, and oppofe Siferak, who came out to 
meet him with goo chariots and an immenfe army. 
They fought in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo. 
TheCanaanitcs were difcomfited; Siferah put to flight, 
and flain by Jael ; and Jabin king of Canaan deltroyed. 

OF more than human wars I fing, 
When God arofe, Judaea's fhield, 
And hoflile armies overthrew 

In Tanac's defolated field. 
Fit fubject for triumphal pomp ! 

Fit fubject for the mufe to fing— * 
Ri'e, Deborah, begin the lay, 

Thou miftrefs of the vocal firing. 
But ah ! what bard in equal (trains 

Shall fing Jehovah's m.itchlefs force, 
When Edon felt his whirling car, 

The winged thunder of his courfe? 
The world's vaft fabric Pnook throughout, 

The ftedfaft earth confeft her God ; 
Th' eternal hills in filencebow'd, 
And Sinai trembled as he trod. 
What woes, what dangers, we endur'd, 

In princely Shamgar's haplefs reign, 
When death and war's deftructivefway 

O'erthrew the cities of the plain. 
Gaunt defolaiion thro' the land 

Each peaceful village fwain difinay'd, 
And hoftile troops in Judah's ftreets 
Their armi victorioufly difplay'd. 
Thus proflrate lay Judaea's fons, 

In ruin whelm'd my country by, 
When I arofe, that country's boaft, 

Her glory and her warlike flay. 
The!) rifing from her late defeat, 

She boldly qucll'd.lier proudeft foes, 
When, furious to revenge her wrongs, 

Vindictive Deborah arofe. 
Degenerate fons ! can vafTal fear 

Detain my wariiours from the field ? 
Where flv'ft thou, Reuben? canft thou fee 

Thy native land, thy country, yield ? 
Heroic tribe of Nephtalim, 

You will I praHe with lateft breath, 
That, prodigal of life, could'll wade 
Thro' flaughtcr to a glorious death. 
I fee the martial pomp of war, 

The ^litt'ring of each mafTy fpear, 
How grimly fhines each hoft in arms' 
Inflam'd by rage, unaw'd by fear ! 
That day the fwordof Barac's might, 

Matchlefso'erthrtw each chofrn band; 
While brazen cars, with heroes arm'd, 
Fled balciy from a woman's hand. 

* The ■ Scptuagiiit pionounccs it thus, and bptn- 
fer, B. 3. C. 4. 

" How ftotH Ddira flrake 
Proud 6iJ.,ah — 

the Columbian ParnaJJiad* 

Then God himfelf his red right hand, 

With vengeance arm'd the Almighty Sire; 
With blazing ftars, Heaven's glitt'ring hoft, 

Hurl'd angry beams of flaming fire. 
What heaps of mangled carcafes, 

Unbury'd heaps of heroes flain, 
What foes expecting fudden fate, 

Lie fcattcr'd on the bleeding plain! 
Witnefs Mcgiddo's fiuitful flream, 

And Kilhon king of rivers old, 
What thronging helms and ferried fhields, 

Down the difcolour'd waters roll'd. 
Bleft be thy fame, advent'rous maid, 

Blcft be thy hand divine, that fhed 
The blood of Sifera ; by thy arts, 

Great in deceit, the hero bled. 
Beneath thy feet, he bow'd, he fell, 

The lifelcfs corfe diflain'd the ground, 
While purple ftrcams ot fanguine life 

Well'd copious from the fatal wound; 

Have they not fped ? his mother cries, 
Ah, what detains his wonted fpeed ? 

Or do they fhare the ample fpoils, 

The happy conqueror's glorious meed ? 

What royal captives does he bring, 
To crown his {fate in warlike pride? 

What veftmems fhall adorn his bed, 
In Tyre's refplendent purple dy'd! 

Unhappy mother, vain thy wifh, 
The flattering purpofe of thy foul; 

What hopes can {top the courfe of fate, 
Or God's almighty word controul ? 

So perifh ever Ifrael's foes, 

Thy hated foes, Judaea's light, 

But vigorous fhine thy chofen friends, 
As the Sun's beam in Summer's height ! 


Epitaph on a Miser. 
ENEATH this verdant hillock lies 
Demar, the wealthy and the wife. 
His heirs, that he might fafely reft, 
Have put his carcafe in a cheft; 
The very cheft in which, they fay, 
His other fclf, his money, lay. 
And, it his heirs continue kind 
To that dear felf he left hehind, 
I dare believe that four in five 
Will think his belter half alive. 


IN life's gay morn, what vivid hues 
Adorn the animating views, 

Ry flattering fancy drawn ? 
No ftorms with gloomy afpect rife, 
Fo cloud the azure of the fkies, 

No milts obfenre the dawn. 
With looks invariably gay, 
Young expectation points the way 

To ever blifsful {hades, 
Where odors fcent the breath of morn, 
Where roles bloom without a thorn, 

And mufic fills the glades. 
Enraptured with the diftant view, 
Youth thinks its fictions beauties true, 

And fprings the prize to gain; 
His grain the gay illufion flies: 
Experience thus (lie cheat defcries, 

Ana proves his hopes were vain. 
The path of life tho' flowers adorn, 
Yet often will the rugged thorn, 

Amidft the flowers arile; 
Expect not then on earth to fhare, 
Enjoyment unallay'd bycarc, 

But fcek it in the fkies. 

Foreign Intelligence — Dome/lie Intelligence. 

Cfte Cfironicie, 


THE value of the different articles given to 
the mint, at Paris, from the 22dof October 
until about the 20th of November, laft, amounts 

In gold, to 
In filver, to 

5,452,436 French livres 
/".378,64c Pennfylvania cur- 

Equal to about 


Paris, OB. 23. On its being known, that this 
ftatue was ordered by the city of Paris, the ftulptor 
to the king fent the following letter : 
To the ajjembly of the rcprefentatives of the town of Paris. 


YOU add to all that you have done for the hap- 
pineis and glory of your country, in decreeing a 

buft to the moft deferving minifter of France. 

You have ordained that this buft mall be placed 
where you are daily and nightly occupied in at- 
tempting to promote the happinefs of your fellow 
citizens. Permit an artift, full of refpect and gra- 
titude for your patriotic virtues, to claim the ho- 
nor of afllfting you by making the buft of M.Neckar. 
M. Houdon has already had the honor of making 
thofe of Wafhington and of that young Hero, the 
friend of Wafhington, deftined to be the defen- 
der of liberty in the two worlds. M. Houdon de- 
mands only a piece of marble ; and he lhall feel 
fufficiently recompenced, if the commons permit 
him to dedicate his poor talents to the celebration 
of a great man, and of thofe who have acquitted 
their duty to the public, in decreeing M, Neckar 
an honor which no minder, before him, ever re- 
ceived from the town of Paris. 

(Signed) H HOUDON." 

This addrefs has been fuccefsful, and the willies 
of M. Houdon are accomplished. 



Springfield, Jan. 1. Died, in Sunderland, on 
the 13th ult. Deacon Nathaniel Smith, aged 91 
years and 11 months. He has left a numerous 
offspring, viz. 6 children, 47 grand-children, and 
92 great grand children. His remains were de- 
cently interred on the Monday following, by a large 
number of refpectable friends, who attended, af- 
ter a fermon fuitable to the occafion, preached by 
the Rev. Mr. Emerfon, of Conwaw, from Pro- 
verbs xvi 31. His age, and that of five furviving 
filters amount to 493 years. 

Salem, Jan. 12. A. correfpondent fays, there is 
an evident preference given by people in general 
to fuch home manufactures as have any confider- 
nb'e degree of merit. The wear of the Beverly 
Corduroys is already become very common ; and 
the l'ale of them, in the different parts of the 
Irate, has been much more confiderable than could 
have been expected, in this infant (rage of the 
manufacture, when it cannot he fuppofsd to have 
attained to that degree of perfection which it will 
derive from longer experience. Our country bre- 
thren, it is laid, are determined to make ufe of 


this manufacture in preference to European, from 
the conlideration that the increafe of manufac- 
tures among us, will increafe the demand and en- 
hance the value of the produce of their lands. 
The fame principle of felf-intereft will undoubt- 
edly induce our mechanics and labourers to do the 
fame, as every branch of manufadiines requires 
the aid of many other branches. It is like the liifld 
railing food to the mouth, from which it afterwaids 
receives itrength and vigour. 


Philadelphia, Jan. 30. A letter from Newport 
(R. I.) dated January 18, fays, " I have to inform 
you, that our aflembly was in being laft wetk. 
After every thing, except broken heads, a majo- 
rity of five was obtained for calling a Convention 
in the Lower Houfe, on Friday evening, and was 
rejected by one vote in the Upper Houfe. The 
Lower Houfe then voted not to break up until fucH 
time as the other Houfe fhouid recede from tltir 
vote, which caufed warm work untilSunday morn- 
ing, when one Williams went olf, or was not to 
be found, which gave the Federal party a chance to 
bring on the bili again, as, in the Upper Floufe, 
there were four votes on each fide ; of cour/e it 
put the determination, whether there fhouid be a 
Convention or not, to Governor Collins, who gave 
his opinion in favour of a Convention, which is to 
meet the firft Monday in March." 


Hartford, Jan. 7 Since the fir ft of September, 
1788, ten thonfand two hundied and feventy* 
eight yards of woollen cloth have been made at 
the woollen manufactory in this city. It is with 
pleafure we add that this manufactory is in a fiou- 
rilhing ftate — four thoufand weight of fine wool 
has jult come to hand from Spain, which with what 
was before on hand, makes a large ftock. A num- 
ber of good workmen are employed, and broad 
and narrow cloths of various colours, ftiperbne 
middlings, and low-priced, are fold on as reason- 
able terms as they can be imported. 

Laft Monday four fine falmon were caught in 
the river juft below this city. 

New-London, Jan. 1 1. Export of horfes and cattle 
from this clilfcrict, from Jan. 7, 1789, to Jan. 6, 
1790; alfothefhipping employed in that way, viz. 
2 Ihips, 43 brigs, 35 fchooners, 5 6 (1 >ops. Ex- 
ports of hoTes and cattle from 1789 o 1790,6678; 
laft year's exports, from 1785 to t;8g, 6366. Ik- 
fides a number of veiTcls dipt over the platform 
with ftock unnoticed. 

American Silk. 
The following will Ihow how eafiiy (ilk might b« 
cultivated in thefc dates; and that nothing but a 
little attention is necefl'ary to clothe our wives an J 
daughters in fi'.k of our own manufacturing, be- 
lides Dealing the hufbandman a very handfome fum 
of money annually, 

The town of Mansfield, in Connecticut, have 
this laft feafon made about. 200 weight of raw Clfe« 
— Some families made as much as 16 b. chieily by 
thehelpof women and children. "ITjewholeo - 
ration was only five or fix weeks during the leu- 
Ion. — One woman and two or three children Cart 
tend fiik worms fiirncient to make ten or tu.'l-c 
pounds of filk. Near four pounds have been p >- 
duced from feven trees — and one pound was 
duced from eight final! trees, the eighth year only 
from the feed. Raw filk is fold at fi 
per lb. Whon manufactured into handkc u 
. ibbonsand fewing. I"i]k, it comes to nearly. <Ac dol* 
iar per ounce, which ncflts large profits to the ma- 



New-York, Jan. 13. Friday at eleven o'clock the 
Prelident of the United States proceeded to the 
Senate Chamber, attended by the Chief Juftice, 
the Secretary of the Treaftiry, and the Secretary 
at War, and his private fnite ; — the two Houfesof 
Congrefs having been prcvioufly convened for the 
purpofe, the Prefident on the opening of the 
prefent feffion, was pleafed to make the following 
speech : 

Fellozu- Citizens of the Senate, and 

Houfe of Reprefcntatives, 
I embrace with great fatisfaction the opportunity 
which now prefents itfelf, of congratulating you 
on the prefent favourable profpedts of our public 
affairs. The recent acceffion of the important 
(late of North-Carolina to the Conflitution of the 
United States 'of which official information has 
been received) — the credit and refpcctability of 
our country — the general and iucreafing good will 
towards the government of the Union — and the 
concord, peace and plenty, with which we are 
blcfTed, are circum fiances, aufpicious, in an emi- 
nent degree, to our national profperity. 

In refuming your confutations for the general 
good, ycu cannot but derive encouragement from 
the reflection, that the meafures of the lad feffion 
have been as fa tis factory to your conflituents as the 
novelty and difficulty of the work allowed you to 
hope. Still further to realize their expectations, 
and to fecure the bleffings which a gracious Provi- 
dence has placed within our reach, will, in the 
courfe of the prefent important feffion, call for the 
cool and deliberate exertion of your patriotifm, 
firmnefs and wifdom. 

Among the many interefiing objects which will 
engage your attention, that of providing for the 
common defence vviil merit particular regard. To 
be prepared for war is one of the mo ft effectual 
means of pveferving peace. 

A free people ought not only to be armed, but 
disciplined ; to which end, a uniform and well di- 
gelted plan is requifite : and their fafety and inter- 
eft require that they fhould promote fuch manu- 
factories, as tend to render them independent 
on others, for effuntial, particularly, for military 

The proper cfhbtifhmcnt of the troops which 
may be deemed indifpenfable, will be entitled to 
mature confideiation. In the arrangements which 
may be made reflecting it, it will be of import- 
; ance to conciliate the comfortable fupport of the 
. efficers and foldiers with a duo regard to (economy. 
There was reafon to hope, that the pacific mea 
ftires adopted with regard to certain hotile tribes 
1 of Indians, would have relieved the inhabitants of 
our fouthern and weftern frontiers from their de- 
predations. But you will perceive, from the in- 
: 'formation contained in the papers which I fha.ll 
direct to lie laid before you (comprehending a com- 
I munication from the commonwealth of Virginia} 
1: that we ought to be prepared to afford protection 
!•' to thofe parts of the Union ; and if necefTary, to 
I punifh aggrcfTors. 

The intereft of the United States requires that 
|our intcrcourfe with other nations fhould be facili- 
tated by fuch provifions as will enable me to fulfil 
my duty in that refpect, in the manner which cir- 
Icumftances may render molt conducive to the pub- 
lic good : and to this end, that the compenfations 
to lie made to the perfons who may be employed, 
,i fhould according to the nature of their appcint- 
tments, be defined by law :— and a competent 

Dbmejih Intelligence. 

fund defigned for defraying tTie expences incident 
to the conduct of our foreign affairs. 

Various con fid-cations alio render it expedient 
that the terms ou which foreigners may be admit- 
ted to the rights of citizens, fhould be fpeedily af- 
certiined by an uniform rule of naturalization. 

Uniformity in the currency, weights and mea- 
fures of the United States, is an object of great 
importance, and will, I am perfuaded, be duiy at- 
tended to. 

The advancement of agriculture, commerce, 
and manufactures, by all proper means, will not, I 
truit, need recommendation. — But I cannot forbear 
intimating to you the expediency of giving effec- 
tual encouragement as well to the introduction of 
new and ufefu! inventions from abroad, as to the 
exertions of fkill and genius in producing them at 
home ; — and of facilitating the intercourfe be- 
tween the dillant parts of our country, by a due 
attention to the Poll-office and Poft-roads. 

Nor am I lefi perfuaded, that you will agree with 
me in opinion, that there is nothing which can, 
better deferve your patronage than the promotion 
of fcience and literature. Knowledge is, in eve- 
ry country, the fureft bafis of public happinefs. In 
one, in which the meafures of governmeo.i re- 
ceive their impreffion fo immediately from the fenfe 
of the community, asinouv'^. it i , prnpc tionably 
effential. To the fecurity of a free conflitution it 
contributes in various ways: by convincing thofe 
who are entrufted with the public adminiftration, 
that every valuable end of government is befl an- 
fwered by the enlightened confidence of the peo*. 
pie : and by teaching the people themfelves to 
know and to value their own rights ; to difcern and 
provide againft invafions of them : to diftinguifh 
between oppreffion and the necefTary exercife of 
lawful authority ; between burthens proceeding 
from a difregard to their convenience and thofe re- 
fusing from the inevitable exigencies of fociety ; 
to difcriminate the fpirit of liberty from that of ii» 
centioufnefs, chei ifhing the firft, avoiding the laft, 
and uniting a fpeedy, but temperative vigilance 
againft encroachments, with an inviolable refpect 
to the laws. 

Whether this deferable object will be beft promoU 
ejd by affording aids to ftminaries of learning al- 
ready ellablifhcd — by the inftitmion of a national 
u'niverfity — or by any other expedients, will be well 
worthy of a place in the deliberations of the legis- 

Gentlemen of the Houfe of Reprefentatives, 

I faw with peculiar plealurc, at the cloic of the 
laft feffion, the rcfolution entered into by you, ex- 
preffive of your opinion, that an adequate provihon 
for the fupport ot the public credit, is a matter of 
high importance to the national honor and profperity. 
In this lciuiment I entirely concur. And to a per- 
fect confidence in your belt endeavours to devife luch 
a provifjon as will be truly confill«nt with the end, I 
add an equal reliance on the cheerful co-operation of 
the other branch of the legiflature. It would be fu- 
pcrfluous to fpecify inducements to a mcafure, in 
which the character and pcrmament intcrcfts of the 
United States are fo obvioufly and fo deeply concern- 
ed ; and which has received fo explicit a fan&iua 
from your declaration. 

Gentlemen of the Senate and 
Hovfc i>f Reprefevtatives, 

I have directed the proper officers to lay before you 
rcfpectively, fuch papers and eltimates as regard the 
affairs particularly recommended to your confide- 
ration, and ncccirary to convey to you that informa- 
tion of the iiatc. of the Union, which it is my duty 
to afford. 

Domejlic Intelligence* 

The welfare of our country is the great object, to 
which our caies and efforts ought to be directed. — 
And I (hall derive great latisfacrioufrom a co-opera- 
tion with you, in the pleafing, though arduous talk 
of enfuring to our fellow citizens the bleflings which 
they have a right to expect from a free, efficient and 
equal government, 


United States, Jan 8, 1 790. 

The Prefident was dreffed in a plain fuit of Ame- 
rican manulactured broadcloath, when he delivered 
■his fpeech to Congrels on Friday. 

The doors of the Senate Chamber were open, and 
and many citizens admitted. 

New-York. Jan. 14. The members of the Senate 
and Houfe of Reprcientatives of the United States 
went this day in theircarriages, preceded by the Ser- 
jeant at Arms, on horleback, and preftnted their ad- 
dreffes to the Prefident, in anfwer to his addrefs to 
both Houfes. 

To the President of the Unitsd States. 

We, the Senate of the United States, return you 
our thanks for your fpeech, delivered to both Houfes 
of Congrefs. The acceffion of the Mate of N. Caro- 
lina to the Conftitution of the United States gives us 
much pleafure; and we offer you our congratulations 
on thatevent, which at the fame time adds Strength to 
our union, and affords a proof, that the more the 
Conftitution has been confidered, the more the good- 
nefs of it has appealed. The information which wt 
have received, that the meafures of the lall feffion 
have been as fatisla&ory to our conftituents as we had 
reafon to expect., from the difficulty of the work in 
which we were engaged, will afford us much confu- 
tation and encouragement in reluming our delibera- 
tions in the preient feffion for the public good, and 
every exertion on our part fhall be made to realize 
and fecure to our country thole blellings which a gra- 
cious Providence has placed witrun her reach. We 
arc perfuaded, that one ol the molt effectual means ot 
prefcrving peace, is to be prepared for war; and our 
attention fhall be directed to the objects of common 
defence, and tc the adoption of fuch plans as fhall 
appear the moll likely to prevent our dependence on 
other countries lor effential lupplies. In the arrange- 
ments to be made relpecting the eflabhPnment ot fuch 
troops as may be deemed indifpenfable, we fhall 
with pieafure provide for the comfortable fupport of 
the officers and foldiers, with a due regard to aecono- 
my. We regret that the pacific mealures adopted by 
government, with regard to certain hoftile tribes ol 
Indians, have not been attended with the beneficial 
effects towards the inhabitants of our Southern and 
Wetlern frontiers, which we had reafon to hope; and 
we fhall cheerfully co-operate in providing the moli 
effectual means for their protection; and, if neccffaiy. 
for the punifhment of aggreffors. The uniformity of 
the currency, and of weights and mealures, the in- 
troduction of new and ufetul inventions from abroad, 
and the exertions of fkill and genius in producing 
them at home; the facilitating the communication 
between the diifant parts of our country, by means 
of thePcft-office and PofWoads ; a provifion for the 
fupport of the department of foreign affairs, and an 
uniform rule of naturalization, by which foreigners 
maybe admitted to the rights of citizens — are objects 
which fhall receive fuch early attention as their res- 
pective importance requires. Literature and fciencc 
are effential to the prefervation of a free conftitution : 
the meafures of government fhould therefore be cal- 
culated toftrengthen the confidence that is due to that 
important trulf. Agriculture, commerce, and manufac- 
tures, forming the bafis of the wealth and ftrength of 
our confederated republic, muff be the frequent Sub- 
ject uf our deliberation, and fhall be advanced by all 
proper means in our power. Public ci edit being an ob- 
je& of great importance, we fhall cheerfully co-ope- 

rate in all proper meafures for its fupport. Proper 
attention fhall oe g.ven to fuch papers and efttml, 
as you may be pleated to lay before us. Our cares 
and efforts fhall be directed to the welfare of our 
country; and we have the moft perfect dependence 
upon your co-operating with us* on all occalions in 
fuch meafures as will infurcto our fellow citizens'thc 
bleflings which they have a right to expect, from a 
free, efficient and equal government. 

To which the Prefident made the following reply : 


I thank you for your addrefs, and for the afu 
furances which it contains of attention to the feveral 
matters fuggelted by me to yourconfideration. 

Relying on the continuance of your exertions for 
the public good, I anticipate for our country, the Sa- 
lutary effe&s of upright aud prudent councils 

The Addrefs of the Houfe of Rtprcfentativu to the 
President oj the United States. 

The Reprefentatives of the people of the United 
States, have taken into confideration your fpeech to 
both houfes of Congrefs at the opening of the 
prefent feffion 

We reciprocate your congratulations on the ac- 
ceffion of the State of North-Carolina; an event 
which, while it is a testimony of the increaSin*- oood 
will towards the government of the union, cannot 
tail to give additional dignity and Strength to the 
American republic, already arifing in the eftimation 
ot the world in national charafler and relpectability. 

The information that our meafures of the laft feffion 
have not proved diffatisfa&ory to our conftituents, 
affords us much encouragement at this jundure, when 
we are refuming the arduous tafk of kgiflatin* for fo 
extenfive ah empire 

Nothing can be more gratifying to the reprefenta- 
tives of a tree people, than the refkaion that then 
labours are rewarded by the approbation of their 
fellow citizens. Under this impreflion, we (hail 
make every exertion to lealize their expectations, 
•and to fecure to them thofe bieffings which Provi- 
dence has placed within their reach. Still prompted 
by the fame defire to promote their intereits, which 
then actuated us, we fhall, in the preient feffion, di- 
ligently and anxioufly purfue thofe meafures which 
fhall appeal to us conducive to that end. 

We concur with you in the fentiment that agricul- 
ture, commerce and manufactures, are emitted 10 
legiflative protection, and that the promotion of 
fcience and literature will contribute to the fecurity 
of a free government ; in the progrefs of our delibe- 
rations, we fhall not lofe light ot objects to wortl * 
ot onrregiid. 

The various and weighty matters which you have 
judged neceffary to if commend to our attention, ap- 
pear to us effential to the tranquility and welfare 
of the union, and claim our early and molt tenous 
consideration. We fhall proceed without delay, CO 
beftow on them that calm ui.'cuilion which their im- 
poi lance requires. 

We regret that the pacific anangemfnts purfusd 
with regard to certain hoftile tribes of Indians, ha%H 
not been attended with that Succels which we had 
reafon to expect from them ; we fhall not hefitatc to 
concur in further meafures that may belt obviate any 
ill-effects which might he apprehended from the fai- 
lure of thofe negociationts. 

Your approbation of the vote of this houfe at the 
lalt feffion, reflecting the ntovilion for the public 
creditors, is very acceptable to us : the proper mode 
of carrying that refoiution into effect, being a fubject 
in which the future character and happine 
(tates are deeply involved, will be among the fir ft to 
deferve our attention. 

Theprofperity of ourrountry, isthe primary ol 
of all our deliberations; and wt chcrifh the reflect u 

Domejlic Intelligence. 

Juftice of the Supreme Court of the State of Pena" 
fylvania. The Rev. Robert Blackwell, D.D. Wil- 
liam Barton, Efq Ifaac Gray, Efq. 

At a meeting of the members of the fociety for 

the relief of poor and diftreffed mafk rs of fhips, 

their widows and children, on Monday January 

4. 1790, at the Baptift-meeting in Lodge-Alley — 

Speaker of the Houfe of Representatives. \ it being their annual election to chufe managers and 

Irelshewaspleafed to make the following j treafurer, the following gentlemen were chofen for 

the prefent year : 



that every meafu re which we may adopt for its advance- 
ment, will not only receive your cheerful concur- 
rence, but will at the fame time derive from your co- 
operation additional efficacy in enfuiing to oui fellow 
citizens the bleilings of a free, efficient and equal go- 


To this add 

reply : 


I receive wiili pleafure the afTuianccs you give 
me, that you will diligently and anxioufly purlue 
inch incalures as ihall appear to you conducive to the 
iuterclls ot your conilituents • and that an early and 
arid ferious conlideration will be given to the various 
ai.d weighty matters recommended by me to your 

I have full confidence, that your deliberations will J 
continue to be Directed by an enhghted and virtuous 
zeal lor the happinefs of our country. 

January^. G WASHINGTON. 

nqrth-caroi.ina. (In Convention. J 

Whcieas fee General Convention which met in 
Philadelphia*/ in purfuance of a recommendation of 
Congieis, did recommend to the citizens of the Uni- 
ted States a Conftiiution or Form of Government, in 
the following words, viz. 

" We the people." &c. 
[Here follows the Conititution of the United States, 
verbatim. J 

Refolvtd, That this Convention, in behalf of the 
freemen, citizens and inhabitants of the State ol North- 
Carolina, do adopt and ratify the faid Coniluution 
and Form of Government. 

Done in Convention this 21ft of November, 1789. 
SAMUEL JOHNSTON, PreJuUnt cj the Convention. 
J.Hunt, Jas. Taylor, Scc'rics. 


Extracl of a letter from Wincheftcr (Virginia) dated the 

13th infant, January. 

" Emigrants to Kentuckey, paffedty Mufkingum, 
from iff of Auguft, 1786, tothe i5thof May, 1789, 
19,889 fouls, 1067 boats, 8884 hoi fes, 2297 cattle, 
i9261heep, 627 waggons, belidcs thole which paired 
jii the night unnoticed. 


Philadelphia, Jan. 1. At an annual meeting of The 
American I'm losophical Society, held at Phi- 
ladelphia, for promoting ufiful knowledge, the follow in, 
gentlemen were this day duly elected officers of the 
laid fociety — viz. 


The Hon. Benjamin Franklin, Efq. LL.D. F.R-S. 
A.A.S. &C&C&C. 


David Rittenhoufe, Efq. LL.D. A.A.S. &c. The 
Rev. John Ewing., D.D. Provoftof the Univerfity of 
Pennfyivania '1 he Rev. William Smith. D.D. Pro- 
voft of the College, &c. of Philadelphia. 


Samuel Magaw, D.D. Vice- Provoftof the Univerfity 
«t Pennfyivania. James Hutchinfon, M. B. Profef- 
for of Chemiltry and Materia Medica in the Univer- 
fity of Pennfyivania. Robert Pitterlon, A. M. Pro- 
feffrirof Mathematics, in the Univerfity of Pennfyi- 
vania. Mr. John Vaughan. 


Samuel Duffield, M. B. Mr. Charles Wilfon Peale. 
Benjamin Smith Barton. M. D Profellor of Natural 
Hiflory and Botany, in the College of Philadelphia. 

The Hon. Francis Hopkinfon, Efq. Judge of the 
Federal Court for the Pennfyivania Difntl. 
counsellors (tor three years) 

The Hon. Thomas M'Kean, Efq. LL.D. Chief. 


William Heyfham Cnarles Biddle 

Nathaniel Falconer George Ord 

Robert Bethcll J°h» Souder 

Leefon Simmons William Allibone 

Samfon Harvey J°hn Lockton 

John Woods Nathaniel Gait. 

Jolcph Stiles — Treafurer. 

At a quarterly meeting of the fociety for the abo- 
lition ot flavery, &c. held the 4th inft. the follow- 
ing officers were duly elected. 

Prejident — The Hon. Dr. Franklin. 

Vne-Pref dents — James Pemberton, Jonathan Pen- 

Counsellors William Lewis, William Rawle, 

Miers Fifher, J. D. Coxe. 

■ Secretaries C. Wiftar, John M'Crea. 

. Elecling Committee Thomas Harrifon, Caleb At 

more, John Todd, Jofeph Budd, James Whiteall 
Thomas Armat, John Oldden, John Warner, John 
Kaighn, Jacob Shoemaker, Nathan Boys. 

( ommittee of Correfpondence James Pemberton, 

Richard Wells, Rev. William Rogers, Caleb Lownes, 
Dr. Griffitts, Tench Coxe, C. Wiftar, 

Treafurer. 'James Star. 

At a ftated meeting of The Philadelphia Society 
for alleviating the Miferies of public Prifons, held 
at the German School-Houle, on the evening of the 
1 ith inlt. the following perfons were chofen officers 
far the prefent year : 

Piefident — Right Rev. Doftor William White. 

Vice-Prefidents — Mr. Richard Wells, Rev. Dr. 
George Duffitld. 

Secretaries — Rev. William Rogers, Mr. Thomas 

Treafurer — Mr Benjamin W. Morris. 

Phyficians — Doctor Benjamin Rufh, Doclor Ge- 
rardus Clai kfon, Doctor Calpar Wiftar, Doftor Sa- 
muel P. Griffitts. 

Electing Committee — William Lippcncott, Jacob 
Shoemaker, Ifaac Parifh, Bartholomew Wiftar, Ben- 
jamin Thaw, Philip Benezet, John M'Crea, Jofeph 
Tatem, John Bleakly, John Kaighn, Caleb Atmore, 
James Whiteall. 

At an annual election for officers, of the Pennfyi- 
vania Society for the Encouragement of Manufactures 
and the Ufeful Arts, held at the Factory in Eighth- 
ftreet, on Wcdnefday the 20th inltanl, the following 
perfons were duly ekcted : 

Prelident— Samuel Powel. 

Vice-Prefidents— George Clymer, Samuel Miles, 
Robert Hare, William Robinfon, jun. 

Managers— Thomas L. Moore, Henry Kammerer, 
George Fox, Jofeph Anthony, Henry Hill, Francis 
Gurney, William Bingham, Tench Coxe. Dr. C. 
Wiftar, Mordecai Lewis, John Kaighn, John Wilcox. 

Secretaries— Anthony Morris, Thomas W. Willing. 

And on Thuriday the 21ft inftartt, the following 
gentlemen were ele£tcd officers of the manufacturing 
fund, for the prefent year: 

Managers— Thomas Rufton, Charles Marfhall, 
Caleb Lownes, Thomas Armalt, Ifrael Hallowell, 
Robert Patterfon, Bartholemew Wiftar, Thomas 
Wood, George Meade, Hugh Henry, Godfrey Haga, 
Nathan Sellers. 

Treafurer — Chriftopher Marfhall. jun. 

£/The Markiages ai.d Deaths, in our next. 

T H fc, 

Columbian Magazine, 

O R, 


For FEBRUAR Y, 1790. 


Remarks on the Meteorological Table, page 69 

Reflections on Prejudice ibid. 

Story of Alcander and Septimius ji 

Extract from Dickfon's Letters on Negro Slavery, 

concluded, 73 

General Reflections on Tafte, 80 

National Prejudices overcome, ortheHiftory of 
Sir George Olivier. An American Story found- 
ed on Fafts, • 
On True Beauty, 87 
On the Utility of the Barometer in Agriculture, 
The Retailer No. XV. 
The Countenance an Indication of the interior 

Character. 93 

On Morality, 94 

On the Revenue arifing from theSpanifh Mines, 95 
Character of Marfhal Turenne, 96 

Of the Compofition and the Analyfjs of Gun- 
Powder, 97 
American Chronology, continued, l6\ 
Life; an Allegory, ioj 
An Account of the Inftitution of the Feaft of 

Souls ; obferved by the native American, 106 

An Account of the Origin of the Slave-trade, ibid. 
A Method to prevent Iron from Rutting, 107 

Method of making Amber- Varnilh, 108 

The Benefits of Temperance, page ic8 

Actual Exiftenceot the Salamander, I09 

On Converfation, . ibid. 

Account of a Mafs of Native Iron found in South- 
America, Hi 
A Letter from Sir Ifaac Newton to Dr. Bentley, 1 1 2 
Hiftory of the American War, continued, 113 
Extracts from Anderfon's Effays relating to Agri- 
culture and Rural Affairs, 118 
Of Quick-lime, and other Calcareous Subftances, 
as a Manure, J *° 


On Suicide, 

On Retirement, 

Verfes from Bcelius, 

A Soliloquy, 

An Ode, 

The Character of 1 good Parfon, 

The Farmer and the Philofopher. a Table, 

On the Marriage of Mira to Thirfis, 


Foreign Intelligence, 
Domeftic Intelligence, 
Marriages and Deaths, 












of merchandize and public skcurities, and the COURM of EXCHANGE. 


Philadelphia pricks CURRENT, February, 28, 1790. 

JJJus, pot, per ton, 37/ tot 
Brand . common, §s 3d 

Bread, per civt 20s 2 2 s 6J 
w ( American, in bottles, per 
<$j < dozen 8s 40" 

( Ditto, per bbl 30J 

^ {Oak,p.m.feet6js6d8os 
w j Merchant. pin . 60s 65 

Ǥ ) Sa P> 37-> 6d 4 

( ( tdar, 75* 80s 

Chocolate, per lb izd 1 3,.' 
I Superfine,p-bl^2 6^.55., 
w 1 Common 50J £2*6'' 
S <| £a7 TO ;rf. ^> 45 

^ ? Middlings 40 

[^Shipflifp.cwt 18 
.F/a.*. /)«r /o go* kW 

Flaxfied, per bujhel y 35 gV 

C;w, Holland, tergal 4; ba 1 
Ditto, per cafe 28s 3 
f Wheat. p.bufh.ios6d 1 is 

I *« 5 

R 0att 2 j 8-/ 

§ ^ Indian corn 45 4* 6a" 

« I Barley 4 x 6a" 

'bcfljhcllcd 20. 

^ifacAa^ail 2 J 3<af 

Hams, per lb ^d 



S d 



Hemp 6d ya 

H >gjhead hoops, per m. 5/ 6/ 

Hides ran), per lb gd 1 od 

Indigo, Fr. p. lb ys6d )2j 

Carolina, 4s js 6d 

I* Ca/l. p. cwt 22s 6d 30 

I Bar, per ton 28/ 

I <{ Pig 8/ 8/ 

* J Sheet 60/ 65/ 

l_ Nail rods 33/ 1 5 
Meal. Indian, p. bbl 12s 6d 
Molajfes, per gal. 2s 2s 2d 
Nails 10, 12, &20d8^dgd 
Paichment.p.doz. 30s 37s 6d 
Porter, American i2j 

! Burlington 65 

Lower Co. 60 62J 6^ 
Carolina 55J 

P^jtf 7 J 6^ 

i,ce. per cwt igs 21 J 

> Antigua 45 go" 5-f 

3 J Windward 45 6d 

93 i, Barbadoes $s 3d 

I Country is 8d zs yd 
l_ Ta^fd 2 j 4a 1 2/ 6<i 

German, p. cwt 60s 70J 
i sitner. p. ton 40/ 60/ 
h Crowley' s, p. Jag. 4/ ioj 

Snafo roof, jter lb is6d 2s id 

Soap, common $d 6d 

Caftile, 8d 9 d 

Starch 40" 6d 

\ L - 

« j ZM/o, double ditto iyd 

3 j Huvannah, tvhite gd 

\ Ditto, brown 8d gd 

L AJ«/co. jb. catf 57*60" 70J 

CAllum, p bufh.2S$d2i6d 
g j Liverpool 22\d 2s 3d 
83 ) CoaVz 2 2 {a 1 

(^Lifbon 2 J 3/ 2* 4^ 

C M Jcr.2\g. 11s 6J13S 

jS < • arolina. 3 1 gal. 1 5.' 

(Turpentine, 17s 6d 

f 7./?. MV, £f/Z 35/ 

Inferior 26s 281 I 

I 0# 45' 5°' 

Rabpahan. 22s 6d 26s 
.. I Coloured,Maryl 40 60^ 

§ ^ Z>arA , 20/ 22^ 6/' 

1 I £o7i£ /<«/" 2 2i 6i j 
Eajtern Shore 16s 18s 
Carolina, new 24/ 26/ : 

0/i 3 ox 

' Wr/on p. lb 7 6i 1 ! s 3d j 
) Souchong 8s 

I '.ongo 

3s gd 5* 6i I 
2J4J 2* 5^ : 

f Mai. p.pipc^ol 82/ 10/ j 
j XryJon 40/ ] 

I Tencrijfc 22/ 10s 24/ I 
j F*jal,p.g.& td*t aM 

.g J rorf, per pipe 30I 40/ j 
S ] Ditto, per gal. gs ioi\ 
Ditto, per dot. bot. 30 r| 
fW 30^ 45 f. 

I Sherry, p. gal 6s gd gt 
[_ Malaga ±s 

Wax, bets, per lb is io\d is\ 

Current Prices of Public Securities, February 28, 1790. 

7. 9 d 
8j 8s 

Funded depreciation 
Unfunded ditto g 

Land-office certificates for warrant- 
ing 8; 6.. 

Ditto for patenting 8s 6d ^billing money of 8 1 , I ifor one 

Dollar money 5 per cent, on the face {Continental certificates 8s art 

J e fey money 125 advance I Facilities $S $i yt 

Pennfylvania New Emijfion 1 10 ad- 1 J erfey finals is gs\ 


Mills of Exchange, London, 90 days, 
Ditto, 60 days, 

Ditto, 30 days, 

5 6 57* 
5/5 6o 

Amflerdam, Co days, per guilder 

30 days, 
France, 60 days, per 5 livrej 

30 days, 

2/ Ilil 

7j 2i 


The Extracts from tlie Correfpondence of the prefent King of Sweden, (when a! 
young man) with his Preceptors, are received, and (hall have a place in our next] 

It was intended to give, in the prefent number, fome Account of fevcral curious 
and important Manufactories, lately eftablifhed in this Country — Some information 
has been furnifned to the Editor, for this purpofc ; and it is his defign to pay early at-, 
tention to fo interefting a fiibject : — in the mean time, fuch further information onj 
this head, as perfons, conducting Manufactories of that defcription, may think pro- j 
per to fupply, will be vtry acceptable. 

Several other articles are come to hand, and fhall be properly noticed. 

The Retailer acknowledges the receipt of Julia's Letter — He will p#y the ear-j 
lie ft attention to it. 

T^T The Reader is requefled to correct, with his pen, the following error, in our- 
laft, viz. Under the article Princeton, in the Chronology (page 6), fubllitute Ja- 
nuary in the place of June. 






















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Day ot Month I " 

fomc of my readers fay, are any animad- 
vcriions on it ! Why any pains taken 10 de 
cry and rail againlt an emotion, which is 
inherent in our nature, and therefore not 
to be avoided ! 

To which I beg leave to anfwer, That 
it is only inherent to our nature, as cuitom, 
which indeed is fecond nature, has made it 
fo, but not born with us, nor are we, by 
any laws of fatality, fubjecTted to it. 

It is only to the tirit impreffions the foul 
receives, that thele indelible marks of par- 
tiality I have mentioned, and which we 
fee every where, are entirely owing : the 
unhappy tendency is not therefore, proper 
ly fpeaking, our own, but infufed into us 
by others ; and, though, notwitflanding, 
it afterwards becomes fo powerful, as to 
put into fubjection all thofe nobler faculties, 
which are indeed the gift of Heaven, yet 
is it ftill but the depravity of human na- 
ture, not nature itfelf. 

Parents, who are poffefTed with a ilrong 
opinion of any thing thernfelves, are fure 
to inftil it into the minds of their children, 
and fo render prejudice hereditary ; where- 
as, if the young mind were left to itfelf, 
reafon would have room to operate ; we 
(hould examine before we judged, and not 
condemn, or applaud, but as the caule de- 
fer ved. 

Whoever is intruded with the care of 
youth, as parents are by nature, and go- 
vernors, tutors, and preceptors by comif- 
iion from them, mould, methinks, endea- 
vour rather to calm, than excite any vio- 
lent emotions in their pupils : they (hould 
convince them, that nothing but virtue is 
truly worthy of an ardency of love or am- 
bition, and that vice alone ought to be 
held in abhorrence. 

This Would be a laudable prejudice ! a 
prejudice which would go hand in hand 
with reafon, and fecure to us that peace arid 
happinefs, which all other prejudices are 
fure to deftroy. 

What fad effects have not many king- 
doms experienced by the hereditary preju- 
dice between two powerful families, who 
have hated each other, beeaufe their fore- 
fathers did fo ? As, for example, the 
Guelphs and Gibellines of Italy ; the Marii 
and Metelli of old Rome, and the Barons 
wars of England. 

The Story of Alcan.dkr. and Septimius. 

f Takco from a Byzantine Historian.] 

THENS, long after the decline of 

the Roman empire* ftill continued 

the feat of learning, politenefs, and wif loin. 

Theodon'c the Oflrogotu repaired the 

Alcander and Septimius, a Tah. ~ x 

fchools which barbarity was fuffeffng to 
fall into decay, and continued thofe pen- 
nons to men of learning which avaricious 
governors had monopolized. 

In this city, and about this period, Al- 
cander and Septimius were fellow ftudents 
together : the one the moll fubtle reafoner 
of all the Lyceum, the other the mod 
eloquent fpeaker in the academic grove. 
Mutual admiration foon begot a friendihip. 
Their fortunes were nearly equal, and they 
were natives of the two moil celebrated 
cities in the world : for Alcander was of 
Athens, Septimius came from Rome. 

In this Rate of harmony they lived for 
fome time together ; when Alcander, after 
palling the fir ft part of his youth in the in- 
dolence of philofophy, thought at length 
of entering into the bufy world ; and, as a 
Hep previous to this, placed his affections 
on Hypatia, a lady of exquifite beauty. 
The day of their intended nuptials was 
fixed ; the previous ceremonies were per- 
formetl ; and nothing now remained but 
her being conducted in triumph to the 
apartment of the intended bridegroom. 

Alcander's exultation in his own happi- 
nefs, or being unable to enjoy any fatisfac- 
tion without making his friend Septimius a 
partner, prevailed upon him to introduce 
Hypatia to his fellow Undent; which he 
did with all the gaiety of a man whofducd 
hiinfelf equally happy in friendlfhijp andlov-% 
But this was an interview fatal to the fu- 
ture peace of both ; for Septimius no 
fooner few her, but he was fmitten with an 
involuntary pallion ; and, though he u fed 
every effort to fupprefs defires at once fo 
imprudent and unjuft, the emotions of his 
mind in a fhort time became fo flrong, that 
they brought on a fever, which the phy- 
ficians judged incurable. 

During this illnefs, Alcander witched 
him with all the anxiety of fondiiefs. and 
broupht his miftrefs to join in thole amiable 
offices of friendship The fagacity of the 
phyficians, by theft means, foon difcover- 
ed that the canfe of their patient's dilor- 
der was love : and Alcander being apprized 
of their difcovery, at length extorted a 
confellion from the reluctant dying lover. 

It would but delay the narrative to de- 
fence the con/lift between love and friend- 
ihip in the bread of Alcander on thi* occa- 
fion ; it is enough to fay, that the Athe- 
nians were at that time arrived at fiich re- 
linement in morris, that every Tift a-, ".is 
carried to excefs. In fhort, forgetful ot 
his own felicity, he gave up hfa intended 
bride, in all her charms, to the young 
Roman. Th<y were married private!;, ly 

Alcander and Septimius, a Tale. 


hisconnivanae, and thisunlooked-forchange 
of fortune wrought as unexpected a change 
in the conititution of the now happy Septi- 
mius: in a few days he was perfectly recover- 
ed, and fet out with hisfair partner for Rome. 
Here, by an exertion of thofe talents which 
he was fo eminently poffeffed of, Septimiu6 
in a few years arrived at the highelt digni 
ties of the (late, and was constituted the 
city judge, or praetor. 

In the mean time Alcander not only felt 
the pain of being feparated from his friend 
and his miflrefs, but a profecution was alfo 
commenced againlt him by the relations of 
Hypatia, for having bafcly given up his 
bride, as was fuggelted, for money. His 
innocence of the crime laid to his charge, 
and even his eloquence in his own defence, 
were not able to withftand the influence 
of a poweiful party. He was call, and 
condemned to pay an enormous fine. How- 
ever, being unable to raife fo large a fum 
at ..he time appointed, his pofleffions were 
confiscated, he himfelf was dripped of 
the habit of freedom, expofed as a flaveinthe 
market-place, and fold to the higheft bidder. 

A merchant of Thrace becoming his 
purchafer, Alcander, with fome other 
companions of diitrefs, was carried into 
that region of defolation aud fterility. His 
fiated employment was to follow the herds 
of an imperious matter, and his fuccefs in 
hunting was all that was allowed him to 
fupply his precarious fubfiftence. Every 
morning awaked him to a renewal of famine 
or toil, and every change of feafon ferved 
but to aggravate his unfheltered diltrefs. 
After fome years of bondage, however, an 
opportunity of efcaping offered ; he em- 
braced it with ardour ; fo that travelling 
by night, and lodging in caverns by day, 
to fhorten a long fiory, he at lad arrived in 
Rome. The lame day on which Alcan- 
der arrived, Septimius fate adminiftering 
iultice in the forum, whither our wanderer 
came, expecting to be inftantly known, and 
publicly acknowledged by his former 
friend. Here he itood the whole day 
amongil the crowd, watching the eyes of 
the judge, and expecting to be taken notice 
of; but he was fo much altered by a long 
fucceffion of hardships, that he continued 
unnoted among the reft ; and, in the even- 
when he was going up to the praetor's chair, 
he »ua brutally repulfed by the attending 
! lfctors. Theattentionof thepoorisgenerally 
; driven from one ungrateful object to ano- 
; tber ; for night coming on, he found him 
felf under a neceflity of feeking a place to 
i lie in, and yet knew not where to apply. 
: All emaciated, and in rags as he was, none 

of the citizens would harbour fo much 
wretchednefs ; and fleeping in the ftreets, 
might be attended with interruption or 
danger : in fhort, he was obliged to take 
up his lodging in one of the tombs with- 
out the city, the ufual retreat of guilt, po- 
verty and defpair. In thismanfion of hor- 
ror, laying his head upon an inverted urn, 
he forgot his miferies for a while in fleep ; 
and found, on his flinty couch, more eafe 
than beds of down can fupply to the guilty. 
As he continued here, about midnight 
two robbers came to make thistheir retreat ; 
but happening to difagree about the divifion 
of their plunder, one of them (tabbed the 
the other to the heart, and left him welter- 
ing in his blood at the entrance. In thefe 
circumftances he was found next morning 
dead at the mouth of the vault. This na- 
turally inducing a farther enquiry, an alarm 
was fpread ; the cave was examined ; and 
Alcander, being found, was immediately 
apprehended, and accufed of robbery and 
murder. The circumftances againft him 
were Itrong, and the wretchednefs of his 
appearance confirmed fufpicion. Misfor- 
tune and he were now fo long acquainted, 
that he at lad became regardlefs of life. 
He detefted a world where he had found 
only ingratitude, falfehood, and cruelty; he 
was determined to make no defence ; and 
thus, lowering with rofolution, he vvai 
dragged, bound with cords, before the tri- 
bunal of Septimius. As the proofs were 
pofitive againft him, and he offered no- 
thing in his own vindication, the judge 
was proceeding to doom him to a mofl 
cruel and ignominious death, when the at- 
tention of the multitude was foon divided 
by another object. The robber who had 
been really guilty, was apprehended fellinrj 
his plunder, and, ftruck with a panic, had 
confefTed his crime. He was brought bound 
to the fame tribunal, and acquitted every 
other perfon of any partnerfhip in his guilt. 
Alcander's innocence therefore appeared, 
but the fullen rafhnefs of his conduct re- 
mained a wonder to the furrounding mul- 
titude ; but their aftonifhment was ftill 
farther encreafed, when they faw their 
judge ftart from his tribunal to embrace the 
fuppofed criminal : Septimius recollected 
his friend and former benefactor, and hung 
upon his neck with tears of pity and of 
joy. Need the fequel be related? Alcan- 
der was acquitted ; fhared the friendfhip 
and honors of the principal citizens of 
Rome ; lived afterwards in happinefs and 
eafe ; and left it to be engraved on his 
tomb, That no circumftances are fo defpe- 
rata, which Providence may not relieve. 


Columbian Magazine, 

For FEBRUARY, 1790. 


Remarks on the Meteorological Ta 
ble, prefixed to this Numher, 

THE firft column mows the corrected 
height of the barometer, every day, 
obferved before funrife, and at two o'clock 
P. M. : therefore, no further allowance 
for dilatation or condenfation ought to be 

The fecond column contains the mean 
height of the barometer, or the refult of 
the two daily obfervations. 

The third and fourth column fhow the 
daily double observation of Fahrenheit's 
and Reaurnur's Thermometer, made a 
the above dated times ; which are found 
by experience, to be the moft proper for 
finding the extremes of heat and cold, 
moifture and diynefs. 

Th^ fifth column fhows the mean de- 
gree of Reaumur's Thermometer, or the 
temperature of the day ; which i6 done 
by adding the two extremes, and dividing 
them by two : but if the degrees of one 
obfervation are followed by o, they muft 
be fubtra&ed from tne other, and the re- 
mainder divided by 2 — if nothing remains, 
the temperature of the day will be o. — 
The fame mle is obferved, to bring out ihe 
temperature of die month, and year. 

The variation is the diifere .<_e of the 
higheft and loweft elevation of the baro- 
ED< rer, and of the greatelt degree of heat 
and cold, in every month. 

Itis n \ .'ng to the wijhes of form 

gentlemen* both in this continent ana in 

Europe, that, contrary to eftablifhed cuf- 
Lom, both diurnal obfervatious of the ba- 
ometer and thermometer are ftated. 

It mud be obferved, that the Meteoro- 
logical inftruments are placed about thirty 
feet above ground, and expofed in the 
made. Want of inftruments, and of a 
convenient Situation, is the only reaScn 
why no obfervations of the Udometer and 
Hygrometer can be furnifhed. J. D. 

February, ijth, 1790. 

Reflections*?/? Prejudice. 

A MONG the vaudus errors, into 

i\ which human nature is liable to fail, 

there arefome, which people of a true un- 

ierllanding are perfectly fenfible of in 

themfelves, yet, either wanting a (Irength 

of refolution to break through what by 

long cuftom is become habitual, or being 

>f too indolent a temper to endeavour an 

1 Iteration, ft ill perfift to aft in contradic- 

iontothe dictates of even their own rea- 

fon and judgment. 

What we call prejudice, or pre-pofleffion, 
s certainly that which Hands fore in oil in 
the rank of frailties— It is the great ring- 
eaderof almoft all the miilakes we are 
guilty of, whether in the Sentiments of our 
hearts, or the conduct of our actions. 

As milk is the firft aliment of the body, 
"0 prejudice is the firft thing given to the 
.nind to feed upon.— No Sooner does the 
ihinking faculty begin to mow itfdf, than 
prejudice mingles with it, and Spoils its opera - 
ioiis:— whateverweaie then either taught, 


Reflet} ions on Prejudice. 

or happen of ourfelvcs to like or diflike, we 
for the mo ft part, continue to like or diflike 
to our life's end. So difficult it is to era- 
dicate, in age, that tendency we imbibed 
in our youth. 

It is this fatal propenfity which binds, as 
it were, our reafon in chains, and will 
not fuiTer it to look abroad, or exert any 
of its powers : — hence are our conceptions 
bounded ; — our notions meanly narrow ; — 
onr ideas, for the molt part, unjuit j — and 
ourjudgment fhamefully led aflray. 

The brightelt rays of truth in vain mine 
out upon us, when prejudice has (hut our 
eyes againit it: — we are rendered by it 
wholly incapable of examining any thing, 
and take all upon trull, that it prefents to 

This not only makes us liable to be 
gatky of injuitice, ill-nature, and ill-man- 
ners to others, but alfo infenfible of what 
is owing to ourfelves ; we run, with all 
Bar might, from a real and lubftantial good, 
and court a phantom, a name, a nothing. 
—We mittake infamy for renown, and ruin 
£jt advantage: in tine, wherever a ft rong 
prejudice prevails, all is fure to go amifs. 

What I would be unHerflood to mean, 
!>y the word prejudice, is not that liking; 
or diflikiug, which naturally arifes on the 
fight of any ntw object prefented to us. \ 
As for example : We may happen to fall i 
into the company of two perfons equally 

impulfe " The jaundice of the mind," and 
I think there cannot be a more juft compa- 
rison ; for, as the poet fays, 

As all icetns yellow to the jaundie'd eye, — 
So we may truly add, 

All takes from pruuJice's taint, its dye. 
Could we once diveft ourfelves of the 
prepofTeflions we have received, forget all 
the ftories we have been told, and examine 
all things with the unbiaffed eye of reafon, 
how widely different, from what they at 
prefent feem, would molt of them be found ! 
I am very fenfible, that this is a tafk ex- 
tremely difficult : becaufe the greateft mif- 
take of all, that prejudice makes us guilty 
of, is that of miitaking that enemy to rea- 
fon for reafon. — We look on its dictates as 
the dictates of truth, and think we fhould 
tin both againit reafon and truth, if we 
were not ftrenuous in adhering to what 
we imagine is right- 

We are all of us too apt to imagine we 
know ourfelves, when, in fact, there is no- 
thing in the whole world to which we are 
greater Grangers. Hard as it is to be per- 
fectly acquainted with the heart of a per-, 
(on we converfe with, we can yet form, 
by his actions, his words, or even his looks, 
a more true judgment of it, than of our 

And how, indeed, fhould it be other- 
wife ! Prejudice begets paflion, and paf- 
ion infallibly blinds our eyes, and (huts 

deferving.'and equally ftrangersto us, and [?»? ™™ againit every thing that offers to 

contradict it. 

That paffion efpecially, which is exci- 
ted this way, is infinitely of the worfl fort, 
becaufe all others, be they ever fo head- 
itrong and tenacious for a time, will at 
length grow cool, and by degrees fubfide ; 
but prejudice keeps the fire ot obitinancy 
eternally alive, and, finding frefh fuel fot its 
fupport, renders it rather more ttrong, than 
any way diminifhed, or lefi fierce by age. 

Yet, blind as we are to this error in our- 
felves, how quick fighted are we to difco- 
ver, and how ready to laugh at it in other 
people! Applauding our own ftrength of 
reafon, and vain of a fuperior fenie of 
things, a pcrfon who is prejudiced, though 
he fhould happen to be on the fide of truth, 
is the perpetual fubject of our ridicule ; 
and often it proves, that he, who thinks 
himfelf molt free from it, is in reality more 
guilty, than the very man hecondemns forit. 

To be plain, the world is wholly govern- 
ed by prejudice ; and I think it fcarce pof- 
iible to Intel any one perfon, whofe better 
judgment is nut, in a greater or lefs degree, 
perverted by it. 

How vain, then, and impertinent, will 

with neither of whom we either have, or 
expect to have, the leaft concern ; yet fhall 
we have, in fpite of us, and without be- 
iag able to give any reafon forit, greater 
good wifhes for the one, than the other. — 
But this is occaiioncd by that fympathy 
and antipathy which, I think it is very 
plain, nature has implanted in all created 
beings whatfoever. 

Tibia, therefore, is what we call fancy 
and. far different from that prejudice I am 
fpeaking of, and which indeed enters chief 
ly through the ears. When our notions 
of perfons and things, which we of our- 
feiives know nothing of, are guided, and 
oak- approbation or difapprobation of them 
excited merely by what we are told of them, 
and which afterwards we can never be con- 
vinced is unjuft, and perfevcre in an opi- 
nion, which no proofs of merit or demerit 
cjia change ; then it is that wc may be faid 
t*> be governed by that fettled prepofLfhon 
Serous to the world, and to our own 
characters, intereit and happinefs ; for the 
•ther ia light, volatile, and of little confe- 
A verv learned author calls this unhappy 

Ext raft from Dickfoti's Letters on Negro Slavery. 

Bxtraft from Dickson's Letters on Negro 

(Continued from page 23, and now concluded.) 

MUCH ftrefs hath been laid, by cer- 
tain authors, on this external, and, 
to hafty obfervers, illufive, fimilarity of 
the orang outang to the human fpecies. I, 
therefore, beg leave to adduce the very 
greatejl authority, on this point — an au- 
thority in which we ought to acquiefce, 
till the futle/l information be obtained, con- 
cerning an animal fo very fcarce, fo very 
fhy, and of which fo little is known. 
'* Speciem Troglodyte ab homine fipiente, 
Aiftinfiifimam, nee noftri generis nee Jam- 
guinis effe, ftatura quamvis fimillimam, du- 
bium non ejl ; ne itaque varietatem credas, 
quam fpla membrana nictitans abfolute ne- 
gate et manuum longitudo."* The elo- 
quent Buffon too, though he differ from 
the great mafter we have juft cited, in ma- 
ny particulars, yet agrees with him in 
this. " Throwing afide, therefore, this 
ill-defcri'aed beings and fuppofjng a little 
exaggeration, in the relation of Bontius, 


demn.* In the Doctor's journal (Eafler 
day 1779) we find him talking, with his 
black fervant, on the facfament. Would 
io able an obferver of mankind have con- 
verfed, on fucli a fubjed, with a creature, 
who, in his opinion, was but a little above 
an ape, and was not endowed witha ration- 
al and immortal foul ? If this be called an 
inftance of weaknefs, it mud be allowed to 
be a moft amiable one. 

" That a Negro flave, (fays Dr. Bcattie) 
who can neither read, nor write, nor 
fpeak any European language, who is not 
permitted to do any thing but what his 
mafter commands, and who has not a An- 
gle friend on earth ; but is univerfally con- 
fldered and treated, as if he 'were of a fpecies 
inferior to the human ; — that fuch a crea- 
ture fhould fo diftinguiih himfelf among 
Europeans 1 as to be talked of through the 
world as a man of genius, is furely no rea- 
sonable expectation. To fuppofe him of 
an inferior fpecies, becaufe he does not 
thus diftinguifn himfelf, is juft as rational 
as to fuppoie any private European of an 
inferior fpecies, becanfe he has not raifed 
himfelf to the condition of royalty."-]" — . 

concerning the modefty of his female orang \ it u wou , d be MicoUtu (fays Dr' Fer 
outang, there only remains a hrute crea- gufon) to &ffirmf as a difcovcry, that th 

ture, an ape, of which we fhall find more 
pointed information, in writers of better 

To the opinions of thefe great natural - 
ifts, I fhall add thofe of fome writers, 
whofe authority, in the literary world, is, 
at leaft, as great as that of Voltaire, 
Hume, Lord Kaimes, or any 'other fup 
porters of the contrary opinion. 

One of the juftly celebrated Doctor 
Johufon's biographers, blames him for hi 

fpecies of the horfe was never the fame 
with that of the lion ; yet, in oppofition 
to what has dropped from the pens of 
eminent writers, we are obliged to ob- 
ferve, that men have always appealed, 
among animals, a difinct and a fuperior 
race ; that neither the poffeffion of fnnilar 
organs, nor the approximation otfoape, nor 
the ufe of the hand, nor the continued in- 
tercourfe with this fovereign artift, have 
enabled any other fpecies to blend their na- 

prejudices againft the inhabitants of the ujrc w|th his . that> jn h|s riu i e ]} fate, he 
northern parts of this kingdom—Where- . found to be ahox 

ever we turn our eyes on human nature, 
we are fhocked with its vices, or mortified 
by its imperfection. ; but that the fublime 
moralift we are Ipeaking of, fhould have 
laboured under a pitiable narrownefs of 
foul, which, far from embracing all man- 
kind, could not find room for thefe two, I 
wifh I could fay, thefe three united king- 
doms, appears to me fo incredible, that I 
would willingly fuppofe his antipathy was 
more affected than real. Be this as it 
may, that prejudice, in my opinion, was 
more than compenfated by a prejudice of a 
vsry different nature : I mean that "fa- 
vour to Negroes" which the prejudiced 
biographer lias thought proper to con- 

* Linnaei Syfi nat. edit. 13. 

■f Smtllit's Buflbn, vol. 8. p. 80. 

Col. Mag. Vol. IV. No. 2. 

ve them, and in his gieat- 
eft degeneracy, he never defcends to their 
level. He is, in Ihort, a man in every 
condition ; and we can learn nothing of hia 
nature from the analogy of other ani- 
mals. "£ — Nor is the opinion of a writer, 
who appears to be riling faft into emi- 
nence, lefs favourable to the caufe of hu- 
manity. " Europe (fays he) affects to 
move in another 01-bit from the reft of the 
fpecies. She is even offended with the 
idea of a commsn defcent ; and, rather than 
acknowledge her anceftois to have been 
co ordinate only to other races of barba- 
rians, and in parallel c ircumllances, fhe 

* Sir J.Hawkins's Life of DocUor Jotinibr, at the 

•J- Eflay on Truth, p. 462. 
\ Civil Society, p. 8, 9. 

Extraafrdm Dick/on' s Letters on Kcgro Slavery* 

of the Africans, immediately , 'Or without 


breaks the unity of the fyftem, and, by 
imagining fpecitk differences, among men, 
precludes or abrogates their common 
claims. According to this theory, the 
dpprefion or extermination of a meaner race 
nvillno longer be fo pocking to humanity. 
Their dijlreffes 'will not call upon us fo loudly 
for relief. And public morality and the 
"laws of nations, will be confined to a few 
regions peopled with this more exalted fpe- 
cies of mankind."* 

But I muft not omit a very notable ar- 
gument againft the Africans, from their 
hair, which is obferved to be very differ- 
ent from that of the Europeans. But fo 
is the Jhort hair of the African fheep, 
from the long wool of the European. So 
j^the hair of moll rude nations, from that 
of polifhed ones ; and the hair of indivi- 
duals often differs from that of other in- 
dividuals of the very fame family. The 
North American Indians and the Tartars 
anoint their hair ; and the Negroes, who 
inhabit climates incomparably warmer, do 
not anoint it. The hair of the former, is 
long and lank, that of the latter Short 
and curling. That climate, of itfelf, hath 
a very considerable effect on the human 
hair, is evident from that of the Anglo- 
Americans; "for curled locks, fo fre- 
quent among their ancestors, are rare in 
the United States. "f The hair of the 
Negroes, with proper care, will grow to 
no contemptible length, as is evident from 
the queues of the black beaux and the tou- 
pees of the black belles. — But what, I 
pray, has the hair of the head to do with 
the intellect ? Were the understandings of 
men to be eftimated by the length of that 
excrefcence, who could hope to equal the 
race of maccaronies in intellectual endow- 
ments ? But their diminu'ive Iticks and 
their eye-fight, which has been lately fo 
defective as to oblige the youths to wear 
fpectaclcs, would, perhaps, be more pro- 
per mcafures of their understandings. 

I have endeavoured to anfwer the pre- 
ceding arguments, inthefenfe, in which, 
I know, they are taken by the vulgar, in 
the Welt -Indies; and in which, I l'ufpedt, 
they are understood by perfons who rank 
themfelves far above the vulgar, not in the 
Weft- Indies only, but even in this coun- 
try. Thofe reafoners infer natural inferio- 
rity from the peculiar colour and features 

* Dunbir's EfTays, p. 161. Surely thofe arc 
execrable theories, which plai-sly give fantfion 
to theopprcfHon or extermination of a part of the 
hu'nan race. 

f Doctor o\ S. Smith's Efliv. 

interpofing any connecting idea. Other 
defenders of this fyftem, if I rightly un- 
derstand them, ftate the argument thus. 
" The external peculiarities of the Ne-.] 
groes are fo many fpecific differences. The < 
Negroes, then, are a fpecies of men dif- I 
ferentfrom, and therefore inferior 'to the' 
whites." But, by what logic can inferio- 
rity be deduced from difference of fpecies, 
fuppofing it proved, any more than from 
the pretended fpecific differences? And, is 
it more agreeable to philofophy and to 
common fenfe to fay, he is of a different, 
and, therefore, an inferior fpecies of men, 
than to affirm, that he has a black fkin, and 
is, therefore, inferior ? — Some men may 
fuppofe it their interett to cherifh fuch vul- 
gar errors ; but it is the bufinefs of phi- 
lofophy to explode them ; especially when, 
as in the prefent inftance, they are evi- 
dently repugnant to the happinefs of man- 

Let it be therefore obferved, that, al- 
though the knowledge I have of the Ne- 
groes forbids me to fubferibe to the crude 
theories which have been fabricated in the 
clofets of philofophers, to prove that there 
are different fpecies of men ; or to pay any 
regard to the very unphilofophical accounts 
of ignorant, partial travellers, on which 
fuch theories are generally founded ; yet 
that I am far from arraigning the conclu- 
fions which may have been drawn by ana- 
tomilts from internal peculiarities in the 
bodies of Africans.^-But the mores ani* 
maliuw, are juitly regarded, as more cer- 
tain criteria of the mental powers, fo to 
fpeak, of animals, than any conclusion 
that can be drawn either from the external 
or internal peculiarities of their bodies. 
If, by long observation, and a habit of 
comparing the actions and of 
the Negroes, for example, with thofe of 
the whites, a man be fatisried that the one 
is as rational and intelligent, cateris pari- 
bus, as the other, it cannot be expected 
that any contrary opinions of anatomists 
Should Shake his conviction. To the learn- 
ed, I fubmit, whether fuch a conviction 
ought to be fo Shaken ? And whether, if' 
the Houynhnhnms were realized, we muft 
not account them rational beings, notwith- 
standing they had the bodies of horfes ? 

But, befides the conviction forced on 
my mind, by arguments from analogy and 
by the general behaviour of the Negroes, 
it may be proper to mention fome parti- 
cular fadts which have had their weight 
with me, and may have their weight with 

Extra -ft from Dickforfs Letters on Negro Slavery. 

>thers, in proving the natural equality of 
the Africans to the Europeans. Many fi- 
milar fadts, I mud have witneffed, which 
have flipped from my memory, though 
the conviction they worked remains ; juit 
as a man may forget the demonstration of 
a mathematical proposition, but may re- 
tain and, be convinced of the truth of the 

It cannot be denied that the Negroes, 
when put to a trade which happens to 
coincide with the bent of their genius, be 
come as good, and, fometimes, better ar- 
tificers, than white men. I have feen a 
white carpenter drudging with the faw, 
jacking plane, &c. and who could not 
lay off his work properly, while a black 
one was employed in making pannel-doors, 
fafh-windows, &c. I have known the car- 
penter's work of a good houfe of two (lo- 
ries, with a pavillion-roof, king-pofts, &c. 
planned and conducted, by a black car- 
penter. — On the doors of fome of the 
'Negro huts, I have obferved wooden 
locks, at once fimple and well contrived, 
and which it was impoffible to open, with- 
out the wooden key, which had two or 
three fquare, polifhed prominencies, adapt- 
ed to the internal parts of the lock, which 
I have alfo feen, but it cannot be explain- 
ed without a model. — In the learned Dr. 


makes but little ufc of his rational faculty, 
but it muft be remembered that v/eckanicai 
contrivance is one of the higheft depart- 
ments of reafon. Nor can this be other- 
wife ; fince the fcience of mechanics de- 
pends entirely on mathematics, and hath 
exercited the genius of an Archimedes, of 
a Galilseo, of an Emerfon, of a M'Lau- 
rin, and, above all, of that great orna- 
ment of this inland, and of the human 
ipecies, the immortal Neivton. 

The fondnefsof Negroes for mufic, and 
the proficiency they fometimes make in it, 
with little or no inltru£tion, is too well 
known to need fupport, from particular 
indances. This their tatte for melody 
and harmony, if it does not demonftrate 
their rationality, ought, at leaf!, to be ad- 
mitted as an argument in proving their 
humanity. —The fame may be faid of their 
patriotifm, a principle which glows in 
their bofoms, with an ardour which does 
them honor. That man muft be callous, 
indeed, who can remain an indifferent 
fpectator of a meeting of two poor Afri- 
cans, who may have been dragged from 
the fame diitridt of their dear native land. 
On fuch occafions, after all parties had 
got fairly on 'their centers, I have affected 
to inquire into thecaufe of their emotion, 
and have generally been anfwered by ano- 

VV» vvlLliUUL a H1UU1.I. — i — All uuv ivuiuvu .ft-' I • i.*iii_* iiun. ^ v. hi *_ l t* l I J UW\.IS ti 11 l V> _ I v. <.! i^j *»'iv 

Burney's Hillory of Mufic, there are fi- Ittter queftion, exprefiive of extreme aflo- 

gures of feveral ancient mufical inltruments, 
by a comparison with which, the banjah 
or coromantin drum-would loofe nothing. 
This laft is a moft ear-piercing inftrument; 
but, being prohibited, is but feldom ufed, 
by the Negroes, in Barbadoes. The black 
muficians, however, have fubltituted, in 
its place, a common earthen jar, on beat- 
ing the aperture of which, with the ex- 
tended palms of their hands, it emits a 
hollow found, refembling the more ani- 
mating note of the drum. — As filver- 
fmiths and watch-makers, the Negroes 
|(how no want of genius. I have employed 
a black watch-maker who was intiru&ed 
in the art, by a molt ingenious mechanic 
and natural philofopher, in Bridge-town. 
That worthy perfon (now deceafed) was 
bred a mathematical inttrument maker, in 
lLondo.n ; and I knew him to be a perfon 
of too ftridt probity to have put people's 
watches into improper hands. — But, with- 
out enumerating fuch inflances, I might, 
at once, have appealed, for a proof of 
African ingenuity, to the fabric and co- 
lours of the Guinea cloths, which moft 
people muft have feen. By the word me- 
\bani.Q, is generally meant a. perfon who 

nifhment, that 1 fhould be ignorant of it : 
" Kai ! we no counteryman, Mafia ?'* 
One of Voltaire's marks of the Superiori- 
ty of the Iroquois and Algonquins over 
thofe whom he affe&s to call European la- 
vages, is, that the former have a country, 
and that they love and revere that country, 
which he, too Severely, perhaps, iniinu- 
ates the latter do not.f If tin's be a j:;ffc 
criterion, then are the Africans inictior 
to no nation upon earth. 

I have heard the Negro chaplain of a 
bhek corps preach to a large audience of 
whites and blacks. Though his dialect, 
was, by no means, good; yet the weight 
of his arguments, and the native, un- 
taught energy of his delivery were fuch as 
to command attention, and to rcprefs ridi- 
cule. He had a colleague who gave out 
a hymn (I think from Watts) and payed 
extempore. His dialett was even worje 
Ithan that of the preacher; but his pnur 
was fuch as would have rendered laughter 
criminal, efpecially when he implored t!|£ 
Almighty Father of Mercies, with tears-. 

* Strange ! A re not we WJWfrjWj 

f6 Extracl front Dickfon's 

to behold, with an eye of pity, the de- 
plorable ignorance and debafement of his 
countrymen. — A black teacher, who is 
employed by feveral white families in 
Bridge-town, writes a variety of hands 
very elegantly. I do not fay that this 
implies any great (trength of reafon ; but 
it implies a tafte for the beauty arifing 
from the combination of flowing lines and 
accurate proportions, a faculty very near- 
ly allied to reafon. Yet more : he teaches 
EngKfh and arithmetic ; and, I believe, 
afliils a ceitain able geometrician and wor- 
thy man in instructing the pretended fupe- 
rior race, in mathematics. Above all, 
be has the reputation of being an honeit 
man, and an humble, fincere Chriftian. 

To thefe inftances of African capacity, 
I (hall add two remarkable ones. " Want 
ed to purchafe, two Negro carpenters, one 
of which mud be able to carry on buiinefs 
by himfelf," &c. Barbadoes Gazette, 
March I, 1786. — " To be fold, two va- 
luable Negro carpenters, one of which is a 
comDlete wheel-wright, wind mill, and 
houfe carpenter," &c. Barbadoes Mer- 
cury, October 2', 1-86. Would not an 
European carpenter who could, with any 
propriety, be faid to be complete in thefe 
three branches, be accounted, rather an 
ingenious man ? 

Of nine Negro (hip-carpenters, now in 
his Majeity's yard at Antigua, three can 
read very well, four read in the bible, and 
two in the fpelling-book. 

I lately faw a lection of the ftrata of a 
mine in Scotland, which was laid down 
by the proprietor's black ftrvant, who is 
very ingenious in other refpedts, and en- 
tirely felf taught. Among other arts, he 
excells in turnery. He plays on a very 
neat pair of bag-pipes, which he himfelf 
made. They are tipt, at the, ends, with 
common bone. 

Doctor Barton tells me, that he was in- 
formed by a gentleman on whofe veracity 
he could depend, that the belt phyiician 
now in New-Orleans, is a Guinea Negro, 
who gives a rational account of his prac- 
tice, according to the reigning theories. 
Anthony Benezet, author of an account of 
Guinea, devoted much of his time, and 
his whole fortune to the eltnblifhment of a 
Negro-fchool in Philadelphia. That wor- 
thy perfon declared, in Doctor Barton's 
hearing, that, were he to make a compari- 
fon between the genius of the Europeans, 
and the Africans, it would be rather in fa 
vour of the latter. 

To the Latin Ode of Francis Willi- 

Letters on Negro Slavery. 

ams,* " Denique venturum, fatfs voTvert- 
tibus, annum,' &c. the beautiful poeti- 
cal pieces of Phillis Wheatly,^ and the 
letters of Ignatius Sancho, we appeal for 
fpecimens of African literature. — Have 
their columniators obliged the literary 
world with any fuch fpecimens ? 

But, for a decifive proof not only that 
the Negroes are, but that, notwithstand- 
ing the late pretences to the contrary, they 
are held and reputed to be rational, moral 
agents, I appeal to every black code, which, 
under the facred name of la-ivs, was ever 
compiled, by the Europeans, on the other 
fide of the Atlantic. Laws — penal laws, 
dictated by the fpirit of a Draco, if in- 
deed, Tyranny, were (he to appear upon 
the earth, would not claim them as her 
own — laws, in which harfh reftraints are 
impofed on, and cruel punifhments threat* 
en belplefs flaves — laws, which have redu- 
ced oppreflion to the grave formality of 
fyftem, have been enacted to govern the 
Negroes. But laws are enacted to govern 
rational, moral, accountable beings only. 
It follows therefore, either that the Ne- 
groes are, or that the legiflators 'were not 
rational, moral beings — or elfe, that thofe 
black codes are founded in the molt con- 
fummate injuftice. 

But this argument may be carried a ftep 
farther. On the fuppolition that the Ne- 
groes are not moral agents, co-ordinate 
with the whites, I allied with what jujlice y 
and I might have allied with what fenfe, 
the pretended fuperior race fhould inflict 
on them exemplary punifhments, and, fome- 
times, doom them to expire by horrible 
tortures ? — Thofe who direct the labour* 
of cattle, Itimulate them to exertion byj 
(tripes. Dog?, being more fagacious, are] 
punifhed by the huntfman and the (hep- 
herd, with more feverity, and with fome 
little view to improvement. Every need- 
lefs (t ripe however, even on dogs, or horfes 
or aires', is accounted 'i mark of the in-. 
flictor's barbarous difpofition. But noi 
perfon thinks of inflicting exemplary punifh- 
ments on brutes. Boys, convicted ofl 
crimes, are treated more moderately thatv; 
grown perfons. Extreme and unavoida- 
ble ignorance always weighs, or ought to; 
weigh, more or lefs, in favour of an of-J 

* Publifhed in the 2d vo!u:ne of the Hiitory ol 
Jamaica, cum noti* hyper criticis. 

t For fome account of this moll extraordinary 

Af:ican girl, and fome e'icgant fpecimens of her poeij 

try, fee the Rev. Mr. Clarklon's excellent EfTay oii 

the Slavery and Commerce of the HumanSpccies, 2d. 

dit. p. i2t. 

Extr aft from Dickforfs Letters on Negro Slavery. 

fender, except in cafes of murder, or 
other very flagrant crimes. Even among 
the Hottentots, " The murderer has his 
brains beat out, and is buried with the 
murdered perfon, if he be a man of qua- 
lity ; but a fimple, ignorant body may pay 
a ranfom.'** Thus punifhments are, or, 
in general, ought to be, proportioned to 
the moral improvement of the offender. 
But exemplary punifhments are inflicted on 
the Negroes ; more fevere punifhments than 
the whites, for the fame crimes, are 
doomed to fuffer ; therefore, if their ref- 
pedtive punifhments be proportioned to 
their mental faculties, the Negroes (for 
whofe infiruftion the laws, by which they 

are judged, make no effectual provifion) j ty could ever have exilled in the world. 
are moral agents of an order fuperior to And it may be afked, what would become 

rale of the Principia, and the conclujion of 
M'Lautin's account of the Newtonian 

Upon the whole, Sir, if I have failed 
in proving that the rational faculties of the 
Africans are equal, in every refpecl, to 
thofe of the Europeans, I muft confefs 
myfelf ignorant of thofe diftinguifhing 
marks, on which the latter found their 
claim of fuperiority.* 

But, although it could be proved that 
the understandings of the Africans are 
weaker than thofe of the Europeans, it 
will, by no means, follow that the latter 
have a right to enflaye them ; iince, on this 
principle, no fuch thing as national liber- 

the whites — if not, they are treated with a 
criminal degree of injuftice and cruelty. 
Our adverfaries are welcome to take ei- 
ther fide of the alternative. Of all the 
figures in logic, none is fo formidable to 
fophiftry as the dilemma. 

Again, it has been denied, that the Ne- 

j of the liberties of the lower orders, even of 
Britons, were their title to thofe liberties 
to depend on powers of reafon or of ima- 
gination, which bore but a fmall propor- 
tion to thofe of the great men who have 
done honor to this ifland and to man- 
kind ? 

groes are capable of carrying on a chain of; Let the Europeans be fuperior in reafon. 

reafoning ; but it cannot be denied, that 
even in Africa they attain to the know 

Ought they not alio to be fuperior in point 
of jujlice and mercy ? And are they fupe- 

ledge of the leading principles of mora- j rior injuftice, and mercy ? — Let the Afri- 

lity, and even of that moil fnblime and 

exalted of all truths, the exiftence of the 

living and true God, the Creator and pre- f the paj/ions of the Negroes prove that they 

ferver of all things, which, according to were not created to be flaves ; any more 

Hume, "is a ftamp fet by the Divine .than the fierce lion was created to 'abide 

cans tell ? 

But," fetting afide reafon altogether, 

Workman, on human nature.''^ Now, if 
the Negroes arrived at this truth, in the 

by a maker's crib, or to harrow the val- 
lies after him,'f which appears to have been 

ave perceived that and other great truths' ing the utter repugnancy of flavery to 
ituitivety. If fo, not their equality only, j their nature. That a creature fliould have 
ut their fuperiority to white men will be I been formed for a Hate which he abhors, is 

ordinary way, then we muft conclude their , the dcflination of the hovfeand the ox. 
faculties to be equal to our's ; but if, as j Thofe who complain of the paffionate 
their enemies infinuate, they be incapable I vindictive tempers of the /Africans, cannot 
of forming a chain of reafoning, they muft | i'urely be aware that they are demonftrat- 

intuit iv 
but their ftp 

demonftrated. Of this faculty of arriving 
at demonftrable truths, per factum, and of 
•" p-rafpine a fyftem by intuition," <we have 
fto more idea than a man born blind has or 
colours. We humbly afcribe it to fuperi- 
or orders of beings, and, in a tranfeend- 
ent and infinite degree, to the Deity. 
This is nobly expreffed by the great Dr. 
Barrow, in a pious addrefs to the Deity, 
prefixed to his Apollonius. " Tu autem, 
Domine, quantus es geometra ? — Tu uno, 
hasc omnia, intuitu perfpecta habes, abfque 

an exception to the general ceconomy of 
the univerfe. That beings created for fla- 
very, mould be endowed with ftubborn, 
rebellious, unconquerable pafifbns which, 
fpurn the yoke, and often prove fatal both 
to themfelves and to their lords, is a para- 
dox which we leave thofe of their lords" 
who believe it, to explain, by the newly 
broached theories of flavery. The theories 
of fcepticifm, which have helped them 
out, on other occations, will affill them 

catena confequentiarum, abfque txdio demon- * " Upon the whole (lays ^^^^^ 
Lw,...-.;i» R« a lf„ the frUlinin o.v,- ^nce concurs in provmg, that mankind are notttm 

Jtrationum." See alfo the fchoiium gen, 

* Ogilby's Africa, p. 594. 

} Natural Hiltory of Religion. 

^fedof fpecies tjjentially different from each other ; 
chat, on foe contrary, there was originally but one 
peci™." Saicllie's Bulfoti, v. 8. p. aoo. 

' + Job. 

Ext rail from Dickfon's Letters on Negro Slavery. 

<?n this. — It would be ftrange indeed, if 
there were not a clofe analogy, a certain 
fympathetic affinity, between the para- 
doxes of flavery and thofe of infidelity! 

I am not fo confident of the ftrength 
of my reafonings on this, or any other 
part of my fubject, as to fuppofe that they 
Will put fophiftry to filence. The changes 
will no doubt be repeated on a fet of batter- 
ed and exploded arguments, which, taken 
together, form fuch a group of abfurdity, 
as has been feldom prefeuted to the public. 
*•?** Evils, it has been faid, are permitted 
by Providence. It is vain for man to at- 
tempt to (lop their progrefs. No reform 

Such, in their primitive nakednefs, are 
the arguments urged in fupport of Negro 
(lavery. Trulling, as I do, that they have 
no manner of weight with you — and God 
forbid arguments for flavery fhould have 
weight with any member of the Britilh 
legislature ! ! 

I have the honor to be, &c, 


I would fooner, Sir, 

undertake to prove, by force 

" Of argument, a man's ne horfe,"-f 

than to aniwer all the objections that have 

been urged again II the bona fide harmlefs 

ition ought "to be aimed at. 'Whatever is, Idoftrinc That the Africans are men. We 

is right. '-=-The Africans had got into a 
vile habit of cutting each other's throats. 
We pitied the poor creatures, and attempt- 
ed to relieve them. For thi3 purpofe we 
encouraged humane Chriilians to drag 
from their miferable native land, a fet of 
Ugly, black, flat-noled, thick-lipped, 
Woolly-headed, ignorant, favage heathens. 
**- We deny that we have fhut out every 
ray of light from their minds; that we 
have cauled them to ferve with rigour ; 
that our fcourges have lacerated their bo- 
dies ; that the iron of our chains hath de- 
bafed their very fouis. Dare any maa af- 
firm that ever we opprtffed them ? — Yet, 
under every means of improvement, and, 
although they enjoy all the advantages 
of Engl if? peajants, they ft ill continue 
contemptibly liupid and ignorant, and 

incorrigibly thieviih and obllinate ?— 
They have, at times, even dared to que 
ftiun our right to enflave them, the/^r^ bonts .°^he Scotch. But it is remarkable 

(hall, however, endeavour to apply the 
" teft of truth," to fome of thefe very 
pertinent and very profound objections. 

The Negroes, it is objected, have a fe- 
tid fmell. I admit that lome Negroes have 
a fetid fmell, and fo has every man, more 
or lefs, who toils and fweats much, in a 
fultry climate, and neglects bathing. 
Many of the Negroes, however, have no 
peculiar fmell, that I could ever difcover. 
— But, granting it to be univerfal, what 
connection has a fetid fmell with the intel- 
lect ? If there be philofophers, however, 
who can fcent out men of parts, by power 
of nole, we felicitate our country on the 
acquilition. Such intellectual ferrets may 
have their ufes. 

But the Negroes have fiat nofes. — How 
this became a national feature among the 
Africans, I cannot account, any more 
than I can account for the high cheek 

right of the$r»ngeji. — Ergo they are infe- 
rior to us, in their mental faculties. They 
are little, if at all, fuperior to the Orang 
Outangj, and were created to be our flaves. 
*-~-£rgo the vaft continent of Africa was 
peopled with one hundred and fifty milli- 
ons of the accurfed ojfsprinv ef Ham., to 
ferve as a nurfery of flaves, for a few little 
iflands, at the of fome thousands 
of miles : that, by means of their toil, 
the favoured poilerity of Japhet, (who 
from policy were one day to extirpate the 
original inhabitants of thofe iflands) might 
)>ave rum — for their punch, and fugar for 
their tea".^-(^E. D. 

Cor. Hence " Negro favery is not on- 
ly compatible with found policy, but alfo 
with j ufice and humanity™* 

that it is yielding to civilization. The 
nofes of native domeilics are lefs flat than 
thofe of native field Negroes, and the nofes 
of thefe laft than thofe of the Africans.f 
We decline ufingany Shandean arguments 
on this fubject, but we own we are migh- 
tily inclined to expofe the abfurdity of an 
argument imported, from the naial pro- 
montory, not by Slaiukenbergius, but by a 
certain French apologijl for flavery, who has 
found means to iniinuate himfelf into the 
good graces, even of Englilhmen, to the 
great danger of the liberties of this land. 
He infifts, that as, "the creatures are all 
over black, and have fat nofes, they 

*" Apology for Negro flavery, by the author of 
letters to a young planter." This author hzsjericu/l\ 
quoted tl;c Spint of Laim, in luppurt of ilavcry 

Monte fquieu has treated that fubject in an admirable 
(train oi leveie, but deferved, irony; but it is im-, 
,'ollible to prcls into this vile fervice, a writer, of 
.vhofedetellation of flavery ihe ridiculoys argument,* 
he ufes, will be a lading argument. 

t Hudibras. 

* t>ce Di.H. S- Smith's, Effay, p. 92. 

Extra ft from Dick/on* s Letters on Negro Slavery* *« 

ought not to be pitied."* Admirable rea-j with, and fuftaining the drudgery of, 
fiming i juftas if a man mould fay, a poor j brute bealts, than the African Anthropl 
old woman is full of wrinkles, and, there- \phagi, who have fomethinp- in them which 

fore, ought to be burnt as a witch ; if, in- 
deed, the gu'lt of betnvitching be not of 

too much refembles the old leaven of hu- 
man nature, ever to be profitable, as la* 

tener chargeable on the charms of young, I bouring cattle. The philofophers too, 

who have long fearched Tor the aborigines 
of mankind among apes and drills, and 
fquare in a room. Hence an obliquity of fatyrs, and monkey's, and baboons, will be- 
intellect. — The flreets of many towns in come more intimately acquainted with 
this kingdom, and even of this metropolis, | their fpecies, and the Troglodyte ideas 
are crooked. If our ancestors, who laid and language will become their own. In 

out thofe Itreets, were to be half as much 
calumniated as the Neg'oes have been, it 
would probably be afferted, that they 
could not draw a flraight line, between two 
given points, in the fame plane. i 

Linnsus and BufFon afferted that there 
Was no affinity between the Orang Outang 
and the human fpecies. But we are hap- 
py in announcing to certain philofophers, 
that all their doubts, refpecting this mat- 
ter, are likely to be foon cleared up. There 
is a purpofe of marriage between a Tro- 
glodyte gentleman and a Caffrarian lady.f 
If a match can be brought about between 
two perfons of rank, the vulgar will foon 
imitate their betters, in this, as in other 
notable improvements. Certain goflippers 
who think themfelves amply qualified to 
riegociate fuch an affair, have, for fome 
time, feduloufly laboured to effect it. Nor 
is this to be wondered at ; tor as nothing 
improves animals fo much as croffing the 
breed, the Welt- Indian market may, thus, 
come to befupplied with choice anthropo- 
morphite mules— animals likely to be more 
durable and better adapted for herding 

* See Mnntefquieu's^/>«/c^v for Slavery, commonly 
called the Spirit of Laws, b. XV. ch. 5. 

t " Ludicrous (read indecent or fkoc king) as the opi- 
nion may feean, I do not think, that an Orang Outang 
hufband would be any diigrace to a Hottentot female." 
Hiit. of Jamaica, vol 2, p. 364. It is mortifying to 
lee an author of fo much general merit, milled Dy 
travellers, whole only aim leems to have been, to fill 
the world with monllers, of their own creating. 
Linnaeus and Buffon thought very differently " Inter 
Sirmas (fays the former from Apolloriorus') inter 
Jimias ve'f intent oportet c'Jefuniam " Syft. Nat. edit. 

13. " Whatever refemblance takes place, there- 

f,re ; between the Hottentot and the Ape, the inte.val 
which i'eparates rhem is immenje.'* Smellie's Buffon, 
vol. 8. p. 67 -—- -Doctor Sparrman, a refpcclable pu- 
pil of Linnaeus, tells us, li he thinks it his duty to 
flfow how much the world has been milled, and the 
Hottentot nation been mifreprefented." He affirms 
that all the organs of the Hottentots, of both fexes, 
are the fame witli thofe of other people; that their 
perfons are flender, their colour an umber-yellow, 
their hair frizzed, and that " their tout enftmbU indi- 
cates health and content." Voyage to the Cape of 
Good Hope. v. i. p. i8i. 

fliort, fo many good effects may be ex- 
pected to refult from this match, that we 
wait with impatience, for its confumma- 
tion, which, weprefume, has been poll* 
poned, till the youth mall have finifhed 
his ftudies, and taken his degrees at the 
univerfity.*— -We are told that Jockoo'8 

parts and ready wit 

** Prove him for various learningfit;"f- 
fo that, when he (hall emerge into the phi- 
lofophical world, his name will, no doubt, 
be decorated with cabaliftical combina- 
tions of the Roman capitals and his 
knowledge -box brim full of entities and 
quiddities, and the late admirable difeove- 
ries about the materiality and mechanifnt of 
hiunan and beftial fouls. Of the newtheo* 
ries of the different fpecies of men, and the 
near affinity of the black fpecies to other mon* 
kies, he is fo perfect a mailer, that, for 
aught we know, he may have already 
compofed fome elaborate lectures, on that 
fubjeel, in the Troglodyte language, and 
which, it is probable, he will publicly de- 
liver, when an audience can be collected, 
who fufficietitly underiland that " biffing 
dialed. *% To hear the honors of the 
race vindicated, by a learned and eloquent 
individual, will be a gratification of which 

*Hilfory of Jamaica, vol. 2, page 370. 

+ Gay. 

if "Linnaeus, upon the authority of fome voyage- 
wi iters, affirms, that they conveil'e together in a kind 
of hiding dialect." Hiltory of Jamaica, vol. 2 page is not quite probable that., after Linnaeus had 
pointedly delivered his opinion on this fubject 
(which our author has, but we have not omitted) he 
Ihoald inlinuate that Orang Odtangs articulate any 
thing like human foeech. The words of that great 
man are, i; loquitur fibilo ;" that is, when fairly 
tranflatcd, " he freaks, or ft fpcaks by biffing," juft 
as a aoofe may be ("aid to do, or as a turkey may be 
laid to fpeak by gabbling, &c. On what authori- 
ty are we to reft the flfocnin 5 p acV.e with which the 
Negroes in the heat of prejudice (for every man ha* 
his prejudices) are, feveral limes, charged j and a par- 
ticular inlUnce of which is faid to have happened :n 
England, a few centuries ago (vide vol. 2. page 3 13 J 
Thole itoriesdifgracc a work, in many refpefts, va. 
luable; elpecially as they itaud, unfupporicO by any 
authority, 01 fhadow wf authority. 

■General Reflexions en Tajfe. 

no being can form an idea, who is unac- 
quainted with the refined plcafure rcfulthig 
from the eftablifhmcnt of a favourite tnij- 
anthropic, antimofaic, or antkhfiftta* hy- 

If a certain philofopher formed his "per. 
ceptions," alias doubtful doubts, into " bun- 
dles" why may not we pack, up the refufe 
of our objections, in the fame way, and 
thus difpatch them in the lump ? 

The calves of the legs of Negroes arc 
high ; their faces concave ; their noitrils 
tumid; their lips thick ; their eyes round ; 
iheir chins prominent, Sec. Sec. &c. — All 
the world knows, Sir, that honeil John 
Bull has cheeks like a trumpeter ; that his 
Si/It Peg, poor girl ! though, now, treat- 
ed as (he mould be, both by her brother 
and by Mrs. Bull, ftill has a thin vifage 
and higfh cheek bones; that Lenvis Baboon 
has a pair of long lanthorn jaws ; that 
Lord Strutt has a fallow hide ; and that 
the whole outward man of Nic Frog is 
clumfy and uncouth. J et the philofophers 
account for thofe Unking differences, in 
the features and figure of fuch near neigh- 
bours and relations ; and let them decide 
which of thofe perfonages is entitled to 
precedence, in point of intellect, before 
they fet cut on their travels, in qneft of 
different fpecies of men, which are already 
more than half formed, in their own plaftie 

We cannot difmifs this part of our fub- 
ject without animadverting on a paffage of 
the French apologijl beforemeniioned, in 
which he not only doubts of the human 
nature of the Africans ; but, what is nvorfe, 
rnoit wantonly fneers at the Chriftiauity of 
the Europeans : as if all the world had not 
experienced how confeientioufly they prac- 
tice their divine religion, and how grateful 
they are to the author of it, for that and 
all its concomitant blefiings. t* It is im- 
poffible (fays he) for us to fnppofe that 
thefe creatures are men ; for the allowing 
them to be men, will lead to a fufpicion 
that we are not Chriftians."* If this be 
not irony, it is fomething very like it. But 
finely he does not mean it to be generally 

ters of certain nations, will be at a lofa 
which molt to celebrate, their enlightened 
zeal for their holy religion, or their entire 
conformity to her benevolent precepts, in 
their dealings with the fimple, uncorrupt- 
ed part of mankind ; but particularly with 
the Africans. Language will link under 
the dignity of actions which totally eclipfe 
all Greek and all Roman fame*. 

General Reflections o«Taste. 
[Tranflated from the German.] 

THE celebrated Sulzer fays, that to 
form and rectify the tafte, is an af- 
fair of great national importance." In 
this he is undoubtedly right ; and every 
peifon of found judgment mult be convin- 
ced of the juflnefs of his obiervation. Do 
we not, indeed, obferve numbers of peo- 
ple of all ranks, wHo employ every care and 
attention to exhibit taile in every thing 
that furrounds them ? It may, therefore, 
be of fome importance to fecond fo gene- 
ral an emulation. Thofe things, however 
in which people affect molt to fhow that 
they poffefo talle, are fo badly chofen, that j 
few appear to have a clear idea of what 
Sulzer means ; for were this not the cafe, ' 
we fhould not find that reading filly ro- < 
mances and infipid comedies, and giving , 
into all the ridiculous extravagancies of ; 
fafhion, would be fufficient to make any I 
one be confidered as a man of tafte. Such 
falfe ideas have a fenfible influence upon 
literature, and the productions of the fine 
arts. It becomes then neceffary to deftroy 
thefe falfe ideas, by demonitrating that all 
the grand effects, attributed to tafte, be- 
long only to that which is founded upon 
truth and propriety. 

A found and jult judgment, capable of 
comparing and weighing objects and their 
properties ; a fine genius, a lively imagina- 
tion, and great fenfibility, fufceptible of 
fudden and delicate fenfations, are the ef- 
fential qualities which muft be united, in 
order to form a man of tafte. Whilft tafte 
never deviates from the invariable rules of 

truth, it will always be a fure guide to- 
applied. Probably he alludes only to his wards the beautiful. Education, in this 
own countrymen. Be that as it may, we re fpcc~t, has a wonderful influence, and 
generous Britons have the comfort to be perhaps many of thofe learned men, who 
confeious, tha't no fuch illiberal fufpicion are f jj u j c c £t e emed in our day, woidd 
is applicable to our countrymen. — Hilton- 
ans yet unborn in delineating the charac- 

+ I have, fomewhere, I think in Hume's EfTays, 
feen the modern French compared to the Athenians, 
* See Montcfquieu's Apology for Slavery, h. xv. ch. ! and the Britifh to the Romans. The former, it is 
p. the title* of which is, •« C»1 the Slavery of the Xc- ' well known, were mild, and the latter were rigorous 
„ rocs >» | mailers of flaves. 

Central Reflections on Taite. 


have been excellent wri'ers, had they had 
the good fortune to live in the elegant 
ages of a Pericles, or aa Auguitus. I am, 
however, far from afferting that there are 
men whofe talleis abfolutely bad, as Ger- 
rard advances in his eflay on tafte ; they 
will, at leait, have juft ideas of certain ob- 
jects, and confequently be fomecimes able 
to difcover what is really beautiful. A 
ftorm rifiug majeftically flow above the ho- 
rizon prefents to the civilized fpectator, 
as well as to the favage, a fpeclacle equally 
grand and fublime. Who can behold with 
indifference the admirable mixture of co- 
lours dilplayed in that phenomenon, the 
rainbow ? 

A very ftriking difference may, howe- 
ver, be remarked between the ideas which 
individuals, and even different nations, 
form of beauty, as it relates to vifible ob- 
jects, and principally to the moft perfect 
of all, man. An imagination more or 
lefs active, the affociation of foreign ideas, 
prejudices of education, and a thoufar.d 
other inexplicable caufes, have alio a very 
fcntible influence in this refpeft. A New 
Zedander is tranfported at the fight of a 
[atooed vifage ; an inhabitant of New 
Holland thrufts the bone of a bird through 
the cartilages of his nofe, and this orna- 
ment, doubtlefs, appears to him to be ex- 
tremely beautiful. 

naments, arife in the room of temples 
which difplay all the noble fimplicity of 
architecture. The mufician, iullead of 
calling forth tears by ample and melodious 
tones, wanders then in the intricacies of 
difficult and iludied modulations, in order 
to obtain the applaufes of the multitude. 

Beauty, in the moil extenfive fenfe of the 
word, is afcribed to every thing which 
pleafes us, and tafte attaches itfelf to eve- 
ry object which, by the great and the 
fublime, excites admiration and altonifh- 
ment. A ftorm at fea; the enormous rocks 
of Terra del Fuego, piled upon one ano- 
ther with horrid and majellic grandeur, 
and covered with fnow ; a burning tor- 

r • i . - 

rent of lava, which, with the noife of 
burfting thunder, throws itfelf into the 
lea, and makes it recede from the fhores ; 
a pure fky, fuch as Brydone beheld in the 
night-time on the top of Mount iEtna, 
while innumerable orbs fparkled with de- 
lightful bvightnefs over his head, and 
an immenfe gulph bellowed below his feet; 
are grand fcenes oL nature, which a man 
of taite will always contemplate with ex- 

The property of pleafing is net confined 
to phylical beauty alone ; the imagination 
and the mind may create images which pro- 
duce the fame effect. The thought that 
beyond the miiky way there may be a 
thoufand others of the fame kind, midt 

I fhall pafs over in filence all that is ge- 
nerally faid on regularity, exactnefs of j excite the jaicil exalted ideas in the mind 
proportions, and uniformity. I fhall only (of a man of taite. Repeated meditation 
obferve, that the famenefs of the latter Ion the fublime, and a frequent contem- 
muit be interrupted every time the artifl ' plation of the beautiful and the agreeable, 
perceives that it is neceffary to roufe the nourifh and purity the taite, and brings 
attention. Immenfe plains, where a con J it towards perfection. The flights of a 
tinual uniformity reigns, fatigue the eye wild imagination will aflonifh thofe who 
of the traveller. Order ought to facili- 1 are not acquainted with the laws by which 
tate the perception of the whole. Large i invention ought to be regulated and put in 
groups, formed by ftriking objects, do 5 practice. The favage American is iranf- 
BOt leave the fpectator . leifure to obferve i ported with pleafure, when he hears the 
the want of order, they pleafe and engage I found of his rude inflrument formed of a 
his attention by their majeftic grandeur. gourd; certainly he would not be fo, had he 

Noble fimplicity belongs to every thing been accui v omed to hear, the ftrains of 
which pleafes, by its effence ; it will Handel in his forefts. He- who has become 

charm good taile wherever it may be. It 
will pleafe equally in the rotunda, and in 
the character and conduct of Abraham ; 
the voice of epic- poetry will render it as 
intereiting as the fhepherd's pipe. A noble 
fimplicity reigns throughout all the works 
pi the Creator ; a happy imitation of na- 
ture is therefore the fur eft road to immor- 
tality. When the artifl difdains to take 
her for. his guide, or when he has not 
been initiated into her mylteries, Gothic 
turrets, overloaded with phanUiiical or 
Col. Mag, Vol. IV. No. 3* 

familiar with the fpirit of Terence, will 
turn with indignation from the difgufting 
farces which give fo much delight to the 
loweft of the vulgar.* A pure taite more 
and more awakens the ardent defire of at- 

* Do wc not fee fomc pieces af tadly writtcnas in- 
decent, exhibited upon the two fit It theatre) i I 
rope, and which die public, Gnuis aobe'.ans, i 
agendo nihil •gens, rap in crowds lo lec : fa true is 
Ovid's observation, Parva loves capijrat animoj. So 
that upon this occafion we way vttll cry out, '.'■< 
Athenian*! Athenians ! 

82 National Prejudices over come t or the Hiflory of Sir George Olivier. 

tainingto the higheft degree of beauty — but thefe monfters are exceptions from the 
fweet foretafte of immortality ! The fen-, general rule, and the teftimony and exara- 
fations occafioned by the beautiful, become I pie of the great eft men of antiquity, as 
fo much the livelier as the belief of per- Swell as of modern times, are fufEcient to 
fection is ftronger, and as the imagination « prove the contrary. Who can read the 
is warmer, and fcnfibility more exquilite. s Messiah cf Klopftock, and the immortal 
There are a thoufand degrees of talle, and! work of Sulzer, without being convinced, 
it is Hill refpected whilft it adheres to truth, E that tafte naturally incites to virtue. O ! 
But happy is he who may be called a man jinftruilors of youth, never forget that vir- 
of fuperior tafte! He hath reached the Itue is the only and fureft means of forming 
fource of pure, innocent, and fublime the hearts of your pupils, and that by 
pleafure. All nature is obedient to his I rectifying their talle, your fuccefs will be 
power ; art lays before him her produc- more fpeedy. Experience will convince 
tions, which, while they increafe his plea- I you that young minds, in which a fenfe of 
fures, add to his knowledge; his imagi- iphyfical beauty is brought to perfection, 
nation is enriched with a thoufand agreea- [will be more fenfible alfo of moral beauty, 
ble images, and black melancholy never | Reafon, tafte, and what Hutch-Jon and 
embitters a fingle moment of his life. Shaftefbury call the moral fenfe, a e, ac- 
Tafte diffufes certain charms over all the cording to Sulzer, the fame faculty, only 
actions of a man who really pofieffes it. In 'modified by different objects. It has not 
his mouth common truths acquire more [been indeed demonftratcd, that the moral 
force ; they make an irr.preflion with more » fenfe is innate ; but all the faculties of the 
facility, and carry readier conviction along t foul being intimately connected, we may 
with them. The exquilite and delicate (conclude that they muft be reciprocally in- 
ideas which he entertains of order and har- f fiuenced by one another. Who will deny, 
mony, remove every thing that offend that the magic of mufic and poetry open 
them, and he defpifes exaggeration, bom- J the innocent heart of friendfhip, to pity, 
baft, childifh conceits, vain fubtletfes, | and, in a word, to every foft and tender 
falfe wit, and, in fhort, every thing that 
characterifes bad tafte. Tafte, by foften- 
ing his manners, renders his loul morefu- 
fceptibie of whatever is noble and good. It productions with difcernment. Poets and 

paflion i But let us never forget, that as 
the fine arts have often been abufed, the 
man of tafte is obliged to choofe their 

excites him to be more familiar with Na 
ture, to carry his researches farther, to 
elevate his fentiments, and to prepare him- 
felr for the converfation of fupenor beings. 
The beauties and treafures of Nature eve- 
ry where open to his view, the delightful 
valleys of Greece, the burning defarts of 
Peru, the Heavens beftudded with ftar.^ ; 
and, in a word, the whole univerfe in all 
its grandeur prefent him with fubjedts for 
meditation. The cafe is the fame with the 
product ions of art. Mufic, painting, 
fculpture, architecture, poetry, eloquence, 
and the theatre, when properly regulated, 
fo as to become a fchool of virtue and mo- 
rality, furnifh innumerable fources of plea- 
fure to the man of genuine tafte. 

Thefe obfervations are, doubtlefs, fuf- 
ficient to convince one of the nccefiity of 
forming and purifying the tafte, and to 
point out the advantages that muft thence 
refult to fociety. Some gloomy cenfors, 
who would condemn man to vegetate en 

painters, hurried away by a loofe imagi- 
nation, have oftf n proftituted their talents 
on the molt infamous fubjects ; the man 
of real tafte, however, will decry all thofe 
fubjects which, by offending againft mo- 
defty, corrupt the morals ; and, whatever 
their merit may be, he will con fig n them 
to eternal oblivion, while he laments that 
men of genius, formed to do honor to the 
fine arts, and to the age in which they 
live, have fo little refpect for themfelves, 
as to feek the contemptible glory of me- 
riting the Suffrages of the meaueft part of 
their nation. 

National Prejudices overcome, or the Hif- 
tory of Sir George Olivier. A True 
Story, tranflated from the French of M. 

A R has generally been confidered 
as the caufe of national hatred 


nd jealoufy, and it has been found to exift 
the earth, prttendto deny the influence of I more frequently between neighbouring na- 
tafle on the manners ; they even affert that tions than between thofe that are remote 

it becomes hurtful to virtue. It muft, in- 
deed, be allowed, that men of fine tafte 
kave often abaudoned themfelves to vice ; 

from one another. But in governments 
where the people imagine that they have a 
fhare in the general admiaiilration, this 

Katlo7ial Prejudices overcome^ or 

animofity appears to be almoft incurable : 
there, hatred of enemies and rivals is 
edecmed a patriotic virtue ; and even the 
more enlightened part of the nation en- 
counter the greater! difficulties, in dived- 
ing themfelves of ajealoufy which renders 
them as blind and unjud as the lowed of 
the people. The following is a recent ex- 
ample of the truth of this remark. 

In the courfe of laft war, a French fqua- 
dron under the command of Count de 
Barras, had landed fome troops at New- 
port upon Rhode- Ifland ; and in order 
that they might not be incommodated 
with thole that were unfit for fervice, it 
was refolved to fend all the fick into the 
country. Captain B of the regi- 
ment of , being extremely ill of 

the fcurvy, was of this number: and upon 
an order of the major of the provincial 
army, he was quartered about fix miles 
from Newport, in the houfe of Sir George 
Olivier, an Englilh planter. Trie Cheva- 
lier L , nephew of the Captain, and 

an enlign in the fame regiment, obtained 
permifiion to accompany his uncle, that he 
might take care of him during his illnefs ; 
with cxprefs orders to return to head 
quarters the moment the fervice mould re- 
quire it. 

The two officers accordingly took their 
departure, accompanied by a guide, who 
ferved them as an interpreter. Upon their 
arrival, they were received with a coldnefs 
which furprifed the Chevalier as much as 
it did his uncle. Sir George infilled upon 
feeing the order which had brought two 
Frenchmen to his houfe ; and after read- 
ing it with great indifference, he declared 
that he had only one bed to give them. Ne- 
verthelefs, added he, fince one of you ap 
pears indifpofed, the other, who will pro- 
bably wilh to attend you, may fleep upon 
a bale of furs, which has lain there thefe 
three years, and which this unfortunate 
war has prevented me from fending to Eu- 
rope. The interpreter explained to the 
Captain what Sir George bad faid. The 
Chevalier indeed might have performed 
this office, as be was fufficienlly well ac 
quainted with the Englifh language ; but 
by the "advice of his uncle, he pretended to 
be ignorant of it, in order to be able the 
better to difcover the character and diipo- 
fition of their landlord. 

Sir George Olivier, whatever he might 
think, was extremely felfifh, although he 
imagined himfelfa profound politician, be- 
caufe he read the gazette and hated the 
French. The grand object of the approach- j 

the Hijlory cf Sir George Olivier. R » 

ing liberty of his country affected him in- 
rinitely/lefs than the actual interruption of 
commeixe^jand the wade and ruinous Hate 
of his lands. His family confided of a 
daughter and three fons ; the two elded 
of whom, greatly againlt the inclination of 
their father, were ferving in the provincial 
army ; the third, named Charles, fhared 
with Man"a his filter, the management of 
the farm and the houfe. Sir George was 
a widower. His fons were admoniflied 
to avoid with care every connexion with 
the French : as for Maria, every commu- 
nication with them was pofitively forbid- 
den. The weak date of the Captain's 
health, however, required continual care 
and attention ; nor could Charles ahfolute- 
ly refufehis aflidance at the earned intrea- 
ties of the Chevalier : befides he was fond 
of pronouncing with him fome French 
words he had learned at the univerfity of 
Philadelphia. Fie had now entered his 
nineteenth year, which exactly correfponcied 
to the age of the Chevalier ; thefe reafons, 
therefore, were more than fufficient to 
create a quick and lively friendihip between 
them, notwithstanding the fevere injunc- 
tions of the father. 

Sir George, now fixty years of age, had 
become a complete flave to the ancient pre- 
judices of his education ; he had fought 
the French in the preceding war ; and he 
Itill peiiided in viewing that nation in the 
light of an* enemy, who now affifted in 
recovering the liberty of his native coun- 
try. From the fird moment he faw the 
Captain, he diffembled not his fentiments 
upon that fubjrct.. To what ftrange circum- 
tlance is it owing, faid he, that your fov- 
reign has fent an army into our provinces? 
— Becaufe you have afked their affiftancc. 
It is not I, it is the Congrefs. — And are 
you not now about to conquer our fourhern 
provinces ? — We are only going to defend 
you from a common enemy ; and free you 
from a yoke which has become unfupnort- 
able to you* — That is to fay, you intend 
only a change of matters. — No indeed. — 
What reward then does France expect for 
fo great fervices ? — Your liberty. — But 
what will you gain by that ? — The glory 
of fhowing our generofity in contributing 
to your happinefs. — This generofity is 
very grand indeed ; but what real advan- 
tage will you reap from it ? You imagine 
I fuppofe, that the fovereigns of Europe 
perform good offices without any real inte- 
rell to themfelves, and merely from the 
pleafureof doing good ?— Our fovereign 
at lead, now, mows an example of this 

8 4 

National Prejudices overcome, or the Hiftcry of Sir George Olivier. 

virtue ; and at the end of the war— ; particularly a firf!: affection, is deferving of 

io harfh an appellation. 

The Chevalier, who had fpent fix 
years at a military academy, and three.-; 
aboard the fleet, had as yet felt no tender] 
attachment; and the heart of Maria, who'' 
had now entered her iixteenth year, was as] 
little engaged as his. At their age thiJ 
hril interview is frequently decilive ; and] 
Maria, the fvveet Maria, now conceived" 
lefs than ever, why her father entertained)) 
fuch a hatred againlt the French. How- 
foreign to her mind was fuch an unjull ; 
fentiment ! The tender attachment of the 
Chevalier for his uncle and for htr brother 
Charles, was to her a continual fubject of] 
reflection. She concluded from this, that 
he mull have a molt excellent heart : and 
the lovely daughter of Sir George now be- 
gan to feel an attachment for France, in 
which politics had no fhare. 

This firft interview had fo deeply affecM 
ed the Chevalier, that he never ceafed " 
fpeaking to Charles of the happinefs hei 
fhould have in frequently feeing his fifter. ' 
But how was he to elude the fevere injunc- 
tions of Sir George ? for he could hardlyi 
bear to fee the growing connexion between ] 
the Chevalier and his Ion. If Charles even! 
fpoke before him a few French wojds, he] 
was immediately checked. The unJe andl 
the nephew had frequently represented,] 
that the union which was likely to take] 
place between the^ French and the Ameri-fl 
cans, would make it neccflary for them to j 
fpeak the fame language. Very well, hej 
would fay, let them learn ours. Charles] 
faid, that in order to do fo, it was neceffl 
faiy the French and Engliih fhould fre- : , 
quently converfe together ; but a look ■< 
from Sir George, ever put an end to a 
conversation which he fo little relifhed. 

This exceffive feverity of the father, 
however, produced an effect very d liferent 
from what he intended • the two friends, 
indeed, met lefs openly, but their biend- 
ihip did not on that account abate. It was 
at thefc itolen interviews, that the Cheva- 
lier ventured to propofe introducing Ma- 
ria ; and you will ferve, faid he to Charles, 
as an interpreter in the French and Entri 
lifh lefibns which we all three will give one 
another ; for Hie is even more ignorant of 
my language than I am of her's ; and if 
ever my expreflions fhould betray a want 
of refpedt to this amiable fifter, my friend 
will correct me. Although Charles favv 
no danger in thefe converfations, he de- 
layed, however, the propofing them to 
Maria ; but the Chevalier prcfild him 

At the end of the war will not your 
claims upon us be very con fi d erable ? — No 
doubt they will.— — And what will France 
be able to procure from us in return : — A 
great deal- — How many provinces? — 
— None. — What then ? — Your friendfhip ; 
which I am more defirous of than 1 am 
afraid — Sir George inflantly changing the 
converfation, afucd the Captain how he 
found himfelf. I think, replied he, that 
a little milk and fome frefh provifions 
would greatly contribute to the eftabhfh- 
ment cf my health. — Charles, go defire 
Maria to procure fome milk, and order a 
fneep to be killed. — The Captain, greatly 
tnoyed at this fenfibility, was going to ex- 
prefs his acknowledgments ; but Sir 
George prevented him by haltiiy quitting 
the room. 

The name of Maria, which he now 
heard for the firft time, having made a 
deep impreflion upon the mind of the Che- 
valier, no fooner had Sir George left the 
room, than he anxioufly enquired of 
Charles who this Maria was. — She is my 
fifter, faid Charles; follow me, and you 
fhall fee her. They both went in fearch 
of this amiable girl, whom they found at 
work in her chamber. At the fight of the 
Chevalier, fhe was (truck with aftonifh- 
ment j but her brother foon removed her 
fears, and begged of her, in compliance 
with the orders of their father, to perform 
the fervices to the uncle of his friend. Ma- 
ria raifed her lovely blue eyes upon this 
friend, but quickly fixed them on the 
ground ; and haftily quitting her work, 
fhe led them to the meadow, and with her 
own hands milked the firft goat fhe met 
with ; and giving the vefTel to her brother 
Charles, Lofe not a moment, faid fhe with 
the mofl delightful fweetnefs, in carrying 
this milk while it is warm, to the uncle of 
your friend ; and, ftealmg another glance 
of the Chevalier, fhe haftily retired cover- 
ed with blufhes ; leaving the friend of her 
brother to admire the figure of an angel, 
and a heart ever ready to affift the unfor- 
tunate. — In their way home the Chevalier 
dwelt upon with delight, and frequently 
made Charles repeat, the fweet words of 
Maria, although they were already deeply 
engraven upon his heart. They immedi- 
ately repaired to the Captain's room ; and 
the nephew, in prefenting the milk to his 
uncle, fpoke to him with fuch rapture and 
enchufiai'm of the amiable Maria, that his 
uncle imagined his head was turned. And, 
in realitv. iuch was the ca!e, if love, and 

National Prejudices overcome, or the Hi/lory of Sir George Olivier* 8f 

with fo much eagernefs, that he was at laft r ment the provinces were in fecurity, the 
obliged to comply. Ah! but my father,ex- 1 French would depart. Every converfation 

ended with additional obltinacy on the 
part of Sir George, and gave rife to new 
and ftill warmer debates ; which prevented 
thefe two politicians from being fo warm- 
ly attached to one another as the three 

During thefe converfations, intelligence 
was received, that the French army, under 
the command cf Count de Rochabeau, 
had, by a long circuit, joined the Conti- 
nental army near York-Town, and that the 
naval armament from the Antilles, was 
going to take poll in the entrance of the 
Chelapeake. Sir George, always blinded 
by prejudice, faw nothing in this fcheme 
but a defign he had always accufed France 
of, to conquer a great part of the conti- 
nent of America. And feeing, towards 
the evening, an exprefs coming from New- 
port, he did not doubt but it was an order 
to recall the Captain and his nephew. 

The exprefs addreffed Sir George, who 
ran to fcek the Chevalier at his uncle's 
who was then in bed ; but his nephew was 
not with him. He fought him, in vain, 
every where ; at latt he came to Charles's 
chamber, the door of which he haililf 
opened. But what was his furprife, and 
his rage, at rinding there his fon, b:s 
daughter, and the Chevalier, in clofecon- 
verfation with one another ! His daucrh- 
ter he treated with the utmoft feverity, he 
thruft Charles out of the room, and load- 
ed the Chevalier with the deeper!: reproach- 
es ; who, flying for refuge to his uncles 
apartment, was foon rejoined by Sir 
George. Here a torrent of the molt vio- 
lent imprecations was poured out ageing 
France and Frenchmen. The Captain op- 
pofed nothing to this fury but phlegmatic 
tranquillity. At lair, when his landlord 
exha tilled with fatigue and anger, eoutd 

claimed Maria, the moment it was menti- 
oned to her. — He will know nothing of 
the matter. But if the Chevalier fhould 
love me ? He will not love you, replied 
the innocent Charles, tranfported at the 
thoughts of being able r to oblige his 
friend And he was not much millaken, 
for the Chevalier already loved her to dif- 
trattion ; and Maria herfelf, when (he ex- 
prefTtd her fears of being loved, fpoke not 
the language of her heart. Poffeficd of 
fuch fentiments of friendfhip, a fhort pe- 
riod was fufficient for them to form pri 
vatcly, a mutual attachment. Their firfl 
anxiety was to underfrand the language of 
one another. It therefore became the 
chief fubjec"l of their conversation. The 
Chevalier was everymoment upon the point 
of betraying himfelf by the too great pro- 
grefs he made in the language of Maria ; 
but he faw the error he was guilty of, and 
confined himfelf to the knowledge of few 

Maria became every day more uneafy 
and more cautious to conceal from her fa- 
ther her private converfations with her bro- 
ther and his friend. Let it not be thought, 
however, that they were unfaithful, either 
the one to her duly, or the other to hof 
pitality. The hearts of both were guided 
by honor, and Charles was ever witnefs to 
their mutual attachment. 

The Chevalier was too full of his love to 
be able to reftrain himfelf. He was, how- 
ever, more on his guard with Sir George ; 
but knew no referve in pouring out the fe- 
crets of his foul to his uncle. And this af- 
fectionate uncle, at the very time he pre 
tended to find fault with the love of this 
young man, formed, without telling him, 
the projccl of an overture of marriage to 
Sir George : but it was nectfiary before 

Wll \_^ ivUI i/L • UUl 11 vv tio uv.^*.Altl!V UV.1UIV. tj»miiiuvw .. .v.. i .• i. « t^ ». ~ »....■-. «..^^-., »-.—._ 

hand to root out the prejudices he enter- fpeak no longer, he ftvertly reprimanded 
tained againft the French ; an enterprise I his nephew, and difmifled him from 
equally hazardous and difficult. Thenews his ptefence. Being now alone with 
that the Captain often received from New- j Sir George, he agreed that the Cheva- 
port, and which he communicated to his j lier had been highly criminal in having 

landlord, had eftablifhed betwixt them a 
kind of political intercourfe, which grew 
more frequent than it had been at its 
commencement. Every event of the war 
ftiniifhed Sir George a new lubjeel for de- 
claiming ao-ain(l what he called the ambi- 
tion of France. At every arrival of the 
forces of that nation, he always infifted 
that the French had fecret defigns on fome 
part of the American continent. But the 
Captain firmly maintained, that the mo- 

tranfgreffed his orders ; but, added 
he, yon fhall fee him no longer, as 
he is going to join his regiment. I am 
already acquainted with his love for your 
daughter; I know alio the honor both of 
qne and the other; and that Charles has 
never left them alone. See how gene- 
rous thefe Frenchmen are, faid Sir George 
muttering. — Yes, they are fo, replied the 
Captain ; and I lay a wager, that after 
the t'uccefspf the grand expedition now ia 

S6 National Prejudices over come y or 

agitation, they will abandon your provin- 
ces, and leave them happy and triumphant 

under the empire of liberty. Would 

you lay much, cried Sir George? Alll 

have mod dear in the world ; my nephew. 

What do you mean ! He loves 

your charming and refpectable daugther ; 
promife meto give her in marriage to him, 
if there does not remain a fmgle French- 
man in your country, after the combined 
armies (hall have procured its liberties. — 
In promlfing you this, I believe I pro- 
mife but little. Promife me then this 

little. — Be it fo, upon the word of an 
Englffhman. And they fhook hands. 

The three friends feparated ; and id 
great condernation anxioufly waited the 
terrible effects of Sir George's refentment. 
Maria, a prey to the mod bitter anguifh, 
was fitting lamenting her unfortunate fili- 
ation, when flie beheld her father enter. 
At this moment (lie expected nothing but 
death. Sir George, in a deep and dif- 
mal tone, ordered her immediately to 
write to her brothers, and inform them 
of all that had pad in their abfence. He 
accompanied this order with no other 
words, but that it was neceffary this letter 
fhould be ready againd to-morrow morn- 
ing ; and then went out. 

The Chevalier having returned to his 
uncle, found him ferene and even gay : he 
was at a lofsto imagine what could be the 
caufe of this fudden change. But the 
Captain addrefiing him, You go to-mor- 
row, faid he, for the army : I will fend 
with you a letter •, but you mud give me 
your word of honor, that you will not 
open it till you fhall know that our forces 
both by fea and land have left this country. 
The Chevalier promifed he would not ; 
and went to prepare himfelf for his depar- 

Maria paffed the whole night in writ- 
ing ; beginning again, tearing to pieces, 
and writing anew the letter for her bro- 
thers. What embarraffment to her ! Yet 
(he mud obey her father. She mud tellij 
every thing, and yet (he doubted not but 
Sir George mud needs fee this fo difficult 
letter : and fhe was even ignorant who 
was to be the bearer of it. 

Charles, mean while, affifted his friend 
in getting ready ; and during this occupa- 
tion the day began to dawn. His father 
came early in the morning, and ordered 
him to go and call Maria, and conduct her 
to the Captain's apartment, where he in- 
tended giving breakfad to the Chevalier 
before his departure. The appointed hour 

the Hiftory of Sir George Olivier 4 

arrives ; the trembling Maria appears for 
the fird time before her father, the Cap- 
tain, the Chevalier, and her brother. The 
breakfad was but a melancholy one. Sir 
George, at lad, demands of his daughter 
the letter for her brothers. She drew it 
out from her pocket, and with a trembling 
hand gave it to her father without being 
fealed. Why it is not fealed ? faid he } 
do it immediately. Maria obeys, and pre- 
fents it to him again. It is not to me, it 
is to the Chevalier you mud give it ; he is 
jud going to join the army. Shedretched 
out her arm to the Chevalier, her itrengih 
failed her, (he dropped the letter, and 
fainted away. The Chevalier threw him- 
felf in tears at her feet. This affecting 
fcene even moved at lad the (tern Sir 
George ; and looking attentively at the 
uncle, I wiih, faid he, I may lofe my 
wager. Maria was now recovered from her 
fwoon : and the Captain had the cruelty 
to demand, that (lie mould herielf give 
the letter fhe had made up for his nephew. 
Scarcely had he it in his hands, when he 
fnatched himfelf by flight from a terrible 
fituation which he could no longer fupport, 
and parted. 

It is impoflible to defcribe the didreffing 
fituation they were all in at this fepara- 
lion. Let us follow the Chevalier. The 
affair of York-Town wasfoon ended : one 
of the brothers of Maria was wounded, 
and the Chevalier took a truly brotherly 
care of him. As foon as the capitulation 
was figned, the French army embarked, 
and fet fail for the Antilles. The Cheva- 
lier then opened his uncle's letter. It con- 
tained only thefe words : " If all the 
French army quits the continent, come in- 
dantly with the fons of Sir George to re- 
join your friend and all you have mod dear 
in the world." The Chevalier, full of hope 
and love, obtained a paffport, and brought 
along with him the two brothers to Sir 
George's houfe. He had beforehand in- 
ttrudtcd his uncle : fo that at their arrival, 
the uncle, Sir George, Charles, and Ma- 
ria, were convened to meet the three war- 
riors. And Sir George, addreffing him- 
felf to the Chevalier, prefented him his 
daughter, faying, 1 have lod my wager; 

there is your bride. The felicity of this 

happy family was greatly increafed by this 
marriage, and the re-edablifhment of the 
Captain's health. And after a few months, 
the new married couplereturned to France, 
with their brother Charles. Sir George 
Olivier, recovered of his error, loaded 
them with prefents, and requeded that his 

On True Beauty. 

daughter's firft child fhould be called 
George-Louis This honeft planter was 
anxious alfo to make amends for his form- 
er injustice. The French, faid he incef 
fantly to his children, are generous as 
their king ; love them as I have done 
fjnee I have become acquainted with 
them. We have much to do in order to 
acquit ourfelves towards them and their 
fove reign. 



JNQUIRING with myfelf wherein true 
beauty confiits, and how it may be at- 
tained, the belt account I could find for 
it was true virtue. I know this will ap- 
pear Grange to fome, but lam not here to 
enter into metaphyfical difputes or criti- 
cifms on other people ; I appeal to na- 
ture, and {hall proceed to deliver my opi- 

When all the faculties of the foul har- 
monioufly confpire in their feveral opera- 
tions in due proportion to their nature, 
without jarring and interrupting one ano- 
ther ; then the mind is ferene, and the 
jperfon is virtuous and happy. The out- 
ward form, like an inftrument tuned in 
iconcord, prefents to the eye an image of 
jthis internal harmony. The face never is 
a falfe glafs, but through artifice and bad 

What is it in external forms that excites 
an us the idea of beauty, but the harmony 
^nd delicate proportions obferved in the 
arrangement of certain particles of mat- 
ter? but as the foul arranges and moves all 
[matter, thofe harmonies and delicacies of 
proportion never could take place under 
(the influence of an unharmonious mind. 

Kow amiable are the characters of chil- 
dren \ and there are few of them come fo 
ar of age, as to have their features dif- 
tinclly marked, but who appear pretty ; 
and yet gradually as they grow up, we 
bften fee their mufcles convulied by pafii- 
3ns ; their features turn coaiferand rlrong- 
*r ; and then their beauty flies. 

There is a great deal of beauty owing 
:o the happinels of birth : as for example, 
A'here the father and mother have been 
.veil aiTorted and lived a temperate life, in 
eace and mutual love ; in fuch a cafe, the 
Inldren are frefh and vigorous, yet the 
low of their blood and animal Ipirits i; 
jot irregular ; they naturally are more 
lifpofed to a life of tranquillity and vir- 
ue, which j as it does not ruffle the mind, 
.he face, its image, is more ftrcne. 

I would make allowances for the fmall- 
pox and other accidents of ficknefs, or the 
cares and diftrefies of life, that imprint 
themfelves upon the face. Some of thefe 
rather confirm than contradict our theory ; 
and at any rate they are like whirlwinds, 
inundations, earthquakes, and other ex- 
traordinary calamities, againft which no 
provifion can be made in the ordinary 
courfe of human affairs. There are, how- 
ever, many diftrefies which impair beauty, 
for which people have themfelves to blame, 
fuch as the hylteric difeafe. This indeed 
chiefly arifes from fome unfortunate acci- 
dent or fhock to the tender female confti- 
tution : but frequently alfo from (loth 
and idlcnefs, and a romantic imagination, 
where there has been no ufeful bufinefs to 
keep the mind employed, and proper ex- 
ercife for the health of the body. The 
laws of nature are inflexible ; the tranf- 
greffion of them always proves its own 

Reading books of extravagant poetry, 
raifes correfponding tumults in the mind, 
as they paint all the paflions immoderate. 
Tragedies, fuch as they frequently are ; 
books of romantic love, and which 
is fifty times worfe, books of romantic 
intrigues, all tend to difturb the breafl of 
the tender fair oru?. As their imaginati- 
ons are more lively than ours, they are 
more apt to receive wrong imprefiions, 
and have their tafte corrupted. Thus the 
unfortunate maid pines inwardly from a 
wounded imagination, and her corroded 
beauty falls a vidtim to her folly. 

It is the hardeft taflc in the world to 
form the heart to goodnefs : an early and 
prudent application to the tender minds 
bids fairelt for fuccefs ; but that care mull 
be perpetual, and you muil keep from 
them every thing that would counter- acl 
your good defigns. Your own example 
fhould be extremely exact and regular* 
Nothing more becomes the human kind, 
than piety, and nothing is a better afiift- 
ant and a sruardian to virtue. Your fervauti 
fhould be chofen with the greateft care ; 
you would fcruple to trufl them with your 
purfe, and you daily trull: them with a 
treafure infinitely more valuable, the 
forming of the characters and inclinations 
of your children. Join to thtfe a conftant 
employment in feme ufeful bufinefs, and 
moderation in diet and in flcep. 

I may obferve here, that fome parents 
hurt their children by unrealonable and 
unbounded indulgence ; others by too 
much harfhncfi and feverity. Whatever 

SS On True Beauty. 

wrong caft 1*6 given to the mind by errone- We imagine that here nature intended a 
ous education, or other accidents, the face beautiful mind and elegant form, but they j 
receives the imprefhon of it, as wax does 
from the feal. 

According to the different characters 
and complexions of people, the wife and 
good author of Nature has constituted va- 
rious kinds of beauty, which Itrike various 
correfponding tadcs. As there is fcarce a 
complexion of mind, but what, under 
proper redactions and correctives, you will 
find agreeable ; there feems, in like man- 
ner, fcarcely a complexion of face which 
will not flrike and pleafe fome particular 
tade : if the inward form of mind is found 
and good, and where thofe features were 

beautiful mind and elegai 
are both perverted. 

We have faid it is the hardefl talk in the J 
world to form the heart to goodnefs, and I 
perhaps it is (till harder to perfevere in J 
thofe paths, on account of the temptations I 
of life, and the frailty of human nature. 1 
Hence arife many exceptions to the gene- 
1 al theory, though they can never contra- J 
diet the manifed indications ot the origi- j 
nal good intentions of nature in thofe ap- 
parently beauteous forms, where vice and 
wickednefs, like robbers or wild beads, j 
have deftroyed the original inhabitants, I 
and taken poffeflion of the dwelling by vi- j 
preferved frefh in that economy and ar-Jolence. 
rangement in which they are originally J But thefe falfe appearances of beauty 
placed, Beauty is difFufed over all the uni-jdonot impofe on every one. UlyfTes found • 
verfe with unbounded munificence, and di- 'out Crelidia's character at the firft fight, j 
verfified innumerable ways ; and you will \ Fie, fie, upon her, there's language in] 
rarely obferve any great defect of beauty, |her eye, her cheek, her lip: nay, her j 
which is not owing to perverlion of the \ foot fpeaks, her wanton fpirits look out J 
economy of nature, through the pride, \ at every joint and'motion of her body, &c. j 
affectation, and other follies of mankind. [Such aifo are the unfortunate wretches of I 
How pleafing does the countenance ap-|Common fame, loft to the fenfe of modedy : 
pear, when the mind is chearful and ferene ? Sand virtue ; like the Medufa fabled by the 
and how frightful when ruffled by the jpoetsof old, who had been once extreme- 
ftorms of paffion ? A learned anatomift jly beautiful, but after fhe was debauched, 
has defcribed what mufcles of the face are I there grew fnakes in her hair, and fhe turn- 
ccnvulfed by different paffions, to which led every one who looked upon her intoj 
we refer. But there would be no end to! (tone. 

the arguments and examples that might be I From fuch examples we may fee the di- j 
given to prove that beauty is infeparable 1 vine beauty and force of virtue ; and howl 
from virtue. I dare fay there are few who ' much the young and innocent fair one 
cannot recall to their memory feveral liv- [ fhould be on her guard againft the fnares 
ing indances of this. I fhall only men- j of life, for the fake of her honor, »nd for; 
tion the amiable Lucinda ; every one who; the fake of her beauty. There is acer-] 
faw her, loved her; prudence, fweetnefs, j tain degree of referve and feverity of man-* 
modedy fhone forth in her behaviour : in i tiers neceffary to repel the rude and imperv* 
private life fhe was always bufy in fome . tinent, led the incautious innocent fhould' 
ufeful or elegant employment, and left no flutter round the dangerous flame, and 
idle time for tumultuous p?flions to prey burn her wings and perifh. Hence the' 
upon her virgin beauty. Happy was the | goddefs of wifdom is fabled to have worn 

man who made her his wife ! happy the 
children who call her mother ! 

the Medufa 's head upon herfhield, and by 
the afptct of it confounded every one who 

liven old people of worthy characters, dared to affault her virtue ; and even, tho* 
have in their appearance fornething that ' young people fhould happily efcape the 
ftrikes and pleafes you, though you are on- greated calamity, yet a tafle for gallantry,! 

acquainted with them, on account of that 
decency and dignity of manners which vir- 

coquetry, and intrigue, fpoils the genuine 
charms of beauty, and wither it before its 

tue and goodnefs infpire. It may be ob- time ; oefides that it diminifhes the happy 
jected, that we often fee very beautiful j joys and confidence of mutual love, the 
perfons extremely wicked ; but I afk, whe- greated joy of life. 

ther or not thofe very features would ap- 1 On the other hand, let thefe things 
pear incomparably more beautiful, if the f teach the men to beware of counterfeits, 
perfon had been good ? I afk, whether or j becaufe the mind isoften painted. Let thera 
not we feel more than ordinary pain in fee- Jalfo take care that they themlelves are not 
ing fuch forms ? This pain arifes from sunder the power of irregular paffiwns, 
dbferving an aflbciatiou of contrarieties, j which may render them blind to the moft 

; engaging beauty ; and having made a wrong 
choice, unjuftly blame the whole fex, or 
foolifhly fay, that beauty foon turns fami- 
liar to the lover. If our eyes are jaundiced, 
hovv can we judge of colours ? 

\C hi the great Utility of the Barometer, 
in Agriculture. 

WHATEVER promifes to be a be- 
nefit to agriculture will, I doubt 
not, deferve a place in your ufeful publi- 
cation. The foreknowledge of the changes 
of the weather may be reckoned to be of 
this number. I am led to this reflection 
on confidering the little regai'd lately paid 
to the barometer. At its rlrlt introduction 
into ule, as indicating the changes of the 
weather, too much' was expected from it ; 
and oblervers, having been fometimes dis- 
appointed in their expectations, have as un- 
juftly rejected it too much. Accurate ob- 
servations of the motions of quickfilver in 
it, during fevcral years, have pointed out 
to mefeveral circumitances not hitherto fo 
much alluded to as they feem to deferve. 

At or near the Vernal Equinox ftormy 
weather, the wind generally South-Weft, 
with a remarkable fall of the quickfilver 
in the barometer takes place ; the (torm 
generally more violent if the new moon 
happens at or near the equinox. Thefe 
ftcrms have been remarked in all ages. 
When the weather is again fettled, what 
may be called the Summer Seafwn of the 
barometer begins ; and during the Sum- 
mer the motion of the quickfilver in the 
barometer is much lefs extenfivc than in 
the Winter, the quickfilver feldom falling 
lower than 29.5 inches. 

The Winter Seafon of the barometer be- 
gins alfo with a ftorm, and a remarkably 
great fall of the quickfilver near, or foon 
after, the Autumnal Equinox, the wind 
fometimes S. W. and frequently N. E, The 
barometrical Summer is fometimes length- 
ened out fo far as November ; after which 
time the play of the quickfilver is from 
30.7 to 28.5, fometimes lower. All coaft- 
ing veiTels around this ifland mould, as 
much as poflible, avoid being at fea in 
thefe feafons, at leaft till the introductory 
ftorms are pait. Hence a fall of one- 
tenth of an inch in the Summer is nearly 
as fure an indication of a change of the 
I weather in Summer, as two-tenths are in 
the Winter. This difference has been un- 
juftly charged to the inftrument as a fault. 

The extent of a fimilar variation in the 
motion of the quickfilver in the barometer 
\& much more confiderable than feems to 

Cm.,MAn Vn, TV Mo 

Utility of the Barometer. g 

have been hitherto imagined. This will 
be confirmed by regifters of the weather 
kept in diftant places. If a ftorm hap. 
pens in any place within the range of this 
hmilanty of motion in the quickfilver, 
the mercury will fall nearly equally low over 
the whole extent of the range, though in 
feveral places in the range the weather may 
be fair and ferene while the barometer is 
low. Many, on fuch occafions, charge 
the inflrument with giving a falfe prognof- 
tic. Let them fufpend their cenfure till 
tidings may arrive of what may have hap- 
pened in fome diftant part. I could give 
feveral in ftances of this fad, but (hail men- 
tion only one. 

Having made an appointment to pay a 
diftant vilit with that accurate obferver of 
Nature in all her ways, Dr. Franklin, I 
called on him in the morning, to difiuade 
him from going, becaufe I had obferved 
that the barometer was very low : but he 
feeing that the heavens wore an agreeabie 
afpect, laughed at my apprehenfion, and 
we went and enjoyed a fair and very agree* 
able day. The barometer was cenfured as 
giving a falfe prognoftic, and I as credu- 
lous ; but in a few days we had an account 
of a moll violent ftorm in the Bay of Bif- 
cay, and along the coaft of France, en 
that day. 

An attentive obferver of the weather 
will loon perceive that each year has a cer- 
tain character, if I may fo exprefs it, in 
regard to the changes of the weather. This 
peculiarity of the different years being of 
the utmoft confequence to the hulbandmen, 
1 beg their particular attention to it ; for 
it is chiefly by an accurate obfervation of 
this peculiarity in the changes of the wea- 
ther thathecfn obtain the moll ufeful lef- 
fons. In fome years the changes of the 
weather feem to be much influenced by the 
moon's place in the Zodiac ; that is, when 
the moon pafies the equinoxial line, or when 
(he returns from her greateft declina- 
tions South or North ; but a rcgifter of 
the weather, kept conftantly for years, al- 
fures me, that there is no dependence on 
thefe circumitances. I could never disco- 
ver any caufe to which I could impute the 
regularity of the changes in the weather ; 
but can aimre the hufbandman, that there 
is, in fome years, a remarkable regularity 
in them, and in all years fome degree of 
rrgularity. This regularity in the change* 
of the weather is molt cpnfpicuous in the 
intermediate months between theequinoxes, 
hat H, during May, June, July, and Au- 
rull, in Summer, and during November, 


90 The ketailer, 

December, January, and February, in 
Winter. The knowledge of the moll pro- 
bable times of thefe changes may be of great 
life in agriculture, as well as to feafaring 

Let me here mention fome other cir- 
cumftances in regard to the barometer. 
The rifing of the mercury forebodes fair 
weather, and its falling portends rain, with 
winds. During ftrong winds, though un- 
accompanied with rain, the mercury is low- 
eft. Other things equal, the mercury is 
higher in cold than in warm weather. In 
general, wc may expect, that when the 
mercury rifes high, a few days of fair wea- 
ther may be expected. If the mercuiy 
falls in two or three days, but foon rifes 
high, without much rain, we may expect 
fair weather for feveral days ; and in this 
cafe, the cleared days are after the mer- 
cury begins to fall. In like manner, if the 
mercury falls very low, with much rain, 
rifes foon, but falk again in a day or two, 
with rain, a continuance of bad weather 
may be feared. If the fecond fall does not 
bring much rain, but the mercury rifes gra- 
dually pretty high, it prognofticates good 
weather, of fome continuance. 

When the mercury rifes high, the air 
fucks up, or diflolves into its own fubftance, 
the moidure on the furface of the earth, 
even though the (ley be overcad. This is 
a fure fign of fair weather ; but if the 
earth continues moid, and water ftands in 
hollow places, no trufl fhould be put in the 
cleared fky ; for in this cafe it is deceitful. 
Very heavy thunder-dorms happen without 
fenfibly affecting the barometer; and in this 
cafe the dorm feldom reaches far ; but 
when attended with a fall of the barometer, 
it reaches much more extenlively. 

In all places nearly on a level with the 
fea, rain may be expected when the quick- 
filver falls below thirty inches. This points 
out one caufe of the more frequent rains 
in lofty fituations, than in low open coun- 
tries. Thus double the quantity of rain 
falls at Townly-hall, in Lancafhire, that 
does in London, as we are informed in the 
Tranfactions of the Royal Society. 

The heights of the quicklilver in the 
barometer above referred to, hold only in 
places on a level with the fea ; for experi- 
ments have taught us, that the mercury falls 
confiderably in inland places, according to 
their heights. 

As your Magazine is perufed by many 
of the mod ingenious men in the kingdom, 
I wi(h they were called on to account for 
that power in the air of ogcafionally dif- 

No. AT. 

folving water, if I may fo exprefs it, and \ 
of mixing the water with itfelf (as fait \S 
in water) generally invifible, and at other 
times in vapours, which foon form clouds, g 
Winds, efpecially from dry continents,, 
have great power of thus raifing water. 1 
Evaporation, by means of the fun's heat, 
is generally mentioned as the efficient caufe; 
but whoever attends to the quantity of 
fnow, and even of ice, that is carried off I 
into the air, in the mod fevere frods, will 
be convinced that heat is not the principal 
caufe. The quantity of water thus raifed/i 
into the air may be edimated by numerous.! 
fprings which owe thtir fource to vapours] 
thus raifed. The waters of thefe fpringsJ 
uniting from the greated rivers. Add to '. 
thefe, the quantities that fall in dews and;} 
rain, which give birth to all vegetables, 
and to that beautiful verdure which gives a'j 
peculiar beauty to this country, in the en-,' 
joymeut of which, other nations envy us. ; 
As we are ignorant of the caufe of thisj 
power in the air, of diflblving water, foj 
are we no lefs ignorant whence it is that' 
the air occafionally drops thefe vapours in 
dews, rain, &c. 

[Gentleman's Magazine, 1789.; 


Keep nvhat you've got, and catch nuhat you can* 

AGREEABLY to the prudent di-| 
rectionsof this excellent old probers 
I mean to keep myfelf pretty fnug, as long 
as the bounty of correspondents fhall fur- 
nidi me with a fufficiency to appear tolera* 
bly decent to the world. 

S 1 R, 

The Retailer, No. XV. 

readinefs and order, and fhould never be at 
a lofs to put together a pair of fhoes, when- 
ever a cu Homer calls. He mould not he- 
fitate to throw down one pair to take mea- 
fure for another, or to ditch up a fmall 
hole, led it mould grow bigger. But it 
is not fo with us authors ; I mean fuch as 
are poflefled of real and genuine genius. 
We cannot thus hurry ourfelves from one 
fubjeft to another, to comply with the 
callings or caprice of any body. We an- 
fwer to higher dictates. We mud follow 
where Apollo leads. When we are pour 
ing forth our fouls in the foft language of 
pity, and ditplaying fome affecting pic 
ture of diflrefs, in all the pomp of elo- 
quence, or in the morefimple garb of na- 
ture ; can we at once turn from this luxury, 
to fcribble the tricks of fome impertinent 
coxcomb, or laugh at the nonfenfe of his 
brother fool? Can we hurry from the me 
lancholy, to the merry, and tranfport our- 
felves from the gloomy caves of Woe, to 
revel with the fons of Folly in the fplendid 
courts of Vanity ? No — The foul of the 
author mould be tuned to the fubjeft he is 
writing upon ; and he is neither an author 
nor a man, whofe foul is at all times ready 
for all fubje&s, and can at pleafure fhake off 
one impreflion, for the admiflion of ano- 
ther. Indeed, as fuch write without any 
impreflion on their own feelings, it is im- 
poflible they can aroufe them in others. 

" Now Sir, author like, I have opeued 
my bulinefs with a long apology, and I 
fear my preface will prove longer than its 
work — But to the point at once — You mud 
know then, Sir, that I have for a long- 
time pad been engaged in the compaction 
of a Tale ; in which I mean mod accurate- 
ly to difplay the genuine nature and pro- 
perties of Love, in all its windings and 
metamorphofes ; and alfo to (liow, in the 
flronged lights, the very improper manner 
in which this paflion is generally managed 
by its female fuhje&s. 1 have brought to- 
gether a thoufand intereding circumdances 
in thefituation ofthe lover, and ten thoufand 
cruelties in the conduct of his midrefs. I 
believe I may, without vanity, affert, that 
the piece is mad admirably put together. I 
fay this with the more confidence, becaufe I 
am perfectly fatisfied with it myfelf; which, 
hy the bye, I feldom am with my own per- 
formances ; though the world chufc to dif- 
fer from me in opinion upon this fubject — 
As yet, Sir, I have carried on my Tale 
with the utmodconfidency, and the mod na- 
tural connexion between its psrts, and I 
have, now got it ripe far the iir-aluTue— * 


And now, Sir, my only difficulty is to pro- 
cure a fuitable and affecting catajirophe—- 
It is in my choice of this that I want your 

" At fird; when, by the affe&ing fcenes 
and fpeeches I had jud been relating, my 
humanity was roufed, and my tender feel- 
ings all alive to the touches of companion, 
I was fully determined that the dear crea- 
tures mould come together, have as many 
children as fingers and toes, and be as hap- 
py as the days or nights were long. But 
while I was delighting myfelf with this 
beautiful exercife of goodnefs, and was 
ready to difpenfe, with an unfparing hand, 
all the blifs upon the lovers, that lovers can 
enjoy, a bawling brat of a child rufhed in- 
to the room, and fcreamed out, " O, papa, 
give me a penny, there is an old woman at 
the door with fuch beautiful fugar cakes, 
you never faw the like." " No you little 
huffey; nor I never wifh to fee them ; get 
about your bufinefs, and learn better than 
to interrupt me when you fee I am writ- 
ing." Now though I was again left alone, 
yet this accident had fo dilcompofed me, 
that I could not, after repeated efforts, re- 
gain my good humour — I then got in a 
downright paflion and fwore that the lovers 
mould never be happy, and I was now re- 
refolved to overwhelm them with milery in 
proportion to the happinefs 1 had jull be- 
fore intended for them. O! that the fate 
of love fhould depend upon the breath of 
an infant ! All my trouble now was, how 
I fhould difpofe of them to their greated 
[ n j ur y — At hrfl I had agreed that my hero, 
after having fome hard words with his mif- 
trefs, fhould fet off for fome foreign clime, 
in a pet, or, as a tale- writer mould term 
it, in defpair. 1 intended that this voyage 
mould have been undertaken in the fall of 
the year, when dorms rage on our coalfs ; 
that the failors fhould for a long time have 
druggled in vain, againft the warring winds 
and watery feas — that they fhould have 
been one hundred and ten times lifted into 
the Heavens, and as often, lacking one, 
been funk to the lowed depths of the low- 
ed Hell — At length, neither the found nefs 
of the fhip, nor the fkill and courage of the 
pilot aud feamen, being able to prevail 
againd their foaming irreGitiblc foe, they 
were all to have been, at a Angle mouth- 
ful fwallowed into the expanding, terrific 
jaws of unrelenting, ir.fatiabls oceaa. Thi% 
feheme for a while pleafed me mightily* 
and I could not but admire myfelf for the 
contrivance, and the manner in which! 
haddifpofed fe IV». %fces fiamft «<m 


The Retailer, No. XT. 

ration, I got quite out of conceit of this 
plan — I reflected that my lover's fate was 
common — that many fhared it with !*im — 
that pity or furprile when divided among 
a whole fhip s crew, could afford but little 
to any one man's mare — .betides, a maii'i 
getting drowned when he cannot help it. 
difplays neither the violence of his love, 
nor the intrepidity with which it arme<! 
him. His death fhould be fingular and vo- 
luntary — Such were my objections. — In ol- 
der to remove or weaken them, I propofed 
to place my hero in fome very affecting 
n '.) in the cabbin or on deck, as you 
pleafe — he fhould there feem unmoved 
with the threatening danger around, and 
behold it with a calm and compofed coun- 
tenance ; perhaps I might have faid, with 
pleafure. While in this delightful fitua- 
tion ; the captain, or, one of the failors, 
as moll convenient, fhould come up to him, 
tell him that the fhip could not hold toge- 
ther much longer, and they mutt all be 
drowned — Now, Sir, was to have been in- 
troduced my grand ftroke ; for upon this 
information, the defpairing lover was to 
have fmiled in the informer's face, and 
fpoke iu thefe words, or fome quite as 
clever — " My friend, would you terrify one 
with the name of death, who has all his 
life been dead, and fuffering the torments 
of the damn'd — No— man, hard hearted 
man, is fteeled againfl the forrows of man, 
and refufes the balm of confolation to his 
woes— but thou, more kind-hearted ocean, 
thou receiver!: the wretch into thy arms, 
who is rtfufed by man ; — thy bofom is ever 
open to the miferable ; — thou now art my 
only friend upon earth — lam not, I will not 
he ungrateful — When thy bofom is drained 
of its waters, if fuch a thing fhould ever 
happen, come but unto me, and 1 will weep 
thee hill again- — the flood gates of wretch 
ednels (hall be ope ncd, and my tears fhali 
oifll thy loll waters — O ! Ocean, my 
teirs (hall lie falted and feafoned with woe, 
and thy llreams Hi all be as bitter as ever." 
— Here finks the fhip. 

" Yet I know not how it is, but I muft, 
I think, be exceedingly hard to pleafe — I 
could not quite reconcile myfelf to this dif- 
pofal of my hero, though thus embellifh 
ed with fpee-ches and circumllances — Some- 
thing elfe then was to be fought for — hang- 
ing next occurred to me — but this feem- 
ed too vulgar, unlcfs I could procure the 
lady's garter to do it with, of which I have 
little hopes — befides, when I reflected upon 
ithe < dirty remarks Cotton wa& able to ex- 
tuK.t from the hanging he had bellowed on 

Dido, I was fully refolved againfl it — poi- 
lon and pi it ol are the only methods of gen- 
teel execution that are left me ; and which 
if thefe to take, I find it very difficult to 
decide — I acknowledge that the merits of 
both are great ; but then I have objections 
..oboth — you will oblige me by chooiingfor 
tic, and I am determined to abide by 
vour choice. 

I am, Sir, 

With the greatefl refpect, 
Yours, &c. 
" N. B. Pray, Sir, be as expeditious as 
poflible in giving an anfwer, as my tale is 
waiting for it, and the world are waiting 
for my tale." 

Now for my other long-winded corref- 



In looking over your papers, I could not 
but obferve a great irregularity in your ufe 
of mottoes — whether this proceeds from 
an opinion, that where not ufed, they would 
have been unneceffary or improper, or from 
a poverty of fleck in thofe articles, it is im- 
poflible for me to fay. If the former be 
the reafon, I am done ; as I would not 
choofe too pofitively to contradict your 
judgment in the difpofal of thefe fmall 
•wares. However I would remind you, 
that all flfop-keepers that wifh to take with 
the people and draw customers, never tail 
to throw us in a dram or a Jkean of thread 
or fome fuch trifle, when we take any thing 
of them. I knew a couple of very worthy 
young fellows who failed in their attempts 
to eltablifh themfelves in bufinefs, merely 
by not paying attention to this cuflom ; 
which has fo long pi evaded as almoil to be 
confidcred as a right — now let me advife 
you to learn wifdom from the experience 
of othrrs, and not to lun the rifque of 
knocking yourfelf up, by omitting this tri- 
lling gratification to the public— remem- 
ber, Sir, there are fo many engaged in the 
fame way with yourfelf ; fo man yf?ops where 
the fame kind of commodities may be had, 
that it is your intereft to indulge the peo- 
ple to the utmoft } efpecially when you 
coofider that all your competitors hold out 
thefe allurements ; which, though perhaps 
trifling in themfelves, are ver.y important in. 
their effects. Tis true, the Rhapfodi/l has been 
backward in this kind of generofity; but 
then you know a Rhapjodtfl is a very ex- 
traordinary character, whom every body 
fuffers to do as he pleafes, becaufe nobody 
cares for hi in. 

The Countenance an Indication of the Interior Charade 

M But, if my latter conjecture be 
right, that is, if your flock of mottoes is 
very low, your affbrtrnent confined, and 
you deal them out fo fparingly, only that 
they may hold out the longer ; I will make 
you an offer, which to me feems generous 
enough. — You mutt firft be informed that 
lam a man of great reading; I will not add, 
and of learning too, but if you think, it a 
neceflary confequence (as I do) you are 
welcome to add it for yourfelf — I have a 
book in my own hand-writing, which may 
juflly be called A collection of the Tit-bits 
of Authors ; for in it are inferted every opi- 
nion andpafTage which I thought remark- 
able in any of the works, I have pcrufed ; 
arranged fo that lean, in an initant, turn 
to the extracts upon any fubjeet required 
—now, Sir, this book is, upon certain 
conditions, heartily at your fervice ; and 
whenever you have written your monthly 
performance, bring it to me, and I will 

undertake to fit it with a motto — Sir, I (to thefe propofals i3 defired as foon as pof 
n of fome judgment, and I will fible." 

fliould not authors be fumifhed with thefe 
little appendages to their bufinefs, as well 
as others — I could now mention an hun- 
dred trades (not meaning to degrade you 
by the companion, as I mould have faid, 
" to compare fmall things with great,") 
where almoft every feparate article is pre- 
pared by different hands, and then he who 
who puts them together, gets the credit of 
the whole. 

" And now, Sir, the compenfation, that 
I fhall expect for the fervices I have offered, 
is briefly this, that if ever your lucubrations 
fhould be collected in the pocket volume 
you was fpeaking of fome time ago, I may 
appear as an afiiltant to the work— doirt 
attempt to ferve me as the organiil did his 
bellows blower, left I mould be tempted 
to revenge myfelf by a ftratagem fimilarto 
that which affifted the latter — I fuppofe 
you know the ftory, and fo, as I am tired 
of writing, I will not repeat it — an anfvver 

am a ma 

undertake to do this bufinefs fo neatly, 
that the world may ftill continue to believe 
thacthe eiTay was written for, and fuggehS 
ed by reflections upon, its text ; nor mail 
they ever fufpect that this text was fought 
for after the effay was written, and then 
tacked to it as ufual — as you may wonder 
what firll put it into my head to make the 
felection, the ufe of which I have offered 
you, I will fatisfy your curiofity— I had 
often fat, and been furprifed at the multi- 
plicity of ways and means, by which man- 
kind around me were getting a living. 
Now I knew that thefe ways and means, 
were never fhowered down from Heaven 
in a hail-florm — then they mud have been 
difcovered by men, like myfelf; and no 
doubt before molt of them were known, the 
world thought they could do without them; 
their utility was not fufpedtcd, until felt - 
the conclufion I drew from thefe deep and 
learned reflections, was, that very probably 
there were many ufeful things yet unknown, 
and although we went on very well with 
out them, we might do better with them 
| — I then puzzled myfelf in looking round 
with a prying eye, to difcover fome defici- 
ency— -after infinite trouble, I hit upon 
this faid undertakinp-, of collecting a large 
afTortment of fhort fentences and fayings, 
properly arranged for the ufe of periodical 
Writers. This feemed to me perfectly new; 
and I doubt not of its ufe, having fome- 
times observed fomething like a want of 
connexion between fome of thefe periodica! 
papers and their mot:oes~-and indeed, why 

Your humble fervant, 

From the fmall nefs of your 'wares and 
dealings) I cannot confent to confider you 
as one of us, that is, as a merchant — I 
therefore do you no injuitice to rank you 
among the fraternity of pedlars; whofe du?y 
you know, it is, to call upon their cuftom* 
ers, and not to expect to be waited upon — > 
bring your budget, and when I have exa- 
mined the quality of your goods, I will an- 
Uver your propofals. H. 

The Countenance an Indication of the 

Interior. Character. 

HE Countenance is a thing merely 

exterior, but from which there are 

ertain eonfequenceo to be drawn, to know 

the interior character and difpofitions of 

perfons. A firm and ftea.iy countenance 

fuppofesthataman prefcrves a prefenceand 

a compofnre of mind ; on the contrary, aa 

embarratfed countenance indicates coofufi- 

on, and a diliurbed mind. Therefore 

thofe who nree>:pert in gallantry, like fkil- 

ful politicians, know how to take advantage 

of the appearance of the countenance, to 

forward their defigns. 

It would be equally impolite and awk- 
ward to difcompofe women in public ; there 
are private opportunities when we ought 
\a be lefs circumfpect. So the politician, 
in his private conferences, hazards blunt 
and unexpected propofitions, obferves the 
effects thty prcduce upon him wh - 1ms not 
orepared to receive thcrn, accoiu.'ig to 


which he pufhes his point, or retreats. A 
certain and general rule in fociety, is, that 
an amiable man never drives to embarrafs 
any body, and takes fuch meafures as not 
lobe embarraffed himfelf; for nothing 
but embarraffment makes men of fenfe ap- 
pear like fools. 

As foon as a man is in place, or has ac- 
quired a fortune, he prefently acquires 
hanghtinefs and airs of importance, which 
isealily believed to be the diilinguilhing 
Hv»rk and proof of fuperiority. Neverthe- 
less, the more we are elevated, the more 
affable we ought to be ; except on certain 
occalions, wherein it is neceffary to (how 
lhat we feel what we are, and to check 
thofc who would otherwife forget it, and 
fail in what is due to us. 

I have fomewhere read, that we ought 
never to lay afide an air of authority,' To 
far as not to have it in our power to re fume 
it when neceffary ; becaufe appearance is 
often neceffary to evince reality. 

Never make a great blow with a timid 
air, the effeft would be loll : but appear 
to pity thofe whom you are obliged to pu- 
nifh ; feem lorry to refufe thofe whofe de- 
wands you cannot comply with, and to be 
happy and fatisfied at having it in your 
power to confer upon them fome favour. 
I fhall be anfwered that all this is foon faid, 
but very delicate and difficult of executi- 
on ; I acknowledge it ; but it is what a 
man in place mult ftudy to acquire. Hie 
WCtei labor urn. 

Great babblers and tale bearers have fel- 
dom a firm countenance, or, at leaft, ea- 
fily lofe it. — Fools never have it; but half 
wits poffefs it fometimes, and then it 
is a great merit in them, as it conceals a 
part of their folly. As a grave counte- 
nance, is generally accompanied with flow- 
rtefs in deliberation, this gives time to re- 
flect upon what is to be faid or done } men 
of this defcription make fewer miliakes 
$nd foolifli expreffions. 

The countenance of fupcriors is never 
cmbarraffing to a perfon who has been well 
brought up ; he has learned betimes the 
danger of being infolent ; but meannefs is 
always contemptible. — Moreover, as an ho- 
neil man has nothing to reproach himfelf 
; with, he is never embarraffed in anfwering 
queftions which are put to him ; and, if 
he has to afk in his turn, he gives his rea- 
; ions with that cont-dence which virtue and 
juftice infpire. It is equally neceffary to 
be brief in the expofition of our reafons, 
in the narration of circumflar.ces and {lo- 
ries ; in tbefe, we ought to prefs on to the 

On Morality. 

point upon which they turn, abridge the 
preambles, and fay no more than is necef- 
fary to lead to and difcover it. The fame 
in requiiitions; no more fhould be faid than 
is abfolutely neceffary to make known the 
defired object, and the reafons which may 
be decifive and determinate, for the perfon 
to whom the requifition is made,, diveiting 
it alfo of every acceffory, and changing 
the prologue into an overture. 

It is more difficult for fuperiors to con^ 
duct themfelves with their inferiors. To 
receive well a folicitation, they ought to 
know to whom they fpeak, and be ac- 
quainted with thematter in queftion, which 
is not always the cafe on the firil approach : 
whillt they are ignorant of the bufinefs, 
they ought to watch and attend ; neither 
to difcourage nor flatter with hopes, but 
to hearken, and, if it be neceffary, to 
bring by degrees, the foiicitor to the point, 
always avoiding all appearance of unfa- 
vourable prepoffeffion : finally, to protiife 
nothing but what they are fure to perform, 
and to give no hopes but fuch as are juft 
and reafonable. — Moreover, they ought to 
blend their politenefs with that art, which 
is hot acquired but by a great knowledge 
of the world, and which cannot be learned 
inthe duft of the cabinet. Bufinefs is done 
by men, and with men ; but, on the one 
hand, thofe who have lived enough amongft 
them to acquire the art of fatisfying a nu- 
merous audience, have frequently led too 
diffipatcd lives, to have profoundly lludied 
the bottom of affairs with which they are 
charged ; on the other, men who have 
grown pale over papers, have not been fuf-* 
ficiently in the world. In both thefe 
cafes there are rifks;-but rational people 
are well aware of them, and take their 
meafures accordingly. 

On Morality. 

MORALITY teaches lis how we ou?ht to live 
with men : what a number of difcourfetx 
(ermons and books there are, which inftiuctusin 
the firft principles of it 1 But there are few which 
teach us how to live with ouifelves, and for our- 
(elves alone : it is becaufe the mafler and the lef- 
fons are in our own heirts, and depend upon our 
characters. There are people who have lived fixty 
years without ever having known themfelves, be- 
caufe they have never been at the trouble of fru- 
dying their characters ; tor the moll trifling re-» 
(caret), is fumcknt to give us that knowledge, to 
perfection. Let it net be imagined, that felf-love 
hinders us from judging truly of our own charac- 
ter ; on the contrary, it informs us of our defects, 
and engages at to correct them, becaufe our hap.- 
pintfs is interefted therein : it only hinders us. 
from copfefllna them before others. Let us b$ 
linccre ; we may be deceived about our dclvi't, 
but we cannot totally conceal thetji., 

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Char after of Mar foal Turenn*. 

Tfc£ Royal Treafury of Goanaxuato was 
eftablifhedhy the Marquis de Maniera when 
viceroy of the kingdom of Mexico, the 
30th of April 1665; and it appears by 
this account, that the fum total of the 
duties on gold and filver paid into the royal 
rials 1 torn. 5 gr. 

The Cajhllan of gold of 2 2 carats was 
■ worth i8 rials, from the 30th of April 
166.5, to December following, and was 
then reduced to ifi-j^ rials, or dollars 
2-^. On the 25th of June 1743, the 
value of the cajiellart got up to dollars 
32.24, or rials 2if £: on the 18th of May 
1744-, it was fixed, and Hill remains with- 
out any variation, at dollars 2-ifv, or rials 


Every mark of filver of 12 dwts. was 
worth, from the time of the eftablifhment 
of this office to the 8th of March 1677, 
dollars 8| ; the value then was reduced 
-4, maravedies, and at that rate it has con- 
tinued to this day, viz. dollars 8, 5 rials, 
30 maravedies 


The duties on gold bullion, were firfl 
rated at \\ per cent, on the grofs, and -f of 
the net value, which amounted to tipper 
cent, and fo continued till Augult 1, 1701. 
The fovereignty-duty of four dollars per 
100 caftellans, which before had been col- 
lected at the mint, was th v i added, and 
the whole amounted to 22-^ per cent, at 
which rate they continued till November 
1723 The duties wj&re then reduced (fub- 
ject, however, to variation according to 
the price of the bullion) to l2j per cent. 
and underwent no other alteration till Ja- 
nuary 1777. A farther reduction then 
took place to about 1 1 \ per cent, and on 
the 1 2th of September following the duties 
were fixed at 3 per cent, and have remained 
■^n that footing to this day. 

The filver mines contributed their fhare 
to the revenue at the rate of I o-j% per cent . 
tilljuneijjoo; at which timethe fuvereignty- 
dutyof r Tial permarkof n dwts. allowing 
thedeductionforother imports, the coil, and 
freight of the (Azoques) quickfilver uftd 
in fmelting, was transferred from the mint 
hither ; fo that from the faid date to tin 
26th of January 1777, the filver from the 
mines was fubject to 1 2 T \ per cent, but 
fince then, the fovereignty-duty being ta 
ken off, the rate of duties has reverted to 
its old eftablifhment of 10^ per cent. 

The filver in ingots, which the mer- 

chants barter for other articles of trade, in* 
eluding even the famples, were at different 
times, till the 18th of November 1723, 
fubject to impofl, of 20 and 22 percent* 
but fince then the filver appropriated for 
this traffic has been put on the fame foot* 
ing as that of the miners. 

Plate, or whatever quantity of bullion 
was intended to be wrought, at firfl paid 
the fame duties (except the fovereignty- 
duty) as that intended for coinage, being 
conlidcred of the fame clafs; but in 1708 
and 1709, the duties were no more than 
io/ - per cent, on the value of all wrought 
filver. In 1768, an additional tax of I 
dollar upon every mark of 1 1 dvvts. was 
exacted, and wrought gold continually 
bore a proportionate fhare of the duties 
till January 1 777, when both gold and fil- 
ver bullion was exempted from the fove- 
reignty-duty : all filver plate, however, 
was rated at about \2\ ; and all gold plate 
taxed only at 3 per cent, according to the 
regulations then made, which ftill remain 
in practice. 

It is worthy remark, that the duties in 
general were never, during the whole courfe 
of 114 years, fo low as at preftnt ; nor 
the produce paid into the Royal Exche- 
quer fo great at any period as during the 
lalt four years, from 1775 £0 1778. 

Mexico, 19th June, 1779. 


Juan Ordonnez, 

Keeper of the Records. 

Character of Marjhal' Turennz. 

MDe Turenne, of a lefs illnfrrious biith, arid 
• whole reputation in war was not fo brilliant 
as that of the Prince of Condi:, had, perhaps upon 
the whole, as much military merit, lie placed it 
in the moft advantageous point of view, becaufe 
his talents were diltinguiined and procured him 
employment. He had, perhaps, others which 
his extreme modefty and rtferved character hin- 
dered him from making known; he was thought 
capable of being at the head of a party, becaufe 
he refufed it. But if his military fupenority was 
balanced by that of Af. de Cond-, the qualities of 
his mind were always looked upon to be fupcrior 
to thofe of his rival. He was as compofed in the 
cabinet as in the field ; and this hero in war was a 
inild and amiable individual in fociety. He did not 
become a Catholic, till it was too late to fufpec} 
•is change of religion to proceed from motives of 
>mbition or interefh His death was equally re- 
setted by the foldiers, and people ; an eulogium 
vhich no General had merited, fince the glorious 
-•icesof the Roman Republic and Empire. 


Of the Comptftlon and Jhalj>/fs *f Gunpowder 



{From Wet/on s Chewical Efavs.] 
UNtOWuER is an artincial com 
pofition, connfting of Salt-petre 
^Iphur, and Cha coal. The principal 
things to be refpetfed, in the making 
gunpowder, a-e. the goodnefs of the in- 
gredients , the manner of mixing them 
the proportion in which they are to be 
combined ; and the drying the powder, 
after u is made. 

| Salt-petre in its crude ftate. whethe, 
it be brought from the Ea« Indies or 
made 10 Bur pe, is generally, if not uni 
verfally, mixed wi.h a greater or leis 
portion of common fait: now a fmall porti- 
on of commonfalt, injures the goodnefs of 
a large quantity of gunpowder; hence it 
becomes neceffary, in making gunpowder 
to ufe the very belt falt-petre. i he pu- 
rer* fuiphur, is that which is fold in the 
ihops under the name of floweis of fui- 
phur , but the roll fuiphur being much 

ingredients arc neceffary to proauce it 
balt-petre and fuiphur, mixed together 

^ivenoexploiion; and, though faltpetre 
anil charcoal, when intimately mixed do 
^ve an e.vplolion, yet h is, probably,' f 
tar Ids force chan what is produced from 
a mixture of the three ingredients. I 
have faid proUUy becauie this point 
does noc feem to be quite fettled at pre, 
lent.^ as may appear from the following 
opinions of two eminent ch mins each 
of whom appeals to experience. TJn me- 
lange cie fix onces de nil re et d'une onca 
de charbon produit une pou Ire, oui a 
mottle moms de force que routes Belles 
dans Jefquelles on fait entrs du fojlfre- 
cette fubltance eft done abfolument ef- 
ientielle a la compofuion de la pou^e 
Dans le temps que je travaillois fur cette 
matiere. quelques paraicuiiersprrpoferent 
de de la poudre fans foufre : ils 
promettoient qu' elle feroit plusTortej 
La poudre dans laquelie on fait entrer* 
une petite quantite de foufre, ~ aug- 

u i , ■""*"'f""« owugmucu uuc pence quantite de foufre ana- 
cheaper than the flowers of fuiphur, and [mente deforce du double."* « I hefirinr! 
being alfo of a irreat Hrn-r^ n f „„,; nalin^P^^^f j ¥ nci 

being alfo of a great degree of puri 
ty, it is the only fort nfed in the manu- 
facturing of gunpowder. With relation 
to the charcoal, it h is generally been be- 
lieved that the coal from foft and light 
woods was better adapted to the making 
of gunpowder, than that from the hard 

pal ingredients of gunpowder, and thofe to 
which itowes its force, are nitre and char- 
coal; for thefe two ingr dicnrs, well mix- 
ed together, cohfthufe gunpowder at leaft 
equal, if not fuperior mjlrength, to com- 
mon gunpowder (as I found by experi- 
ence) and may be focn in the memoir of 

*„A i iIC »" ra "'"/ * nu 111<l y ae J cen in the memoir of 

and heavy ones : thus Evelyn ftys of the I count Saluce, inferred in the Meb*r M 
iiaz e_ that «it made one of the bed coals \d* Philofophie et de Mathematical* 
me J for gunpowder being very fine and y Academic Roy ale de Turin. The fuj 
light, till they found alder to be more* pHur feem, to fei ve on" or the purpofe 
nt. And, in another place, he thinks of fetting fire to the mafs, with a iefs de- 
that lime-tree coal is ftill barter than that ! gr.e of heat.' f f.| mAy truft feme crude 
from alderf . An eminent French chemift {experiments which I have made with a 
has ihewn, from a&ual experiment, that common powde--*r : er, I mult accede to 
this opinion in favour of coal from light th e opinion of M. J*anm~ . as I repeatedly 
woods, is ill founded : he affirms, that found, that equal bulks of common p w- 
powder made from lim -tree coal oreven,|der, and of the fame fort of powder, 
jrcn\ the coal of the pith of elder-tree, isjfreed from its fuiphur by a gent'e eva^o! 
in norefpe.'l preferable to that m/ide from I ration, differed very much" boi in the 
the coal of the ha deft woods, fuph asjloUdnefs and force of the explofion » 
guaiacnm and oak. J This remark, if it |the powder which had loft its fuiphur he- 
lp confirmed by iVure cxpei ience, may j'ug infeiior to the other •'- ^ - 
be of ufe to the makers of gunpowder J'ars. It is not without 
■sit is not a ways an eafy matter for them' \b«lks are here fpecihed, 
to procure a fufficieat quantity of the coal j meafure of common powder weighs more 
>f loft wood. j than the fame meafure of powder which 


for afr* ciefiniie 

rt w ?od. jthan the fame meafure of powder which 
ie mixture of the materials of which has loft its fuiphur: hence' the refu't of 
owder is made, fhoultf be as intimate experiments made wi:h ennal ixteigbts of 
s uniform as nolTi-Mf fV»r li» ,.,k.i- rhefe nou'Hprt «;i! k» A't^^~. „► c ~l„- 

in^ as uniform as poffible: for, in what- 
ever manner the explofion may be ac- 
ounted for, it is certain that the three 

* Evelyn's Sylva, by dr. Hunter, p. a^ 

+ lh. p 946. 

t Chyin. par M. Baume, Vol. I. p. 455, 

l loi- Mac,-. Vol. IV. No- 2. 

thefe powders, will be different from that 
which is derived from eqml bulks : M-iy 

* Chym. par M. Baume, Vol I. p 4 6,. " 

+ Ph.loi. Tranf. 1779. p. 397 , wbewAe «ad«« 
will find ieveral ingCDtout eXpcrimcDts, relative to th- 
naturc ot gunpowder, by dr. Ingai-Hoari. 

5 3 Of the Compoftlon and 

not this obfervation tend to reconc'le the 
bpinions before mentioned* Bqt, whe- 
ther fulphur be a abfollitely neceffary 
ingredient in tne compofition of good 
gu'np wder or no' ir is certain, that an 
accurate mixture of the othenngredients 
is efTentiaby requi. te. In order to ac- 
complish this accural mixture, the ingre- 
dients are prev ully rc-ducea into courfe 

• powders and afterwards ground and 
p unded together, il! the powder becomes 
exceedingly tine ; and when that is done, 
the gunp iwdrr is made. But as gunpow- 
der, in the fta e c( an impalpab e dull, 
would be inconvenient in its ufe it has 
been cuftomary to reduce it in:o grains, 
bv forcing if, when moiffened with wa er, 
through fieves of vanous fizes 

The i eceflity jf a compltte mixture o f 
the materials, in order to have good gun- 
powder, is obvious, in the uL of fuch as 
hat been 're', after having been acci- 
dent!y wetted. 1 here may be the fame 
we : ght of 'hi powder, after ic has been 
dried, that theie was befoie it was wet- 
ted; but its ftrength is greatly diminifhed 
on account of the mixture i f the ingre- 
dients being iefs perfect. I his diminution 
of ftrength proceeds from the water ha- 
ving diffolvea a port on of the falt-petre 
(the other two ingredients not bein. fo- 
luble in water) , ior, upon drying the 
powder, the d'fTolved fair petre will be 
cryftulli/.ed. in particles much larger than 
thofe were, which entered into the com- 
pofition of the gunpowder, and thus the 
mixture will be leib intimate and uniform, 
than it was betore the w tt ng. This 
wetting o^ gunpowder is of r en occaiioned 
hv the mere mcifture of the atmofphere 
Great complaints were mauc concerning 
the hadnefs of th gtupowder uf d by the 
Englilh, in their engagement with the 
French fleet, off Grenada in ju'y, 1779; 
the rench havin done much damage to 
the mafts atul rigging f the Englifh, 
\vh.-n the I nglifn (hot w mid not -^c^ 
them. When 'h ; s muter was enquired 
into by the houi'e ot commons it appear- 
ed, th (Jfthe powder had been injured by 
the moid tire r{' the atmofphere: it had 
concreted into large lumps inthemiddh 
of whi h. the falt-petre was vifible to 
the naked eye If»the wetting has been 
considerable, the powdei isrendered whol- 
ly unfit tor ufe: but, if no foreign fuh- 
ftance has be^n mixed with it exctpt 
frelh water, it may be made into good 
gunpowder again, by being properly 
pounded and granulated, if the wetting 

Analyjis of Gunpowder. 

has been occaiioned by fait water, and 
that to any considerable degree, the f.a 
fait*, upon drying the powder, will remain 
mixed with it and may fo far vitiate its. 
quality that it can never be ufed again, 
in the form of gunpowder. However, 
as, by fo'ution in water and fubfequent 
cryftalization, the moll valuable part of I 
the gunpowder namely the falt-petre, 
may be extracted, and in its original pu>» 
rity, even from powder that has been 
wetted by tea water, or otherwife fpoiled; 
f he faving of damaged powder, is a mat- 
ter of national oeconomy. 

The proportion in which the ingredi- 
ents of gunpowder are combined toge-i 
r her are not the fame in different nations, 
■ or in different works of the fame nation, 
even f^r powder deftmed for the fame 
ufe. It is difficult to obtain, from the 
makers of gunpowder, any information 
upon this fubjeft : their backwardnefs in 
this particular, arifes not fo much from 
any of them fancying themfelves polTeffed 
of the bed: poffible proportion, as from 
an affectation of myflery, common to moft 
manufa-iureis, and an apprebenfion of 
difcover^g to the world, that they do not 
ufe fo much falt-petre as they ought to,, 
do, or as their competitors in trade really 
do ufe. Salt-petre is not only a much, 
dearer commodity, than either fulphur ort 
charcoal, but it enters alfo, in a mueh,a 
greater proportion, into the compofnion!' 
of gunpowder, than both thefe material* 

i taken together: hence there is a greats 
temptation to leffen the quantity of falt->< 
petre, and to augment that of the otheci 

ingredients; and the fraud is not eafily 

detected, iince gunpowder, which will ex-. 

plode readily and loudly, may be made} 
J with very (.liferent quantities of falt'-petrel 
*Bi2piifa Porta died in the year 1515s 
! fie gives three different proportions for 
J the making of gunpowder, according as, 
( it was required to he of different ftrength * 
! ! have reduced his prop- rtions, '0 that die 

reader m ly lee the quantities of the feve- 
jiai ingredi nts. contained in ico pounds 
t weight of each fort of powder, 

Wok. |Stro. g. 'Strongcfbl 

', Salt-petre 

66 * fo I 



16 | 



i6| 1 



1 -o 



It is fomewhat remarkaUe, that, in al 
thefe proportions, the fulphur and char 

* M.g Nut. L. XII. c 3. 

Of the Compojition and Analy/is of Gunpowder* 
fcoal are ufed in equal quantities. Cardan 
died about fixty years after Baptijia Por- 
ta; and, in that interval, the proportions 
of the ingredients of gunpowder ft em to 

have undergone a great change. 
pr (portions, for ^veat, mid-die 
mall guns, are expreffed in the 
table, f 



fized, a d 

follow in;: 




Great Guns. | Middle i.e. I Smalts 

50 lb. 

1 ?4 



For great and middle-fized guns, we Tee 
a much larger proportion of charcoal than 
of fulphtir was ufed, inCardan's time: At 
pre;ent, I believe, it is in mod: places the 
reverfe, or at kaft the charcoal no where 

exceeds the fulphur. I have put down 
the proportions ufed a: prefent. in ting- 
landi France weden, Poland, and Italy, 
for the belt kind of guupowder. 

England: ! Fr^pc 




Several experiments have been lately 
nrade in France, in order to determine the 
exact proportions of the feveral ingredi- 
ents, which would produce the ftrbngeft 
poffible powder : thefe proportions when 
reduced, as all the reit have been, to the 
quantity compoling one hundred pounds 
of gunpowder, are — 


80 lb. 



From hence it world appear that in a 
Certain weight of Salt-petre, the powder 
[Would produce the greate(t effedt, when 
jthe weight of the charconl was to that of 
ithe fulphur, as three to one. On the o- 
ther hand, experiments are produced, from 
•which it is concluded, that, in a certain 
weight of lalt-pecre, the belt powder is 
■made, when the fulphur is to the charcoal., 
in the proportion of two to one. r>om 
thefe diff erent accounts, it feems as if the 
problem of determining the very bell 
proporti n, was not yet followed. 

In drying gunpowder, after it is redu- 
ced into grains, there are two things to 
be avoided ; toe much and too little heat. 
If the heat is loo great, a portion of the 
fulphur will he driven off; and thus, the 

t Card. Oper. Vol VIII. p. 279- 
* Thefe are laid to be the proportions of Govern- 
ment powder — Plumb. Chem. p. 207. 
+ Chcm. D:&. and Baume's Chem* Vol I. p. 466. 
^ Mem, dc Chem. V*>1. II. p. 42$, — where it ii 

proportion of the ingredients being clian- 
ged, the goodnef of the powder fo f ar as 
it depends on that proportion, will be in- 
jured, [n order to fee what quantity of 
fulphur might be feperated from gunpow* I 
der, by a degree of heat not fufficient to 
explode it, i took twenty four grains of I 
powder, marked F F. in the (hops, and 
placing it on a piece of polifhed copper, 
I heated the copper by holding it over the 
flame of a candle : The gunpowder foon 
fent forth a ftrong fulphuiious vapour; 
and, when it had been dried fo long that 
no more fume or ft iell could be diitin- 
guifhed, the remainder weighed nineteen 
grains — the lofs amounting to five grains 
i he remainder did not explode, by a 
fpark like gunpowder, but like a mixture 
of fal't.petre «nd charcoal and it realiy 
was nothing e!fe, all the fulphur having! 
diilipated. Gunpowder was formerly dri- 
ed, by bein ■ exposed to the heat of the 
fun ; and this method is ftill used in France 

and in fome other countries fterwirds, 

a w;<y was invented of expnling it to a 
heat e4ital to that of boiling /water : at 
prefent, it is molt generally, in England, 
dried in (loves heated by great Iron-pots 
— With any tolerable caution, no danger 
of explofion need be apprehended from 
this method. All the watery parts of the 
gunpowder may be evapor. ttd by a degree 

laid, that two fpecimens or powder, from Hol- 
land, gave only 7 ilb. of falt.perre, from loolb. 
o powder. 
J Conun. Scicn. Bunon. Vol. IV. p. 1*9. 

floo Of the Compojl.ion and 

Ibf heat greatly lcfs than that, in which 
['gunpowder explodes; that degree havm 
Been afcert^ined by fune late experiments, 
■to be about the fix hundredth de ree on 
h-'ahrenh it s fcale, in which the heat of 
Pboding water :s fixed at two hundred and 
Itwe ve. The e is more dan. er of evap ^ 
(rating a portion of trie iulphur, in thi^ 
Iway of drying gunpowder, than when il 
lis dried y expo ure to the fun 

1 he neceffity o' feeing gunpowder fxm 
Kail moilture is obvious from tiie io:low- 
lihg experiment, which was made, fome 
iyears ago. before the Pv-yal Society A 
IqUantity of gu t-powd.r Was taken out d 
a barrel, and dried with a heat equal to 
jthit, in which water boils — A piece of 
' was charged w:th a cei tai 
w ight of c'rie powder; and the dillance 
to which it threw a ball, was no rked 
| The fame p>ece was ch irged with an e- 
qual weight of the ^ame kind of powder, 
taken out of the fame barrel, but no: dri- 
ed; and it titrew an equal bail to only one 
; half the diftance. '1 his effect of moiiluie 
is fo fcnfible that fome officers have af- 
firmed, that they have een barrels of gun- 
powder which was good in the morning, 
but w ich became (by attracting, proba- 
bly, <he humidity of the air) goo for no- 
thing in the evening *. In oreer to k.ep 
the powder dry, by preventing the accefs 
of the air. it has been propofed to line the 
barrels with tin-foil, or with thin fheet* 
of lead, att*r the manner in which tea 
boxes are lin?d f. — W'ou d it not be pofli- 
ble to preferve powder free from moifture, 
and from a los of prt of its fulphur in 
hot climates, by keeping it in glazed ear 
then bottles, or in bottles made of popper 
or tr t W f l 1 Corked ? 

'. his diipoiition to attradt the humidity 
of the . ir, is different in different forts ol 
powder; it is the l j aif in that which is 
made from the purelf f-dt-petre— -'.'ure f.-:lt 
petre, whxh has ben dried as gunpowder 
is d-ied does not become heavier by ex- 
poiure t the atiivifpherc ; — at leaft its in- 
creafe of weight is very lmall ;. not a- 
Jnounting, as tar as my experiments have in fe 
formed me, to above one icventy-ftcond 
part of its we ; ght: I rather think that 
it docs not acquire any increafc of weight 
Uut falr-petre, mixed with .ea-fdt, attradh 
the humidity very fenlibly : and hence, 
though there ibould be no great weigh 

-qu* il avoit vu, dans Irs guems d' Italie. 

tjuelques barrils dc poudre, que etoit bonne le malm, 
«t am ne raloic ncn foil. Hilt. Xa'., del'£fpagn& 

p. 82. 

i Hill. Nat, dc l'Efpa.^nct 

Analyf.s f>f 'Gunpowder-. 

-;f faline matter in a ce-tain weight of 
gunpowder, yet thr goodne s of the pow- 
der may be very variable 1 not only from 
ha foreign aline matter, — be it fea- alt, 
or any other fait, injuring the quality of* 
he p.»wder, as an impn per ingre- 
iient) — hue from its rende'ing the pow- 
er more liable to become humi i. 

ialt-petre 1 eing the ingredient, in which 
.here is the greateflroom for fraud, in the 
c mpoliti - of gunpowder, and en the 
'iuai.thy of which »ts ftrengih chiefly de- 
pends ihe reader will excule the minute- 
' e s of the foil wing procefs, to afcertairi 
ihe quantity of falt-petre contained in a- 
ny fpecimei of gunpowd.T. 

Take atiy quantity of gunpowder; pound 
it in a glafs mortar, till all the grams are 
broken ; lay it before a gentle fire till it 
be quite dry ; in that (fate we gh, accu- 

itely, any quantity of it. lu^p^fe four 
ounces: b il thefe four ounces in about 
a quai t of water ; the boiling need nei- 

her be vio'ent nor long continued ; for 
the water will readily diflolve all the falt- 
petre, or other faline matter, and not a 
particle of either the fulphur or the char- 
coal of the powder. In order to feparate 
the water containing the falt-petre, from 
the fulphur and charcoal pour the who'd 
mto a filter made of brown paper — the 
water containing the falt-petre will run 
through the paper, and muft be carefully 
prefcrved : the charcoal and fulphur will " 
remain upon the paper. Eut, as fome 
particles of the fait petre will (tick both 
to the filtering paper and to the mafs of 
the fulphur and charcoal, thefe are to be I 
repeatedly wafhed, by pouring hot water 
upon them, till the water, in running 
through the filter, is quite infipid — then- 
we may be certain, that we have all the \ 
falt-petre, originally contained in the 
powder, nolv diuolved in the water, andj 
a!l the fitlphur and charcoal remaining a 
mixed mafs upon the filter. Thefe re- 
fpedtive quantities may be ascertained, 
without much difficulty. The water, con- 
taining the dilfelved falt-petre, muft be 
evaporated by a gentle heat : the fait- 
pstre car.not be evaporated by the fame 
degree of heat which evaporates the wa- 
ter all the falt-petre then contained in 
the gunpowder, will remain after the wa- 
ter is cifperftd and being carefully col- 
lifted and weighed, it will (hew the 
quantity of faline matter contained in the 
powder. Dry the mafs of the fulphur and 

harcoal, by laying the filtering papef 
containing it before the fire : it ltouid bt 

American Chronology 
ifiade as dry as the powder was before if 
W ls difTblved in the water. n that itate, 
a i trie iait-petre and charcoal , and, 
I the experiment has been accurate- 
ly qaa le, the weight of the filt-petre 
added to th it of the mixture of fulphur 
and ch?-rcoal, will amount to jult four 
ounces, the weight of the powdrr | he 
quantity of faline matter contained in any 
fpecimen of gunpowder, being thus ascer- 
tained, its quality may be known by dif- 
folving it in water, an.? cryftaljzing it. 
if any part of x it cryftalizes in little cubes. 
it is a fign that it contains fea fait ; or if 
any p;rt of it, after being duly evapora- 
te , will not cryftalize, it is a fign that it 
contains another fort of impurity, called, 
by lalt-p'.tre makers, the mother of nitre , 
which powerfully attracts the humidity 
of the air. 

1 he gunpowder* marked FF, was ana- 
lyzed in the following manner. Twenty- 
four grains, by evaporating the fulphur, 
were reduced to nineteen . thefe nineteen 
grains gave, by folution in water and fub- 
iequent filtration and cryltallization, 
fixteen grains of falt-petre : the charcoal, 
when properly d.ied, weighed three 
grains According to thefe proportions, 
joo pounds of this kinJ of gunpowder 
confuted of 








f trfrd this gunpowder in two or three 
other ways, by taking larger quantities of 
it ; but the quantity of falt-petre was al- 
ways iixty-fix pounds, together with fome 
fractional part of a pound, from one hun- 
dred pounds of gunpowder. The powders, 
marked with a lingle and double F, differ 
in the iize of the grain ; but they do no 
feem to differ as far as I have tried them 
in the quantity of the falt-petre they con- 
tain. From fome forts of powder, I have 
got after the rate of feventy-iix pounds of 
falt-petre, from one hundred of the gun- 

The method of analyzing gunpowder, 
by evaporating the fulphur, is not wholly 
>e relied upon. I have often obferved 

by ei 
tf b( 

when mixtures of fulphur and char 
co; 1 have been expofed to evapc ration 
on a plate of heaed copper, the remainder 
^as weighed lefs than the charcoal which 
entered the comp-olition ; part of it having I 
been carried off by the violent evap. rati- j LA] 
#m of the fulphur: and hence the pro- /\ taat-ijeaeral cf the Br. tub ap- 

portion of fulphur, in the above analyiis, 
is probably too great. I am aware, that 
this obfervation is wholly oppofite to the 
concluiion of M. Baume v who contends, 
that one twenty-fourth pai t of the w ight 
o- the fulphur, employed in an> mixture of 
iuiphur and charcoal adheres ft) ftrong- 
ly to the charcoal, that it cannot be 
feparated from it, without burning the 
charcoal. 1 can only fay, that he fepa- 
rated the fulphur by burning it, and I 
feparated mine by fublinaing it, without 
fuffering it to take fire ; and this diffe- 
ence, in the manner of mak ng the ex- 
periment may, perhaps be futficient to 
account for the different refults. But it 
is unnecetTary to purfue this fubject fur- 
ther. There are feveral things to be at- 
tended to, in forming a complete analyfis 
of gur.powder, which any perfon tolera- 
bly well verfed in chemiftry, would cer- 
tainly take notice of, if the analyfis of any 
particular powder was required to be 
made; and which cannot in this general 
view, be minutely defenbed: and, indeed, 
it is the iefs neceffary to enter into a de- 
tail on this fubject, as the lfrength of the 
powder is not much effected by fmall va- 
riations in the quantities of the fulphur 
and charcoiii, which enter into its com- 
poiition; and the method of afcertaining 
the quantity and quality of the falt-petre, 
in any particular gunpowder, has been 
fufficiently explained. 

In order to judge with more certainty 
concerning the effect of fea fait, when 
mixed with falt-petre, in attracting the 
humidity of the air, 1 made the following 1 
experiment. Five parts of pure falt-petre, 
in powder, were expofed for a month to 
a moift atmofphere; but i did not obferve 
that the falt-petre had gained the leall 
increafe of weight: For the fame length 
of time, and in the fame place, 1 expofed 
four parts of falt-petre, mixed with one 
of common fait ; and this mixture had 
attracted fo much nioifiure, that it was 
in a ftate of fluidity. 



Or, a Lift cf important JEras and memora- 
ble Events in any wife relating to /Iftieri- 
t a, fence its difcovery by the Europeans, ar- 
ranged in alphabetical Order ; <with their 
rejpeclive Dates, [continued from p 7.) 
N D R ii (Major . ohn)— Adju- 


102 American Chronology. 

ly, hanged as a fpy, at Tappan in thri'he Inglilh, to have been committee! 

ltate of New-York, October 2; 1780. 

Anniflice — Between Holland and Great 
Britain, February 10, 1783 . 

African Company (Englwu) — Eftablifn 
ed, in 1672. 

Abercrombie (General ) — Repulfed by 
the French at Ticoaderoga July 8, 1758 

Anne, .^ueen of Engl md, Scotland &c 
began htr reign, March 81 1701: af ei 
the union of the two kingdoms, fhe was 
enicJed queen of Great Britain. She 
rei ned twelve year , four months, and 
twenty-four clays. See Union. 

A//x-fa-C/)*peIf e—Yreliminiixies of peace 
figged at, April 30 1748 ; and the peace 
finally concluded there, October 7, 17^8. 

[BJ Bojion — evacuated by the Aiitu;; 
troops, March 17, 1776. 

Breda — The peace of — by which th- 
Dutch confirmed to the Englilh the N'ew- 
Netherlands(now New-Ycrk, New Jerley 
and Pennfylvania) — concluded July 2», 

Braddock (General) commanding the 
Britifh and Provinci 1 forces defeated b, 
the French, ner Fort Du Quefne, June 

9 '75>- 

Brandywine— Battle of — September 11 

Brainard — (The rev. David) a fuccetf- 
ful protectant mifllonary amon the North 
Amer can Indians of the fve nations — 
<lied Oclober 9, 1747. 

Bethlehem (Pennfylvania) — The princi- 
pal fettlement o> the Moravians, in Ame- 
rica — fettled anno. 1741- This town 
contains between 500 and 600 fouls. 

Boon (Col. Daniel) — A gentleman of 
North Carolina, in company witn a few 
others, fetrled in Kentucky, anno. 1769 — 
his fJlow adventurers were, in a little 
time, pluudered, difperfed and killed, b\ 
the Indians : but the colonel continued 
an inhabitant of tae wildernefs, undl the 
year 1771, when he returned home. 

[C] Congrefs — The Mil provincial 
Congrefs of jouth Carolina, met Janua- 
ry n, 1,75. 

Confederation, and perpetual union be- 
tween the American provinces — May 20, 


Camden (S. C.)— Battle of, Auguft 16, 
i 7 8c. 

Canada — ' onfirmed to Great Britain, 
by th- eiin-ttve treaty of the peace b_ 
tween I ranee* Spain, Great Britain md 
Portugal, ontluded at Paris, February 
10, 1 

C ada Tie fir ft hoftil'ties between 

fh» rrrnr-, aivi the* Em>li.h Me faia. by 

here by the Count de la v-aliffonierei 
,n the part of the French, in 1749. 

Congrefs ^the general) of the North 
American provinces, met at Philadelphia, 
September 5, 1774. 

Cape Breton — Taken by the Britifh, 
:rom the French, June 76, 17^8. 

Ccwpens — 1 he Battle of— January 17^ 

Convention — The fcederal — Met at 
Philadelphia, May 2, 1787 

Charles I. King of England, Scotland* 
&c. began his reign March 27, 1625 ; and 
reigned 22 years, 10 months and 3 days. 

Charles 11. King of England, Scotland, 
Sic. rcjiored to the crown »V;ay 29, 1660, 
and died February 6, 1684; there having 
been an interregnum from the 30th of 
January, 5648 (the day on which his fa- 
ther was beheaded) until the restoration. 

Chrifiien — 1 he Swedes built a fort, <o 
called, near Wilmington (Delaware) »'n 
'.631; which fort was afterwards demo- 
-ifhed by the Dutch. 

[D] Dominica — Taken by the French, 
September 7 1 778. 

Dogger-Bank— A bloody engagement 
took place between a Dutch fquadron, un* 
ler the command of admiral Zoutman, 
and an Englilh fquadron under admiral 
Parker, off tile Dogger-Bank, Auguft 
c, 1781. 

De Graje (Count) defeated by Rodney, 
in a naval engagement, n?ar the ifland of 
Dominica, April 12, 1782. 

Darien — The Scots fettled a colony at 
'.he Ifthmus of Darien, and called it Cale- 
donia, in 1699 

Du Quefne (Now Fort-Pit')— The out- 
lines of a fort there, planned by the Bri- 
tish, taken pofKflioa of, by M. de Cohtre- 
CDeur ; and, when finiu:ed, fo named by 
him — June 13, 1754. 

Diejkau (baron) defeated and taken 
prifoner by general (afterwards lir WiU 
liam) Johnfon, whom he had attacked in 
his camp, near Lake George, September 

7« 1755- 

[E] Edward VI. King of England, &c. 
began his reign January 28, 1547, and 
reigned 6 years, 5 months, and 8 days. 

Elizabeth. Queen of England, &c. be- 
gan her reign November 17 1558; and 
reigned 44. years 4 months and 7 days; 

[ f ] Fleets— Five Engtifli r aft Ind ia- 
men and fif;y Ehflifti merchant h\ip;* 
b und for the Weft-Indies, talen by the., 
combined fleets of francs and Spain, Au* 
j$uft S, 178©. 

American Chronology* 

Florida (Eaft and Weil) confirmed to 
Great Britain, by the definitive treaty ol 
peace between France, Spain, Great 13 ri 
tain and Portugal, concluded at Paii^ 
February 10, 1763. 

Falmouth (Maff.) — Burnt by the Britifh, 
October i8, 1775. 

Finley (John) of North Carolina, in 
company with fome others trading with 
the Indians, travelled over the region run- 
called Kewuckey) about the year 1767 
This country was then known to the In- 
dians by the name of The dark and bloody 
grounds ; and, fometimes, The middle 
ground. Mr. Finley, on his return to the 
place of his residence, communicated his 
difcovery to Col. Daniel Boon, and a few 
others. — See Boon. 

Frontenac (Fort) — Taken from the 
French, Aviguft 27; 1758. 

[GJ Granada (W. I.) — Taken by the 
French, July 3, I 779. 

Gibraltar — The Spaniards defeated in 
their grand attack on — September 13, 

Georgia — The fettlement of, began in 

Great-Bridge (near Norfolk, Virg. ) — 
The rcyalilts defeated there, by the Vir- 
ginians, December 9, 1775. 

Gates (Gen. Horatio) — Appointed to 
command in Canada, June 17, 1776. 

Germantown — Battle of, October 4, 


George I. King of G r eat Britain, &c. 
began his reign Augult 1, 17 14; and 
reigned 12 years, 10 months and 10 days 

George II. King of Great Britain, &c. 
began his reign June 11, 1727 ; and 
reigned 33 years, 4 months, and 14 days. 

George III. King of Great Britain, &c. 
began his reign October 25, 1760; and 
ceafed to be fovereign of thofe provin 
ces, which now conftitute the United States 
of America, J <ly 4, 1776. 

£HJ Holland — A declaration of hoflili- 
ties againll, by Great Britain, publilhed 
December 20, 1780. 

Hudfon's-Bay — The French took and 
deftroyed the torts and fettlements there, 
Auguft 24, 1782. 

Halifax — In Nova Scotia, built in 1748. 

Hudfor? s -Bay Company (Englim)— In- 1 the Britifh, by the French, Februaiy22 
Corp.^ra'.ed, i'< 1670 

Henry VIII. King of England &c. bc- 
j-an his reign April 22, 1509 ; and reigned 
}7 years. 9 months, and 6 days. 

Henlopen (Cape) — The Swedes and Fin» 
ii-ri cd and 'anded at, in 1627; at which 
time the Dutch had wholly quitted the 

[I] James I. King of England, Scot* 
land, &c. began his reign March 24, 1602 ; 
uid reigned 22 years, and 3 days. 

Ja?nes II King of England, Scotland, 
>c. began his reign February 6, 1684; 
and reigned 4 years and 7 days. 

Iinprefs., at Bofton (MalT. ) by commo- 
dore Knowles, November 17, 1 747. 

Indians (Narraganfet) — See Narragan- 
fet S ichems. 

Johnfnn (General, afterwards Sir Willi- 
am) defeated the French, near Crown 
Point, September 8, 1755. 

[K] Kebec — See Quebec. 

[L] Laurens, Efq. (Henry) — Cap- 
tured by the Britifh near Newfoundland, 
when on his paiTage to Holland — Septem- 
ber 3, 178c — Committed prifoner to the 
Tower of London, on a charge of high 
treafon, Oftober 3, 1780. 

Loui/iana (N. A.) — Part of the pro- 
vince of — confirmed to Great Britain, by 
the definitive treaty of peace between 
France, Spain, Great Britain and Portu- 
gal, concluded at Paris, February 10, 176:. 

Lou'fbourg, in the ifiand of Cape Bre- 
ton, furrendered by the French to the 
New-England provincial forces command- 
ed by General Pepperell, aided by a Bri- 
tifh naval force under Commodore War- 
ren — June 17, i 745* 

Lawrence (Major) defeated by the Che- 
valier de la Corne and Father Loutre, near 
the mnuth of St. John's river, Canada, 
April 20, 1750. 

League—Sec Narraganfet Sachems. 

Lewes-Town (Del.)— The Dutch, who 
had quitted the country a few years before, 
returned in 163c; and built a fort there, 
by them called Hoeren-Kill — See Henlo- 

[M] Minorca — Surrendered by the 
Britifli to the arms of Spain, February 5, 

Montferrat (the ifland of)— Taken front 

l.i'we ( Lord Vifcount) (lain at Ticonde 
°ga, Jniy 5, J758. 

Henry VII. King of England &e. be- 
,^an iii-, reign An >ult 22, 1485 J and reign 
bd 23 years, and 8 months. 


Moors' s-creek bridge (N. C.)— The roy- 
llifts, under General M'Donald, defeated 
there by the North Carolina militia, Fe- 
bruary 27, 1776. 

Moultrie (Fort)— See Suhvan's Ifland. 

iox American Chronology. 

Moncngaheh (Port)— On the forks ofl Peace — General Washington's procla- 
mation, announcing in bis camp the cefia 

the Monongahela river — M. de Contre 
coeur obliged Capt. Trent to abandon it 
May 20 1 754- 

Mary (of the houfe of Tudor) Queen ol 
England, &c. began her reign July 6. 
1553 ; and reigned 5 years, 4 months, 
and 1 1 days. 

Mary (of the houfe of Stuart) Queen 
of England, Scotland, &c. jointly with 
her hufb. nd William III. — died Decem- 
ber 28, 1694 — See William III. 

[ J] New-London (Cit\ of, in Connec- 
ticut) — Burnt by Benedict Arnold, Sep- 
tember 6, 1781 

Nevis (The ifland of) — Taken from the 
Britifh, by the Fiench, February 14, 1782. 

Norfolk (Virginia)- Burnt January I, 

Niagara (Fort) — Taken from the 
French by General Johnfon July 25, 1759. 
Neiu Hampfhire — Capt. Mafon procures, 
November 7, 16^9, from the council of 
Plymou h, a new patent for a tract of land 
fo called, which comprehended the whole 
of Wheelwright's purchafe — The lettle- 
ment vf iht feventh and laji Englifh colony, 
in New England, was made by the combi- 
nation of forty one perfons, into a form oi 
government, on Pi feat aqua river, October 
22,1640; afterwards called the Province 
of Nenv-Hampjhire. 

Narragan/et Sach'tns (The fix)— En- 
tered into a league, offenfive ?nd defenfive, 
with the aflbciatecoloniesof New England, 
July 15, 1635. 

[P] Proclamation — General Gage, the 
Britifh governor of Maflachuletts, i fined a 
proclamation, offering a pardon, in the 
king's name, to all who flv>uld forthwith 
lay down their arms and return to their 
peaceable occupations, excepting Samuel 
Adams and John Hancock — June 12, 


Philadelphia — Evacuted by the Btttlfti 

troops, June 18, 778. 

Pond 1 cherry — Surrendered to Great Bri- 
tain, October 17, 177S. 

Penjacola—znd the whole province of 
Welt Florida, furrendered by the Britifh, 
to the arms of Spain, May 9, 1 780. 

Peace — The preliminary articles of, be- 
tween France, Spain, and Great Britain, 
figned at VerfaiUes, January 20, 1783. 

Peace — The ratification oi the definitive 
treaty of, between the Un'ted States of 
America, France, Spain, and Great Bri- 
tain, September 3, 1783. 

Printing Office— One ellablifhed at Wil- 
mington, N. C. in 1788. 

Non of hofiilities, and the ratification of 
the articles of peace, between the U. S. 
of America and Great Britain, April 16, 


CQJ Quebec — The city of, ftormed, 
and nearly taken, by the Americans under 
General Montgomery, December 1, 1775. 
Quebec — Letters patent (orig. Lit era:) 
Containing a promife of Charles I. king of 
England, to deliver the fortrefs ( orig. 
Cajirum) and houfes of Quebec (orig. Ke- 
bec) in Canada, to the king of France — 
dated June 29, 1631. 

[R] Ryfwick — The peace of, conclud- 
ed September 20, 1697. 

Revolution, in Great Britain — dated 
from November 5, 1688. 

Rhode- Ifland (i. e. the Ifland fo called, 
formerly Aquatneck) was, by deed dated 
March 24, 1637-8, purchafed from the 
Indians, by fome of the iectaiics, whofe 
opinions had been condemned in the iynod 
of Newtown, and who had been ill ufed at 
the lubfequent general court of Mafiachu- 
ffetts. (See fynodof Newtown) — The late 
royal charter of " Rhode-Ifand and Provi~ 
dence Plantations, in Narraganfet bay in 
New-England," was dated July 8, 1662^ 

[S] Ht. Lucia — Taken by the French, 
December 28, 1 778. 

St. Eujlatia (the Dutch Ifland of)— 
Taken by Admiral Rodney and General 
Vaughan, February 3, 1781 — Retaken by 
the French, November 27, 1781. 

St. Chriflopher (the Ifland of)— Takeo 
from the Britifh by the French, February 
12, 1782. 

Stamp- Ail— Patted March 2 2, 1765-— 
Repealed March 18, 1766. 

Sullivan's If and (near Charlefton, S. C.) 
— The works thereon, attacked by the 
Britifh fquadron, commanded by Sir Pe- 
ter Par- er, and the afiajlants defeated, June 
28, 1776. Tbefe works were afterwards 
called Fort-Moultrie, in compliment to the 
commanding officer. 

St. John's (Canada)— Reduced by the 
Americans, November 2, 1775. 

Still- Water— Battle of, October 7, 

'Synod{a general), in Newtown near Bof- 
ton (MaiT.)called, Augutl 30, 6^7-.-Ttn.« 
fynod condemned the opinions ot many of 
the New-England fe Varies. See Doug. 
Sum. Rhode Ifland. 

[T] Tobago (tfie Ifland of)— Taken fronj 
the Britifh by tne Frencl , June 2, 1781 

: . 

Life ; an Allegory. 

Trincomale, OH the ifland of Ceylon 
taken by Admiral Hughes, Jan. i r ; 1782 

Treaty — between the Republic of Hol- 
land and the United States of America, 
concluded, 061- 8, 1782. — Sec Peace. 

Treaty — -The definitive treaty of peace, 
between Ho land and Great- Britain, May 
24, 1784. — See Armtftice. 

Ticonderoga — taken by the Americans, 
under Allen and Arnold, May 10, 1775. 

Tbompfon, Efq. (Charles) elected fe- 
cretary of Congrefs, Sept. 5, 1774. 

.U.V. Utrecht — The peace of— whereby 
Newfoundland, Nova- Scotia, New- Britain, 
and Hudfon's-Bay, were yielded to Great- 
Britain ; and Gibraltar and Minorca con- 
firmed to that crown — concluded July 13, 

'Union — of the kingdoms of England 
and Scotland — effected May 1, 1707 ; and 
the treaty of, fignedjune 22d following. 

Virginia — A fpecial commiffion to Ed- 
ward Sackville; Earl of Dorfet, and others 
— " for the better plantation of the colo- 
ny of Virginia"— dated June 27, 1631. 

W. Williatn arid-Mary — The caltle fo 
Called at Portfmouth in New- Hampshire, 
affaulted, and taken from the Britilh, by 

leading down hill, the other afcending. 

The firft, by its alluring profpedt, has 
many volunteers thronging that way, be- 
caufe it is eafier to go down hill than up. 

The principal towns and cities on this jour- 
ney, where thefe travellers pafs through, 
are Indolence, Felly, Intemperance, and Pro- 
digality ; when they have palled thefe firtl 
itages, they lead diredtly to Contempt, Po' 
-jerty, Wretchednejs, and la Illy, to Repent- 
ance. Some travellers, indead of arriving 
at Repentance, and " returning thence to 
Amendment (which is out of the road bv 
which they came) are fo intoxicated, that 
they leave thefe two places on the right, 
and rufa headlong into deep defpair; andfo, 
llraight on, to inevitable ruin. There are 
two companions oftentimes to be met with 
in every dage of this journey, called Pru~- 
dence and Recolleilion ; who, if the travel- 
ler would be wife enough to liflen -o their 
kind admonitions, would bring him by a 
very fhort rOad (which none are able to 
recover without them) to the city of Re- 
pentance, and fo on to Amendment ; and 
keep him company till they have conduct- 
ed him in fafety back to the place from 
whence he fet out, and prevail on him to 

the armed citizens of New-Hamp(hire,t try the ether road, whicn I am going now 

; to treat of. The number of travellers fre- 
quenting this road is not fo numerous ; be- 
ing more difficult to go up hill than down. 
To accompliih thjs, the exertion of every 
nerve is required to arrive at the different 
(tages, which are Sobriety, Temperance, 
Indujlry, and Frugality; and thefe lead 
! tofeveral others progreffively, each of which 
appears more commodious and inviting, 
the farther one advances ; finding better 
accommodation at every dage, till at length 
the traveller reaches the fummit of this 
mountainous road, where he meets with a 
fine plain, abounding with delights of va- 
rious kinds ; in which are iituated the ci- 
ties of Riches and Honor ; and, if he be a 
worthy man, he will let the indultriou* 
poor partake of his blefllngs, that he may 
Lave one of the mod dchrable manfion^ in 
each of thefe little cities; named J. 
and true Content. Though there are com- 
paratively few to be found travelling this 
fjad, all do not attain the end of this 
journey ; as it mud be performed du- 
ring the feafon called ffat/tan Lifa And 
as no adventurers, th;it I ever hem d of, had 
two of thefe fe*fo is ever alloted them to 
perform it in, many travellers find them- 
hdves obliged to take up t"e:r refpeitive 
abode in different places, being d.fjbltd 
to .each anf higher, by reafon of tottaftd 

Dec. 14, 1774 

Wefi-Florida — The province of, furrcn- 
dered bytheBritifn to Spain, May 9, 1 7 So. 

William III. King of England and Scot- 
land, &c. be^an to reign Feb. 13, 1688; 
and was crowned with his Queen, Mary (of 
the houfe of Stewart), on the 1 ith of 
April following — He reigned 13 years, and 

23 days. See Mary (of the houfe of 


Ward, Efq. (Artemas) chofen firjl 

Major-General, by Congrefs June 17, ; 775. 

War — Proclaimed againd the Dutch, 
by the Englifli, March 17, 1671-2. 

War declared againd England, by 

France, March 4, 1744; arid, againlt 
France, by England, March 31, 1744. 

War— -declared againlt France, by Eng- 
land, May 18, 1756. 

Wars — between the Neiu Englanders 
and the Indians ; — viz. the Pequod, war, 
anno 1637— King Philip's war, in 1675 
and 1676, (continuing about fourteen 
months) — and the war of 1722 to 1725. 

Wkorekills S ee Lewes- town. 

[ To be continued. ~\ 

JLife ; an All£GOk.y. 

WHEN we firft fet out on our jour- 
ney through life, we have the 
choice of two roads fet before us : the one 


Feafl of Souls — Account of the Origin of the Slave Trade. 


which they have taken upon them, am J 
various other caufes too tedious to men 

Here it may be remarked, that the dif 
couraged traveller feldom meets with a real 
friend to affiit him in this road. In cafe any 
enquiries ae made after fuch a character, 
they are toid there is none in company who 
have had the lienor of his acquaintance ; but 
they will teil you, that they heard their 
grandfather mention, he had often feen 
him, but loon after left this country, and 
gave out, before his departure, that, dif- 
gu!ted to find his higheit favours rewarded 
with the blacked ingratitude, he was de- 
termined to leave the country ; and fince 
his retreat, a being, known by the name 
of Self Inttrtfl, has been fubftituted in his 
room ; who bears the likenefs of Friend 
J?jif>> and has deceived many honeft weli- 
meaning perfons ; but as he never flicks to 
the unfortunate; every body knows him tu 
be a deceiver. 

It is further to be remarked, that we 
often fee too many, going too near the fide, 
thinking to dud a Shorter way up the hill, 
fhde down lower than they were when they 
nrft Started, and often involve others in 
their difalter ; for finding themfelves go- 
ing, they catch at every thing; and by this 
totally ovcrfet many a fellow-travel r, 
who have found, to their great mortifica- 
tion, they could not get up again. Seve 
ral of thofe, who at firll looked down with 
triumph, at thofe who are fweating and 
toiling below, many times are out- ft" ripped; 
and the hmdermolt of all comfort them- 
felves with hopes that they Shall reach the 
top, which fometime8 is the cafe ; for when 
any one finds he can make greater hafie 
than his neighbours, he pufhes forward, 
and pafles the next, &c. And, letting go 
the finiile, and to fpeak plain, nothing puts 
a period to this ambition but Death. You 
fee two roads are fct before you, I hope you 
Will make a wife choice. 

their exploits a.e celebrated, and all theif 
kind and good offices are affecl'onatcly re* 
members d. A general interment of the 
remains then eniues, and one grave is the* 
receptacle in which all are depoSited. A 
more awful and linking feene cannot b«U 
conceived. The Athenians had their fu-i 
neral orations repeated annually, in honor 
of thofe who weie flam in batt'e ; the; 
Platasans kept a fciemn auniverury , and 
their Archon pound 1 ut a goblet or wine 
to thofe who had acrificed the'r lives fofl J 
the liberty of Greece : and " Games for 
Liberty," were celebrated by delegates! 
from each city of Greece at Plataeae every 
fifth year, in commemoration of the heroefl 
who had defeated Mardonius. Thefe Gre- 
cian ceremonies perpetuated fentiments oflj 
refpedt for the decea'.ed, and excited in the 
people a generous defire of emplaiing the 
glorious atchievements, which had occasi- 
oned fuch folemnities : yet to the fpec- 
tators they could not be fo interesting, as to 
the Americans is the Feafl of Souls, where- 
in " bones and hearfed in death" * are 
prefented to view ;' a fight that mult raife 
the molt vehement and frantic emotions in 
the undifciplined breafts of artlefs lavages* 
[London Magazine. 

An Account of the Origin of the S l Ave Tr a d e 4 

THIS traffic, 'fo difgraceful to hu- 
manity, began in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, about the year 1567.— A cap- 
tain John Hawkins, revolving in his mind 
the fituation of the Weft- India iflands, 
then moflly in the hands of the Spaniards 
and French, wastbefirtt who thought of 
introducing the Africans to aflifl the inha- 
bitants in cultivating their plantations. He 
faw in them a people fit to endure labour 
in fuch a climate ; and confidered iheir 
fituation to be io bad in itfelf, from cli- 
mate, rude State of civilization, and con- 
tinual quarrels and blood-fhed amongit 
themfelves, tharhe thought they certainly 
would be no lofers, if not gainers, by 
change of country: the only difficulty 
was, how to get them from one territory 
to another fo remote. Thi6, however, he 

An Account of the Infiitution oj the Feast 
of Souls ; olfrved by the Native Ame- 
r T~~ , HC commemoration of this inflitu- } 

JL tut'on is obferved by the native I undertook ; and frcm this arofe the fmoaus, 
Americans, among fome tribes on every | or » to /p ea k m ore corre&ly, the infamou* 
tenth year, and among others on every j tracie j" Ne 8 roes - 

h. On this occalion there is firll a! Projeftor* are not to be charged with 
djfihteTraent of all who have died fince the; tne cr ' m 'nality which often attends their 
Ja'l folemnity : the dufl ©f fome is collect- ' P ro j e &> ( >ns in the after-profecution of then?, 
ed, the corrupt bodies of others are cleanf-< ^ iC * n tentiod of Hawkins, at his outlet, 
ed: the cor^':- aVC carried by their refpec- ' was not t0 ^ orc ^, but to perfuade., the Afii- 

tivc fri^ndb to their i.ts, where, in honor of, — •"-*■ — ■ 

the decoded, a fealt is prepared, at which,] * Hiari, Shakcfpcare. 

A Method to prevent Iron from Ruffing. 
ans to change their own country for a 
etter. . Hawkins having pr >pofed his 
Ian to fome friends, a fubLription was 
L)on filled up, and tnree veffels, of about 
oo tons burthen each, fitted out for the 
oyage, with neeeffary commodities to 
raffic with the natives, 

Having failed in October, he arrived, 
rithout any accident, at Sierra Le^»?, 
t>hen he declared hi> purpofe was to traffic, 
nd accordingly exchanged his articles tor 
he belt commodities of the country. 

During this bufinefs, he caufed it often 
o be reprefented 'o the people, h^t he 
vas going from thence to a country more 
leafynt, fruitful, and happy, in every re- 
pect, than theirs: thar it was inhabited 
~>y luch as himfelf and his company; and 
hat if ..ny of them, tired with their pre • 
enf fituation, undoubtedly the moll un 
alfeafant fpot upon the face of the earth, 
jnd of their poor way of living, would 
embark with him, he would be anfwerable 
[.hat, for their fer 'ices to the people who 
pofTcfled the country, they fhould have a 
fhare of its many advantages. 

This was repeated often ; and, by fuch 
cajoling, he at length infufed a fpirit of 
emigration among them : three hundred of 
them came to the resolution of truiting 
themfelves with him in this new world, all 
of full age and ftrength, and every thing 
was fettled for their departure. 

Hitherto there was no violence ; — but 
one ni^ht before their departure, the cries 
of people at variance reached the ears of 
Hawkins, and he called up his men. They 
went armed, not knowing the caufe, and 
about day break were in the midft of the 
confufion. Captain Hawkins immediately 
attached himfelf to thofe he perfonally 
knew, and, with his people, fought in 
their defence. He w?s foon informed that 
a body of Negroes, from another part of 
the country, had come and fallen upon 
thefe without any provocation : fwayrd 
by motives of intereft, he determined at 
once upon revenge, and furrounding a 
large party of the affailants, v/ho, being 
overpowered, wifhed to efcape, he made 
up with thefe the number of their adverfa- 
ries their rage had deltroyed, and carried 
them by force to the place whither others 
again went by choice. 

Captain Hawkins made a diftinction be- 
twixt thofe he had taken prifonersof war, 
and thofe who came voluntarily i and he 
afterwards endeavoured to inculcate the 
fame principles where he fold them ; but 
tljc diftinction was loft : thofe who pur- 

chafed them at the fame price, confidered 
them as flaves of the fame condition. 

P.iat thofe who were earned off by 
force, were prifonersof war, mi;>ht, it is 
uppofed, have proved a kind of lalvo f ,r 
ihe conL-ience of Hawkins: it was, how. 
ever, fatiifying himfelf by a ftrange kind 
of logic, though there are many who now 
a^gue in favour of that infamous trade, on 
grounds lefs (enable. 

Having mnde up the number of his Ne- 
groes, he failed for Hifpaniola, where, 
and at Puerto de Plate*, he difpofed of the 
whole of them to the Spaniards. 

On his return to England, a fecond voy- 
age was undertaken under his command, 
with tour fhips. The queen encouraged 
the adventurer ; but Unci injunctions were 
laid on him, and all concerned, that no 
Negroes fhould be carried off by force. — 
They arrived fafe in Africa, and got a 
complete cargo of flaves ; but not a Jingle 
Negro but nvhat nvas carried off by violence ; 
and in taking thefe, many bands fell by 
the refiftance of the Negroes. It may be 
true, that this was contrary to the advice 
of Hawkins : that they were all taken, 
however, by force — that thofe who made 
refiftance were put to the fword — their vil- 
lages plundered and burnt — and even their 
old JDeople and children deftroyed in the 
common ruin, are facts that cannot be 
overturned. — So much for the origin of 
this diabolical traffic. 

A neiv Mehod, made ufe *jf in Sweden, 
for preferving from Rufi any Sort of 
I r. o n - W o R k , that is expofed to ihe Air. 

— ir^HEY take fuch a quantity of pitch 
J and tar, as they think they may then 
have occafion for, and mix up with it fuch 
a quantity of the belt fort of foot, as not to 
make it too thick for ufe. With this com- 
pofition they paint or befmear all the parts 
of the iron work ; for which purpofe they 
make ufe of fhort hardbrufhes, becaufe they 
muft prefs pretty ftron^ly upon the iron, in 
order to give it a fofficient quantity ; and 
they always chufe to perform this opera- 
tion in the fpring time of the year, becaufe 
the moderate heat of that feafon harden* 
the pitch fp much, that it is never melted 
by the fucceeding heats of the fummer, 
but on the contrary acquires fuch a gloft 
as to look like varnifh. This has beeit 
found by experience to preferve iron from 
ruft, much better than any fort of paint t- 
and is as cheap as any that can be made, ufp- 

A Method of Making Amber-Varti'JJ:— -The Benefits of Temperance. 


The Method ef making Amber- Varnish. 

/"X^AKE one pound of powdered am 
I ber ; melt it in a proper unglazed 
velTel over a charcoal fire, and pour it. 
whilll fluid, upon an iron plate ; then pow 
der it again, when concreted, and after- 
wards diflblve it entirely in an unglazed 
earthen veilel, adding to it, firft, linfeed oil, 
p'epared and boiled with litharge, and 
wards fpirit of turpentine. With this 
incrud your vefTels of wood or metals, and 
afterwards po'ifh them, being firfl. careful 
]y and artfully dried. 

The Bfnefits of Temperance. 

Temperance fweetens the bowl* Heryey. 

'"P EMPER ANCE has at all times been 
J ftrongly recommended by phyficians 
and moral philofophers, and though they 
have not had the power to compel the ob- 
fcrvance of their precepts, and though ad- 
vice without example will not fo forcibly 
perfuade men, yet it (till remains a cardi- 
nal virtue ; retains as much as ever its pro- 
priety and beauty, and merits our atten- 
tion, notwithstanding it may have been ne- 
glected by ages that are pair. 

Food is intended to nourifti and repair 
that wafle of the body, which, from the 
peculiar formation of its parts, it ne- 
ccflarily undergoes. The quantity requi- 
site for this purpofe will in general be af- 
certained by Nature, who is the bell qua- 
lified todecide on theproportion, and tore 
gulatethe times on which itfliould be ufed ; 
but if that proportion and thole times are 
varied or exceeded, Nature will foon relent 
the injury, and difeafe will make it appear 
to whole account the blame mould be 
placed, as well as convince the a^refiorG 
of their temerity and imprudence'. 

There may be fome pleafure in fatisfy- 
ing hunger, but none, I will ptefume, in 
caufing inactivity and flupefa&ion ; there 
i,i a neceflity that food flsould be ufed with- 
in the bounds of moderation, but more to 
juftiiy him who may exceed thefe bounds ; 
for excefs not only diforders the body, and 
de (troys its integrity, but clouds the un- 
derilanding and impedes the operation of 
the mind ; over a frame that might other- 
wife be active and- ftrong, it leaves a ftupor 
^and heavinefs that entirely defeats the en- 
joyment and the good purpofe of food, 
aiid diverts the body almoft of every power 
to move : it overfpreads the mind, which 
might be clear and vigorous, with grofs 
vapours, and the thickeft darkuefs, and 

brings on fuch a general weaknefs as the, 
nan may indeed perceive, but which neither? 
advice nor medicine will be found to have 
strength fufficient to remedy. 

But furely no man who fees the importance 
of his own powers, and who wilhes to ap- 
oly them to the ufes for which they were 
leligned, can fo far forget himfelf as ta 
live under the dominion of his appetites, 
and thus be levelled with, nay thus to fink, 
even below beings who have no underftand- 
ing to diltinguifli between good and evil, 1 
no reafon to direct them in the choice ; 
and no man who confu'ts his own eafe and 
real enjoyment will give way to an habit 
which will gain ftrength every moment, 
and with increafed ftrength will give to 
every moment additional pain. 

It is feared that much of the reafoning 2 
or advice of this nature, may be given in 
vain ; for where indulgences of this kind 
have obtained at frequent and ftated pe- 
riods, from time immemorial, it is confi- 
dered a fort of common law, and good ■ 
ground of action may perhaps lay againft % 
the man, who dares tp queftion a right 
which has been fo long eftablilhed ; the 
freedom and continuance of which fome 
diilinguifhed body of men may have near 
at heart. — When fuperfluity furrounds, the 
voice of temperance cannot be heard : 
men are not then in the humour to be fe- 
rious, imagination muft have play, and a. 
voracious appetite is not to be trifled with ; 
temperance may call if he pleafes, till his 
lungs lofe their ftrength. Thefe men have 
bufinefs of the greatelt moment to perform, 
they have to eat and drink and fill them- 
felves, by which they fuppofe they are do- 
ing tflential fervice to the body ; their un- 
dtrftaudings are but of fmall concern, for 
as they do not ufe them much, it is no great; 
matter whether their operation is free or, 

Temperance is no lefs conducive of 
health to the mind than the body ; it is as 
nectlfary for the one as the other, and of 
great concern to both : a turbulent tem- 
per, a furious ungovernable pafiion, is a 
difeafe of the mind as troublefome as the 
gout to the body, and as difficult of cure 
perhaps, though the malady may be bet- 
ter underftpod : however, it is fure to act 
as a continual ferment; it gives an unplea- 
fant appearance to every action, and to 
others an unhappy, though defcrved ad- 
vantage over him. 

The temperate man is, indeed, a moil 
amiable character, and one who maintains 
a kind of fuperiority over all others : cool 

Actual Exigence of the Salamander — On Converfation. 

and collected, he has at all times the com- 
mand of himfelf; by care and due re 
ftraint, his body punctually obferves, and 
eafily performs, the law of its nature ; his 
mind fees clearly its feveral duties, and 
has the power to execute them and avail 
itfelf of every advantage ; he knows none 
of thofe remonftrating pains, none of 
the bitter reflections, which excefs leaves 
behind ; no reproach can touch his beha- 
viour, nor feverity apply to his conduct, 
but he holds himfelf, if not free from foible 
and frailty, yet above indiferetion and eve- 
ry vice. Knowledge is his favourite pur 
fuit, and virtue the employment of his 
time: ifatanytime his body be indifpofed, 
the caufe of it arofe not through want of 
due care ; if his mind is dillurbed, it is 
more by imperfection or another's folly 
than his own ; and if he is warm, it is not 
to injure, buc a warmth in the welfare of 

That may be called fpirit or fafhion, or 
any other whimfical name you pleafe, 
which leads to excels, but it is a fpirit ov 
a fafhion mofl clofely connected with folly; 
for reafon and experience lead to tempe- 
rance in every thing that refpects either the 
body or the mind. He therefore who will 
be guided by the one, and obey the dic- 
tates of the other, will thus be temperate; 
convince all thinking men of his good 
fenfe, and feel his own reward in length of 
days, in honor and in happinefs. 

Aclual Exljlence of the Salamander. 

N this very curious fubjedt the follow- 
ing letter, by M. de Pothonier, is 
addrefled to the Journalifls of Paris. 

IF it is true, that, with too much faci- 
lity, we fometimes adopt the marvellous^ 
it is alfo true, that we fometimes reject it 
at firft fight, without due regard to the 
credibility of the teflimony. Such a re- 
proach might be made with juflice by the 
ancient natural iff 3, could they raife their 
heads, to thofe of the prefent age. Our 
cautious enquirers have agreed to declare 
fabulous and abfurd the vulgar opinion con- 
cerning the falamander. That opinion 
may have been embellifhed by the fictions 
of poetry ; nevertheless, I cannot enter- 
tain a doubt, that there exiits a fpecies of 
fmall lizard, which can live fometime even 
in the»hotteftfire. Here is the proof. 

Being in the ifland of P.hodes, bufy 
writing in my clofet, I heard fuddenly an 
unci ramoti noife in the kitchen, I ran; and 
found the cook in a terrible fright. As foon 


as he faw me, he cried, " the devil is in 
the fire !" I examined the grate, and faw 
diflinctly, in the middle of a veiy hot fire, 
a little animal, with its mouth open, and 
its bread palpitating After attentive ob- 
fervation, and being affured there was no 
deception, I took pincers to catch it. On 
the firft attempt I made, the animal, which 
had remained ftationary till then, that is, 
during an interval of two or three minutes, 
fled into a corner of the grate. I fnipt off 
the point of its tail, and it hid itfelf among 
the red-hot afhes. Having difcovered it 
again, Ifeizedit by the middle of the body, 
and drew it out. It was a fmall lizard. I 
preferved it in fpirits of wine. 

It was afterwards prefented by me, with 
an account of its difcovery, to the Count 
de Buflbn, who found it to differ from all 
he had ever feen. He had queflioned me 
a great deal on this extraordinary fact, and 
promifed to make mention of it. The 
preferved animal is now in the king's ca- 

De Pothonier, ancien Conful de Franc;. 


[rromtheOi-LA Podrida, a Collection of Effayt 
pubhihed at Oxford, Great-Britain.] 

THAT converfation may anfwer the 
ends for which it wasdefigned, the 
parties who are to join in it mufl come to- 
gether with a determined refolution to 
pleafe, and to be pleafed. If a man feels 
that an eaft wind has rendered him dull 
and fulky, he fhould by all means ftay at 
home till the wind changes, and not be 
troublefome to his friends ; for dullnefs is 
infectious, and one four face will make 
many, as one cheerful countenance is foon 
productive of others. If two gentlemen 
defire to quarrel, it fhould not be done in 
a company met to enjoy the pleafures of 
converfation. Let a ftage be erected for 
the purpofe in a proper place, to which 
the jurisdiction of the Middlefex magif- 
trates doth not reach. There let Martin 
and Mendoza mount, accompanied by Ben 
and Johnfon, and attended by the ama- 
teurs who delight to behold blows neatly 
laid in, ribs and jaw-bones elegantly 
broken, and eyes fealed up with delicacy 
andaddrefs. It is obvious, for thefe rea- 
fons, that he who is about to form a con- 
verfation-party, fhould be careful to invite 
men of congenial minds, and of fimilar 
ideas refpecting the entertainmentof which 
they are to partake, and to which they 
mult contribute. 


With gloomy perfons, gloomy topics 
likewife (hould be (as indeed they will be » 
excluded ; fuch as ill health, bad weather, 
bad news, or forebodings of fuch, &c. 
To preferve the temper calm and pleafant, 
it »s of unfpeakable impor ance that we al- 
wavs accuftotn oorfelves through life to 
■take the eft of things, to view them on 
their bright fide, and fo reprefent them 
. toothers, for our mutual comfort ^nd en 
couragemtnt. Few things cfpecialiy if, 
asChnftians, vre take the other world int. 
the account) hut have a bright fide : dill 
gence and p- act ice will ea lily find it. Per 
haps there is no circumllance better calcu 
lated, than this, to render converfation 
equally pleafing and profitable. 

In the conduit of it, be not eager to 
interrupt others, or uneafy at being your 
felf interrupted; finceyou fpeak cither to 
amufc or inftruct the company, or to re- 
ceive thofe benefits from it. Give all, 
therefore, leave to fpeak in turn. Hear 
with patience, and anfwer with precifion. 
Inattention is ill manners ; it mows con- 
tempt ; contempt is never forgiven. 

Tiouble not the company with your 
own private concerns, as you do not lovt 
to be troubled with thofe of others. Yours 
areas little to them, as theirs are to you. 
You will need no other rule, whereby to 
judge of this matter. 

Contrive, but with dexterity and pro- 
priety, that each perfon may have an op 
portunity of difconrfing on the iubject 
with which he is belt acquainted. He 
will be pleafed, and you will be in fori ied. 
By obferving this rule, every one has it in 
his power to .'.Aili in rendering converfati 
on agreea')le ; Once, though he tanay not 
chooie, or be qualified, to fay much him 
felf, he can propofe qucflions to thoic 
who are able to anfwer them. 

Avoid llories, unlefs fiiort, pointed, and 
quite apropos. He who deals in them, 
lays Swift, rnuft either have a very large 
{lock, or a good memory, or mud often 
change his company. Some have a fet of 
them (Lung together like onions ; they 
take poiTeflion of the converfation by an 
early introduction of one ; and then you 
mult have the whole rope ; and there is an 
| end of every thing elfe, perhaps, for that 
meeting, though you may have heard all 
twenty times before. 

Talk often but not long. The talent of 

haranguing in private company is infup- 

I, portable. Senators and barrillers are apt 

to be guilty of this fault ; and members, 

On Convention. 

who never harangue in t I.e houfe, will of- 
ten do it our of the houfe. If the r. ;■>. 
n'ty of the company be naturally filent, orjj 
cautious, the converfation will flag, un- 1 
lefs it be often renewed by one among 
■.hem who can ftart new fubjects. forbear, 
now ever, if pofllble, to broach a i'econd 
before the fir(t is out, left your flock Humid 
, ,t laft, and you fhould be oblige! to 
come back to the old barrel. There are 
thofe who will repeatedly crofs upon, and ' 
reak into the converfation with a frefhs 
<pic, till they have touched upon all, 
id exVnuiced none. (Economy here is 
aeceiTary for mott people. 

Laugh not at your own wit and hti- 
mour ; leave that to the company. 

When the converfation is ilbwing In a • 
ferious arid ufeful channel, never intei i upt 
; t by an ill timed jeft. The dream is feat- 
tered, and cannot be again collected. 

Difcourte not in «. whifper, or lialf voice, 
to your next neighbour. It is ill-breed* 
ing, and, in fome degree, a fraud ; con- 
verlation-flock being, as one has well ob- 
ferved, a joint and common property. 

In reflections on ablent people, go no 
farther than you would go if they were 
prefeut. " I refolve,'' fays Bifhop Beve- 
ridge, '* never to fpeak of a man's viitues* 
to his face, nor of his faults behind his 
back f ' a golden rule ! the obfei ration of 
which would, at one llroke, hnnifh flattery 
and defamation from the earth. 

Converfation is affected by circumflance* 
which, at fir ft tijj'.t, may appear trifling, 
but re dly are not fo. Some, who continue 
dumb while feated, become at once loqua- 
cious when they art i^as the ftnatorial 
phrafe is) upon thtir legs. Others, whofe 
powers languish in a ciofe room, recover 
themfelves on putting their heads into frefli 
air, as a Shrovetide-cock does when his 
head is put into frefh earth. A turn or 
two in the garden- makes them good com- 
pany. There is a magic fometimesina 
large circle, which falcinates thofe who 
compofe it, into filence ; and nothing can/ 
be done, or rather nothing can be laid, 
till the introduction of a card-table breaks 
up the fpell, and releafesthe valiant knights 
and fair damfels from their captivity. A 
table, indeed, of any knd, confidered as, 
a centre of union, is of eminent fervice to 
converfation at all times ; and never do«« 
more fenfibly feel the truth of that old phi- 
losophical axiom, that nature abhors a va- 
cuum, than upon its removal. I have 
been told that, even in the Blue flocking 

Account of a Mafs of Native 

fociety,* formed folely for the purpofe of 
converfation, it was found, after repeater 
Irials, impoffible to get on, without on. 
card-table. In tnat fame venerable fociety 
when the company is too widely extended 
to engage in the fame converfation, a cui - 
torn is t id to prevail (and a very excellent 
one it is) that every gentleman, upon bis 
entrance, fele&s his partner, as he would 
do ac a ball 5 and, when the converfation 
is gone, down, the company change part 
ners, and begin afreih. Wheiher theft 
th.:igs be fo or not, moft certain it is, 
that the lady or the gentleman defer vea 
well of the fociety, who can deviie any me- 
thod, whereby <•» valuable an amufemept 
can be heightened and improved. 

sin Account $f a Mafs of Native Iron, 
found in South America; by Don Mi- 
chail Rubin de CtLis- 
A BOUT 30 years ago. the various bar- 
jL\. barous nations who inhabited the 
provinces of the great Chaco Gualamba 
expelled the Spaniards from thence ; and 
fince that time^the countries on the fouth- 
em part of the river Vermejo, and weftern 
of the great river Parana, have been al- 
rnoft totally deferted. The only employ- 
ment of the few Indians who dwell within 
the jurifdidiion of Santiago del Eftero is, 
to gather the honey and wax, with which 
the woods abound. Thefe Indians difco 
vered, in the midd of a wide extended 
plain, a large mafs of metal, which they 
called pure iron ; part of which projected 
above the ground about a foot, and almofl. 
the whole of its upper furface was vifible. 
Intelligence of this difcovery was immedi- 
ately communicated to the Viceroys of 
Peru. Thatfuch a mafs of iron (hould be 
found in a country where there are no 
mountains, nor even the fmalielt ilone, 

'■ within a of one hundred 
leagues, could not fail to appear extraor- 
dinary, though it is known there are mines 
of pure iron in Europe. Don Michael 
was fen t by the Viceroy of the river Plata 
to examine it. The latitude of the fpot 

, was found to be 27 28' S. The larger 
portion of the mafs was almoft buried in 
pure clay and allies; its exterior appearance 
was that of perfectly compact, iron ; but 
on cutting off pieces of it, with chiffels, 
the internal part was found full of cavities, 
tos if it had been formerly in a fluid Hate; 
it was, after clearing away the earth from 

■ Ot Literary Ladies, oi Wjucb .\1j t, Montagu, 
kilt More, &c. ire members. 

Iron found in South-America. 1 1 1 

: t, in length three yards, in breadth two 
/ards and a half, and about one-third of a 
yard in thickneis. There is alfo, in thofe 
mmenfe toretls, a mais of pure iron, ita 
!»c (hape of a tree with its branches. — The 
rodu&ion of thefe phenomena, from fe- 
"t 1 al concurring circumllanees, which gave 
/ "eat probability to the opinion, Don Mi- 
chael aft ribes to a volcanic explofion After 
ligging a conliderable depth, no root or 
trace of generation could be perceived. 
\t no great diftance from the furface of 
the earth are found Hones of quartz, of a 
beautiful red colour, which the honey ga- 
therers ufe as flints to light their fires. 
Some of thefe had been formerly carried 
iway, on account of thtir peculiar beauty, 
being (ludded and ipotted, as it were with 
gold. One of them, which weighed 
about an ounce, fell into the hands of the 
governor of Santingo del Eftero, who 
ground it, and extracted more than a 
drachm of gold from it — On the fame 
principle (of volcanos) Don Michael ac- 
counts for the formation of thofe famous 
nuffes of filver found feparate at Guanta- 
jdia, about which io many extravagant 
and ridiculous florits have been told— The 
afpect of the country between the river 
Vermejo and the fuppofed mine, diitant 
70 leagues from the ftttlement, is beauti- 
ful ; it is an immenfe plain, alternately iu- 
tetmixed with thick woods and fertile fields, 
which form the moil pleaiing landfcapes. 
Yet, with all its beauty and fertility, in a 
tra& of land capable, in every other relpecf, 
of fufnifliing feveial millions of people not 
only with the means of fubhltence, but 
of gratifying the palate with the moil de- 
licious viands, and the eye with the nchelt 
fcenery, there is not, owing to a fcarcity 
of running water, one fixed place of habi- 
tation. The honey gatherers, who rcfide 
etiere, in imail bodies, the greatett part of 
the year, ufe rain water. Thefe, and a 
lew roving bribes of barbarous Indians, 
who referable the Tartars in their way ot 
life, and vifit this country at a certain fea- 
foq of the year, from tue borders of the 
river Vermejo, in quell of a wild root, 
which they call koruu, and which they 
conttantly chew, an a remedy againft the 
peltilential air of their native country, and 
as a prefervative againft: the bite of poifon- 
ouS reptiles, are the only people ever feen 
in thofe delightful and exteuiive plains. — 
Thus, in the physical, as in the moral 
world, fomething is always wanting to the 
Fulncfa of perfection, which, by the im- 
mutable decrees o» unerring vufJjm, i», 


lilje happinefs, ever to be aimed at, but 
never attained, in this diurnal fphere : 
«« Man never is, but always to be bled." 

A Letter from Sir Isaac Newton to Dr. 
Richard Bentlv. 

■ I r» 

WHEN I wrote my treatife about 
our fyftem, I had an eye upon fuch 
principles as might work with conlidering 
men, for the belief of a Deity, and no- 
thing can rejoice me more than to find it 
ufcful for that purpofe. But, if I have 
done the public any fervice this way, it is 
due to nothing but indullry and patient 

As to their firft query, it feems to me 
that if the matter of our fun and planets, 
and all the matter of the univerfe, were 
evenly fcattered throughout all the heavens, 
and every particle had an innate gravity 
towards all the reft, and the whole fpace 
throughout which this mattrr was fcatter- 
ed, was but liniie ; thematteron the out- 
fide of this fpace would by its gravity tend 
towards all the matter on the infide, and 
by conftquence fall down into the middle of 
the whole fpace, and there Compofe one 
great fpherical mafs. But, if the matter 
was evenly difpofed throughout an infinite 
fpace, it would never convene into one 
xnafs, but fome of it would convene into 
one mafs and fome into another, fo as 
to make an infinite number of great 
mafTes, fcattered at great diftances from 
oik to another throughout all that infinite 
fpace. And thus might the fun and fixed 
liars be formed, fnppoiing the matter were 
of a lucid nature. But how the matter 
fhouid divide itfelf into two forts, and that 
part of it, wliici) is tit to compofe a film- 
ing body, fhouid fall down into one mafs 
and make a fun, and the reft, which is fit 
to compofe an opaque body, fhouid coa- 
lefce, not into one great body, like the 
fhining matter, but into many little ones ; 
or if the fun at firft were an opaque body 
like the planets, or the planets lucid bo- 
dies like the fun, how he alone fhouid be 
changed into a (hiring body, whilft all 
they continue opaque; or all ihey be chang- 
ed into opaque ones, whilft he remains 
unchanged ; 1 do not think explicable b) 
mere natural caufes, but am forced to at 
cribe it ti> the counfel and contrivance of 
a voluntary agent. 

The fame power, whether natural or fu 
pernatural, which placed the fun in the 
centre of the fix primary planets, placed 
Saturn in the centre of the orbs of his five 

A Letter from Sir Ifaac Newton to Dr. Bently* 

fecondary planets, and Jupiter in the cen- 
ter of his four fecondary planets, and the 
earth in the centre of the moon's orb : and 
therefore had this caufe been a blind one, 
without contrivance or defign, the fun 
would have been a body of the fame kind 
with Saturn, Jupiter, and the earth ; that 
is, without light and heat. Why there 
•is one body in our fyftem qualified to give 
light and heat to all the reft, I know no 
reafon, but becaufe the Author of the fyf- 
tem thought it convenient ; and why there 
is but one body of this kind I know no* 
reafon, but becaufe one was fufiicient td,< 
warm and enlighten all the reft. For the 
Carteiian hypothefis of funs lofing their 
light, and then turning into comets, and 
comets into planets, can have no place iri 
my fy item, and is plainly erroneous; be- 
caufe it is certain, that, as often as they 
appear to us, they defcend into the fyftem 
of our planets, lower than the orb of Ju- 
piter, and fometimes lower than the orbs 
of Venus and Mercury, and yet never ftay 
here, but always return from the fun with 
the fame degrees of motion by which they 
approached him. 

To your fecond query I anfwer, that 
the motions which the planets now have* 
could not fpring from any natural caufe 
alone, but were impreffed by an intelligent 
agent. For fince comets defcend into the 
region of our planets, and here move all 
manner of ways, going lometimes the fame 
way with the planets, fometimes the con- 
trary way, and fometimes in crofs ways* 
in planes inclined to the plane ecliptic, 
and at all kinds of angles ; it is plain that 
there is no natural caufe which could de- 
termine all the planets, both primary and 
fecondary, to move the fame way and in 
the fame plane, without any confiderable 
variation : this mull have been the effect, of 
counfel. Nor is there any natural caufe 
which could give the planet6 thofe juft de- 
grees of velocity, in proportion to theif 
diftances from the fun, and other central 
bodies, which were requifite to make them 
move in fuch concentric orbs about thofe 
bodies. Had the planets been as fwift as 
comets, in proportion to their diftance* 
from the iun (as they would have been* 
had their motion been caufed by their gra- 
vity, whereby the matter, at the firft for-* 
maiion of the planets, might fail from the 
remotefl regions towards the fun) they 
would not move in concentric orbs, but in 
iuch eccentric ones as the comets move in. 
Were all ttie planets as fwift as Mercury* 
or as flow as Saturn or his fatellites ; «**- 

Hiftory cf the American War. 

Vrere their feveral velocities otherwife much 
g eater or lets than 'hey are, as they might 
have been, had they arbfe from any other 
ciufe than their gravities ; or had the dif 
trices from the" centers about which they 
move, been greater or It fs than they are 
with the ia-ne velocities j or had the quan- 
tity f m :t?r in t'.ie fun, or in Saturn, 
Jupiter, and the earth, and by confe- 
fauence heir u;ravit-utn:; powerbeen greater 
o ? efs than I is; the primary planets 
c ild hot have revived about the fun, nor 
toe sorid iry one. about Saturn, Jupiter, 
and the earth, in concentric circles as 
they do, but would have moved in hyper- 
bolas, or parabolas, or in eilipies very ec- 
centric. To make this fyltem therefore, 
with all its motions, required a caufe which 
undergo od and compared together, the ] 


late obfervations of Mr. Tlamfteed, and, 
had they been placed much nearer to the 
fun and to one another, they would by the 
fame powers have caufed a conliderable dif— 
turbance in the whoh; fyllem. 

To your fourth query I anfwer, that, 
in the hypothelis of vortice3, the inclina- 
tion of the axis of the earth might, in 
my opinion, be afcribed to the fituatton 
of the earth's vortex, before it was abfor- 
bed by the neighbouring vortices, and the 
earth turned trom a fun to a comet ; but 
this inclination ought to decreafe conitantly 
in compliance with tfte motion of the 
earths vortex, whole axis is much lefs in- 
clined to the eciiptic, as appears by the 
motion of the moon carried about there- 
in. If the fun by his rays could carry 
about the planets, yet I do not fee how he 

quantities of matter in the feveral bodies could thereby effect their diurnal motions', 
of the ftm and planets, and the gravita- LalUy, I fee nothing extraordinary in 
ting power refulting from thence ; the fe- the inclination of the earth's axis for prov- 
ver-i 1 di [lances of the primary planets from ing a Deity, unlefs you will urge it as a 
the fun, and of the fecondary ones from J contrivance for winter and fumrner, and 
Saturn, Jupiter, and the earth ; and the 
velocities with which theie planets could 
revolve about thole quantities of matter in 
the central bodies; and to compare and 
adjult all thefe things together, in fo great 
a variety of bodies, argues that caufe to 
be not blind and fortuitous, but very well 
(killed in mechanics and geometry. 

To your third query, 1 anfwer, that 
it may be reprefeoted that the fun may, by 
heating thofe planets mod which are near- 
eft to him, caufe them to be better con 

for making Mie earth habitable towards the 
poles : and that the diurnal rotations of 
the fun and planets, as they could hardly 
arife from any caufe purely mechanical ; fo 
by being determined all the fame way with 
the annual and menltrual motions, they 
feem to make up that harmony in the fyf- 
tem, which, as I explained above, was the 
effect of choice rather than chance. 

There is yet another argument for a 
Deity, which I take t© be a very ftrong 
one, but, till the principles on which it is 

cocted, and more condenfed by that con- 
coction. But, when I confider that our 
earth is much more heated in its bowels 
below the upper cruft by fubterraneous 
fermentations of mineral bodies than by 
the fun, I fee not why the interior parts 
of Jupiter and Saturn might not be as 
much heated, concocted, and coagulated 
by thofe fermentations as our earth is ; and 
therefore its various denfity (hould have 
fome other caufe than the various diftances 
of the planets from the fun. And I am 
confirmed in this opinion by confidering, 
that the planets of Jupiter and Saturn, as 
they are rarer tnan the reft, fo they are 
valliy greater, and contain a far greater 
quantity of matter, and have many fatel- 
lites about them ; which qualifications 
furely arofe not from their being placed at 
fo great a diftance from the fun, but were' 
rather the caufe why the Creator placed 
them at great diftance. For by their gra- 
vitating powers they difturb one another's 
motions very feniibly, as I find by fome 
Col. Mao. Vol. IV. N®. 2. 

grounded are better received, I think it 
more advifeable to let it fleep. 

I am your molt humble fervant - 
to command, 

Isaac Newton. 
Cambridge, Dec. J-O, 1692. 

History of the American War. 

[Continuedfrom page 55.] 

nnHE general Congrefs hav- 
May 10, I . Qg mct in Philadelphia, 

l 775' at the time appointed, foon 
adopted fuch raeafures as confirmed the 
people in their refolution and conduct. 
Among their firft acts were resolutions for 
the railing of an army, and the eftablifh- 
ment of a large paper currency for its pay- 
ment ; the " United Colonies*' (by which 
appellation they refolved that they mould 
be known and diltinguifhed for the future) 
being fecurities for realizing the nominal 
value of this currency. They alfo drift ly 
prohibited the fupplying of the Britilh 

Hijlory of the American War* 


fifheries with any kind of provifion ; and 
to render this order the more effectual, 
ftopt all exportation to thofe colonics, 
iflands, and places, which tlill retained 
their obedience. This meafure, which did 
not feem to have been expected, or even ap- 
prehended in England, occafioned no finall 
diftrefs to the people at Newfoundland, 
and to all thofe employed in the fiwSeries ; 
infomuch that to prevent an abfolute fa- 
mine, feveral (hips were under a ntctflity 
of returning light from that flation, to 
carry out cargoes of provisions from Ire- 

The ciry and province of New-York, 
notwithstanding their former moderation, 
feemed, upon receiving an account of the 
late action, to receive alio a plentiful por- 
tion of that fpirit which operated in the 
other colonies. A mod numerous affoci- 
ation was accordingly formed, and a Pro- 
vincial Congrefseletted. But as fome re- 
giments from Ireland were expected fpee- 
dily to arrive there, and as that capital, be- 
iidts, lies open to the fea, its lituatioH be- 
came very critical. In thefe circumftances, 
a body of Connecticut men arrived in the 
neighbourhood of that city, avowedly for 
its protection, and probably alfo to fup- 
port the prcfent difpofnion of the people. 
Their ftrength was not, however, fufficient 
to afford an effectual protection ; nor, if 
it had been greater, would it have availed 
againft an attack by fe3. The city ac- 
cordingly applied, through its delegate?, 
to the Continental Congrefs, for initruc^ 
.tions how to act upon the arrival of the 
troops. The Congrefs advifed them for 
the prefent, to aft defenfively with refptct 
to the troops, fo far as it could be done 
confidently with their own fecurity ; — to 
fuffer them to occupy their barracks, fo 
long as they behaved peaceably and quiet- 
ly ; but not to fuffer them to erect, any 
fortification, or in any manner to cut ofl 
the communications between the city and 
country; and if they attempted hoftilities, 
that they fhould defend themftlves, and 
repel force by force. They alfo recom- 
mended to them to provide for the worlt 
that might happen, by ftcuring places of 
retreat for the women and children ; by 
removing the arms and ammunition from 
the magazines ; and by keeping a fuffici- 
ent number of men embodied for the pro- 
tection of the inhabitants in general. The 
departure of fo many helplcfa objects 
from the places of their habitation, was a 
very affecting fpectacle. That once flou 

almoft a defart: and was, byfomeof the in- 
habitants, devoted to the flames. It hap- 
pened, perhaps happily for New-York, 
that the troops being more wanted at Bof- 
ton, were not landed there. 

In the mean time, feveral private per- 
lons belonging to the back parts of Con- 
necticut, Mafiachuletts, and New-York, 
undertook at their own rifque, and with- 
out any public command or participation, 
an expedition of the utmoft importance, 
and which not only in its confequences 
mod materially affetted the intereft and 
power of government in the colonies ; 
but had brought the queftion to the cri- 
tical nicety of a point, and the decifion to 
depend merely upon accident, whether we 
fhould have a fingle poffeffion left in North- 
America. This was the furprife of Ti- 
conderoga, Crown Point, and other for- 
treffes, fitunted upon the great lakes, and 
commanding the paffes between the Bri- 
tifh colonies and Canada. It feems that 
fome of thofe who were among the firl 
that formed this delign, and had fet out 
with the greateft privacy in its profecuti- 
on, met by the way with others, who, 
without any previous concert, were em- 
barked in the fame project ; fo extenfive 
was that fpirit of enterprize which thefe 
arduous contetts called into action. Thefe 
adventurers, amounting in the whole to 
about two hundred and forty men, under 
the command of Colonel Eafton and a 
Colonel Ethan Allen, with great perfeve- 
rance and addrefs, furprifed the fmall 
garrifons of Ticonderoga and Crown- 
Point. Thefe fortreffes were taken with- 
out thelofs of a man on either fide. They 
found in the forts a ccnfiderable artillery, 
amounting as they faid, to above 200 
pieces of cannon, befides fome mortars, 
bowits, and quantities of various llores, 
which were to them highly valuable ; thev 
alfo took two veffels, which gave them the 
command of Lake Champlain, and ma- 
terials ready prepared at Ticmideroga for 
the building and equipping of others. 

n/r ., During thefe tranfactions the 

May 25//'. n , 8 u p 

*[ J Generals .Howe, Uurgoyne, 

and Clinton arrived at Bolton from Eng- 
land, together with a conliderable num- 
ber of marines, and draughts from other 
regiments, to fupply the vacancies there. 
Thefe were foon followed by feveral regi- 
ments from Ireland, fo that the force at 
Bolton, with refpect to number, the good- 
nefs of the troops, and the charadter of 
of the commanders, was become very ref. 

rifhing commercial city was now become pectable ; and it was generally believed 

• Htjlory of the 

that matters could not continue much 
longer in their then filiation. 

Nothing remarkable had yet happened 
finee the commencement of the blockade, 
except two fmall engagements which arofe 
from the attempts of either party to carry 
off the (lock of fome of thofe fmall i (lands, 
with which tlie bay of Bofton is intcr- 
fperfed, and which afforded the mixed 
fpectacle of (hips, boats, and men, engag- 
ed by land and water. In both thefe 
Ikirmifhes (each of which continued for 
many hours) the king's troops were foiled, 
with fomelofs ; and in the laft, which hap- 
pened at H»gg and Noddle's Ifiands, an 
armed fchooner being left by the tide, the 
people, after (landing a fevere fire of fmall 
arms, and two pieces of artillery from the 
more, were at length obliged to abandon 
her. and (he was burnt by the provincial. 
Notwithstanding the late reinforcements, 
and the arrivals of generals of the moft 
active character, the troops continued for 
fome time very quiet at Bofton. On the 
other fide, it is probable that an attempt 
would have been made to dorm that town, 
while the people. were hot in blood after 
the affair of Lexington, if a concern for 
the prefervation of the inhabitants had not 
prevailed over every other confederation. 
It mud however be allowed, that from 
the number of veffels of war, which near- 
ly furrounded the peninfula, as well as the 
raft artillery by which it was protected, 
and the excellency of the troops, that fuch 
an attempt muft have been attended with 
great difficulty and danger, and that the 
deftru&ion of the town mutt have been 
aid down as an inevitable confequence. 
There were other matters alfo of confeder- 
ation. A repulfe to new troops, or the 
arnage that would even attend fu:cefs in 
fo arduous a conflict, might have been at- 
ended with fatal confequences ; the peo- 
ple were not only new to war, but they 
'were in a new and ftrange date and fittia- 
tion ; they were entering into an untried, 
uathought of, and unnatural conted, load- 
ed with the mod fatal confequences, with- 
out experience to guide, or precedent to 
direct them ; they had not yet in general 
enounced all hopes of an accommodation, 
nd thofe who had not, would totally con- 
demn any violence which fhut them out 
rom fo defirable an event ; in fuch a wa- 
rring date of hope, fear, and uncertainty, 
uuch caution was to be ufed, as any un- 
toward event, might fuddenly damp the 
|fdx)%r of the people, diffolve their refolu- 

American War. 

Tl 5 

ttons, and fhake all their confederacies to 

June 8th. 

In the mean time the Conti- 

nental Congrefs refolved tha t 
the compact betxveen the crown and the 
[people of Maffachufett's-Bay, was diflolv- 
|ed, by the violation of the charter of WiL 
|li'im and Mary ; and therefore recommend, 
led to the people of that province, to pro- 
ceed to the edablifhment of a new govern- 
jjment, by electing a governor, aififtants, 
and houie of affembly, according to the 
powers contained in their orignal charter. 
I They paffed another refolution, that no 
bill of exchange, draught, or order, of 
any officer in the army or navy, theiragents, 
or contractors, fhould be received or nego- 
ciated, or any money fupplied to them by 
any perfon 5 and prohibited the fupplying 
of the army, navy, or (hips employed in 
the tranfport fervice, with provifions or 
neceffaries of any kind. They alfo erected 
a general pod-office at Philadelphia, which 
extended through all the united colonies ; 
and fome time after, placed Dr. Franklin, 
who had been infulted and removed from 
that office, in England, at the head of it. 
Thus had they, in effect, though only un- 
der the name of recommendation and 
counfel, affumed all the powers of a ui- 
preme government. 

T , About the fame time Ge- 

nne 1 2th. , n .r~ , , 

J neral t-rage muecl a proclama- 

tion, by which a pardon was offered in the 
king's name, to all thofe who fhould forth- 
with iay down their arms, and return to- 
their refpective occupations and peaceable 
duties; excepting only from the benefit of 
the pardon, Samttel Adams and J-ohn Han- 
cock, who fie offence ; were faid to be of too 
flagitious a nature to admit of any other 
confederation than that of condign punifh- 
ment. All thofe who did not accept of- 
the proffered mercy, or who diould protect, 
affid, fuppiy, conceal, or conefpond with 
them, to be treated as rebels and traitors. 
It alfo declared, that as a Hop was pu: to 
the due courfe of judice, martial law 
mould take place till the laws were redored 
to their due efficacy. It is necdlefs to ob- 
ferve, that this proclamation had as little 
c'fect as any of thofe that preceded it. Mr. 
Hancock was about that time chofen prtfi- 
dent of the continental Con^rels. 

It was fuppofed that this proclamation 
was a prelude to hodiiities, and prepviLns 
were accordingly made by the Americans. 
A conliderable height, by the name of, 
Bunkers-hiil, jull at the eatranej: bj th^ 


HiJIory of the American War. 

pcninfula of Charleftown, was fo fituated les. In a (hort time this ancient town, can. 

as to make the pofTeflion of it a matter of 
great confequence, to either of the con- 
tending parties. Orders were therefore 
iflued by the provincial commanders that 
a detachment of athoufand men mould in- 
trench upon this height. By fome millake 
Breed's-hi07 high and large like the other, 
but fituated nearer Bofton, was marked 
out for the intrenchments, inftead of 
Bunker's-hill. The provincials proceeded 
to Breed's hill and worked with fo much 
diligence, that between midnight and the 
dawn of the morning, they had thrown up 
a fmall redoubt about eight rods fquare. 
They kept fuch a profound filence that 
they were not heard by the Britifh, on 
board their veflels, though very near. Thefe 
having derived their rirft information of 
what wa* going on from the light of the 
work near completion, began an inceflant 
firing upon them. The provincials bore 
this with firmnefs; and though they were 
oniy young foldiers, continued to labour 
till they had thrown up a fmall breaftwork, 
extending from the eaft fide of the re- 
doubt to the bottom of the hill. As this 
eminence overlooked Bofton, General Gage 
thought it necefiary to drive the provincials 
from it. About noon therefore he detached 
Major General Howe and Brig. Gen. Pi- 
got, with the flower of his army, confid- 
ing of four battalions, ten companies of 
the grenadiers and ten of light infantry, 
with a proportion of field artillery, to ef- 
fect this bufinefs. Thefe troops landed at 
Moreton's point, and formed after landing, 
but remained in that pofition till they were 
reinforced by a fecond detachment of light 
infantry and grenadier companies, a bat- 
talion of land forces and a battalion of 
marines, making in the whole nearly 3000 
men. While the troops who firft landed 
were waiting for this reinforcement, the 
provincials for their farther fecurity, pul- 
led up lome adjoining polt and rail fences, 
and fet them down in two parallel lines at a 
imali diilance from each other, and filied 
the fpace between with hay, which having 
been lately mowed, remained on the adja- 
cent ground. 

The king's troops formed in two lines, 
and advanced ilowly, to give their artillery 
time to demoliih the American works. 
While the Britifh were advancing to the 
attack, they received orders to burn Char- 
leftown. This was not done becaufe they 
were fired upon from the houfes in that 
town, but from the military pulicy of de- 
priving enemies of a coverin their approach- 


1 in 



fifting of about 500 buildings, chiefly of 
wood, was in one great blaze. The lofty 
lleeple of the meeting houfe formed a py- 
ramid of fire above the reft, and ftiuck 
the aftonifhed eyes of numerous beholders 
with a magnificent but awful fptftacle. In 
Bofton the heights of every kind were co.- 
vered with the citizens, and fuch of the 
king's troops as were not on duty. The 
hillsaround the adjacent country which af- 
forded a fafe and diltinft view, were oc- 
cupicd by the inhabitants of the country, 

Thoufar.a-s, both within and without 
Bofton, were anxious fpedators of the. 
bloody fcenes. The hon-r of Britifh troop* 
beat high in the breads ot many, whil| 
otners with a keener fenfibility, felt for . 
the liberties of a grear and growing coun- 
try. The Biitifh rr.o^ed on but ilowly,, 
which gave the prov ■ c a better oppor 
tunity for taking aim. 1 he 1 .1 in ge> 
neral referved theni :,ves nil their ad verfaj 
ries were within ten or twelve ro-' 
then began a furious difchsrgc ef f 
arms. The Itream or the America) 
was fo inceflant, and viid io great exe^ 
on that the king's troops retreated '■ 
order and precipitation. The- 
rallied them and pufned them f< 
their fwords, but they returned to the at* 
tack with great reluctance. The Amcri-j 
cans again referved their fire till their ad* 
verfaries were near, and then put them a 
fecond time to flight. General Howe and 
the officers redoubled their exertions, and 
were again fuccefsful, though the foldkrf 
dilcovered a great averfion to going o 
By this times the powder of the Ameri 
cans began fo far to fail, that they were 
not able to keep up the fame brifk fire as 
before. The Britifli alfo brought fome- 
cannon to bear which raked the iniidc of the 
breaft-work from end to end. The fire from 
the ftiips, batteries, and field artillery wa» 
redoubled — the foldiers in the rear were 
goaded on by their officers. The redoubt 
was attacked on three fides at once. Un- 
der thefe circumllances a retreat from it 
was ordered, but the provincials delayed, 
and made refiftance with their difcharged 
mufkets as if they had been clubs, fo long, 
that the King's troops who eafily mounted 
the works, had half filled the redoubt be- 
fore it was given up to them. 

While thefe operations were going on 
it the breaft-work and redoubt, the Bri- 
tifh light infantry were attempting to force i 
the left point of the former, ihat they J 
might take the American line in flank. J 

Hiflory of the American War. l x 

Though they exhibited the molt undaunted itary knowledge had been derived from 
courage, they met with an oppofition J hunting, and the ordinary amufements of 

which called for its greaielt exertions. 
The provincials here, in like manner, re- 
served their fire till their adverfaries were 
near, and then poured it upon the light 
infantry, with iuch an inctffant flream, and 
in fo true a direction as mowed down their 
ranks. The engagement was kept up on 
both tides with great refolution. The 
peifevering exertions of the King's troops 
coald not compel the Americans to retreat, 
till they obferved that their main body had 
left the i'hi ; , when begun, expofed 
them to re* danger, for it could not be 
effec. d l>yt by marching over Charleltown 
neck, every part of which was raked by 
the ihoc of the Glafgow man of war, and 
of two floating batteries. The inceffant 
fire kep up acrois this neck, prevented 
anv conlideraole reinforcement from join- 
3 n 4 their countrymen who were engaged ; 
but the few who fell on their retreat, over 
th" fame ground, proved, that the appre- 
hcifioiis of thole provincial officers who 
de Uaed paflitig over to fuccour their com- 
p nions, were without any folid founda- 

The number of Americans engaged, 
amounted only to 1500. It was appre- 
hended that the conquerors would pufii 
the advantage they had gained, and march 
immediately to American head quarters at 
Cambridge, but they advanced no farther 
than Buuker's-hill. There they threw 
up works for their own fecurity. The 
provincials did the fame on Profpect-hill 
in front of them. Both were guarding 
againft an attack, and both were in a bad 
► condition to receive one. The lofs of the 
peninfula deprefied the fpirit of the Ame- 
ricans, and their great lofs of men pro- 
duced the fame effect on the Britifh. 
There have been few battles in modern 
war?, in which all circumftances coniider- 
ed, there was a greater deitruction of men 
than in this fhort engagement. The lofs of 
the Britifh, as acknowledged by General 
Gage, amounted to 1054. Nineteen com- 
miffioned officers were killed, and 70 more 
were wonnded. The battle of Quebec in 
l 759> which gave Great-Britain the pro- 
vince of Canada, was not fo deftru&ive to 
Britifh officers as this affair of a fjight in- 
trenchment, the work only of a few hours. 
That the officers fuffered fo much, mult 
be imputed to their being aimed at. Non 

of the provincials in this engagement were 
riflemen, but they were all good markf- 
mcn. Ti»€ whole of their previous mili- j uuiverfally regretted. 

rf, lo rantittu 'J 1 

fportfmen. The dexteiity whichby long 
habit they had acquired in hitting benfls, 
birds, and marks, was fatally applied to 
the deftruction of Britifh officers. From 
their fall, much confufion was expected. 
They were therefore particulaily fingled 
out. Molt of thofe who were near the 
perfon of General Howe, were either kill- 
ed or wounded, but the general, though 
he greatly expofed himfclf, was unhurt. 
The light infantry and grenadiers loft three- 
fourths of their men. Of one company 
not more than five, and of another, not 
more than fourteen efcaped. The unex- 
peded reiiiiance of the Americans was 
luch as wiped away the reproaches of cow- 
ardice, which had been caft on them by 
their enemies in Britain. The fpirited 
conduct of the Britifh officers merited and 
obtained great applaufe, but the provin- 
cials were juftly entitled to a large porti- 
on of the fame, for having made the u't- 
moft exertions of their adverfaries necef- 
fary to diflodge them from lines, which 
were the work only of a iingle night. 

The Americans loft five pieces of can- 
non. Their killed amounted to 139. 
Their wounded and miffing to 314. Thir- 
ty of the former fell into the hands of the 
conquerors. They particularly regretted 
the death of General Warren. To the 
pureit patriotifm and moft undaunted 
bravery, he added the virtues of do-meflic 
life, the eloquence of an accompiifhed 
orator, and the vvifdom of an able ftatef- 
man. Nothing but a regard to the liberty 
of his country induced him to oppofe the 
meafures of government. He aimed not 
at a feparation from, but a coalition with 
the mother country. He took an active part 
in defence of his country, not that he mioht 
be applauded and rewarded for a patriotic 
fpirit, but becaufe he was, in the belt 
fenfe of the word, a real patriot. Hav- 
ing no interefled or perfonal views to an- 
fwer, the friends of liberty confided in his 
integrity. The foundnefs of his judgment, 
and his abilities as a public fpeaker, ena- 
bled him to make a diftinguifhed figure in 
public councils : but his intrepidity and 
active zeal, induced his countrymen to 
place him in the military line. Within 
four days after he was appointed a Major- 
General, he fell a noble facriricc to a caufe 
which hehadefpouled from the purefl prin- 
ciples. Tike Harnbden fie lived, and like 
Hambden he died, univerfally beloved and 

Efays relating to Agriculture and Rural Affairs. 

L-.drafts from EJfays relating to Agri- 
culture and Rural Affairs. By Jawes 


THE milk of domeftic animals is of 
great importance to man ; and, 
thercfote, every particular that relates to 
it, ought to Ue examined with attention. 
And, as it is well known that fome plants 
make the animals thai fefdnpon them yield 
a greater quantity of milk than others 
would have produced — Required — An ex- 
B& lill of fuch vegetables as are endowed 
with this quality in the higheft degree, with 
regard to each Ipecies of domellic animals? 

Chickweed * is by many thought to 
caufc cows to give an extraordinary quan- 
tity of milk. — Spurrey, or yarrf, as it is 
called in fome paits of Scotland, is thought 
by fome to pofiel's the fame quality in an 
eminent degree \. on whieli account, it is 
fometimes cultivated in Holland as an ufe- 
ful plant, although it is here found to be 
a very pernicious weed. Cattle indeed 
prefer it, when green, to almoft any other 
plant; and fheep are exceedingly fond of it. 

It is likewife probable that fome plants 
may tend to make the milk thicker, and 
produce a greater proportion of cream 
titan others do. If this is fo — Required 
— A lift of fuch plants as produce this ef- 
fect, compared with thofe that promote 
th- quantity of milk ? 

Lome plants communicate to the milk 
of the animal which feeds upon them a ve- 
ry difagreeable tadc, while others, on the 
contrary, give it a more plcafant flavour. 
— Required — A lift of fuch plants as pro- 
duce the one or the other effect, with re- 
gard to each fpcciea of domellic animals ? 

It has been often remarked, that cows 
which fed upon certain paftures, afforded 
butter of a richer and more agreeable tafte 
than could be obtained from other paftures ; 
which would fcem t,» be- occalioncd by ccr- 
t .in plants abounding more in the one of 
.tiicfe pa llu res than in the other : ytt I 
have heard of no accurate experiment that 
has hitherto been made to alccrtain, with 
*'iy degree of ecr'ainty, what were the 
particular planU that cither tended to 
ckbafc it in the one cafe, or improve it in 
the other. 

It is indeed true, that the tafle commu- 
nicated to milk and butter, by fome plants, 
! is fo exceedingly ftrong and difagreeable, 
that no perfon could avoid remarking it. 
Of this kind are turnip*, which commu- 
nicate to nvlk a naofrouf t fte, that is ex- 


■ .,"'*'* 

tremely difagreeable to moll people*. Wild; 
garlick, and fome other plants, likewife 
affect the milk with their own difagreeable 

But the moft uncommon inftance of this, 
kind that has come to my knowledge, was. 
a cafe that happened to a widow lady of 
my acquaintance, whofe cows at one par- 
ticular time, yielded milk that was fo ftrong- 
ly impregnated with a peculiar kind of 
bitter talte, that no perfon could ufe it in 
any way, which furprifed her a good deal, 
as die cows had often been allowed to pa- 
Iture on the fame field, without having 
had their milk fenfibly impregnated with 
that difagreeable tafte. Upon examining 
into what might be the probable caufe of 
that lingular phenomenon, it was difcover^ 
ed that, as the cows had been kept upon 
another field for fome time before, the 
grafs upon this field had been allowed to 
advance pretty far without being cropt v 
And, as it was full of the rough-leaved ' 
dandelionf, which was then in full flower, 

* If the milk is to be ufed fvveet, this difagreeable 
iafle may be confiderably diminifhed by boiling iu 
Other means of fweetening milk have been attempt- 
ed, that are raoretroublefome and expenfive, and not 
more efficacious 

It may be of confequence to remark, that, in gene-, 
ral, that part of the milk that comes firft from thq 
cow when milked, is much more ftrongly impregna- 
ted with anv peculiar flavour than what comes laft ; 
and as that is alio tliethinneit and lcaft valuable part 
of the milk, it may be taken away and applied to any 
other inferior domeflic ufe, without diniriifhing in 
any fcnlible degree, the products of the dairy. 

By thus fepara'ing the firft from the lait drawn 
milk, the quality of the butter will be, at all times, 
■•cry much improved, and the quantity hardly dimi- 
nifhed in any lenfible degree. FoT I have found, by 
experiment, that a finall quantity of milk, that 
comes lait from the cow, contains about fixteen times, 
as much cream, than an equal quantity that comes, 
lb (I at the fame milking, — and that the cream is alfo 
of an infinitely richer quality, the colour of the one 
being of a \ery deep orange, while that of the other; 
is as white as the p .per on which I write. 

Hence we may inier, by way of corollary, that 
nOTfirl •'»! of i annjj calves can be fo beneficial for 
i dairy, as that iil'uallv praclifcd in the Highlands of 
Scotland, where it is theumveifal cbitom to allow; 
the call to fuck its mother ior fome time, and then 
drive it away, aod milk what remains in the cows 
ddrr. B\ this means the expence of milking is much 
abridged—the calves are iucklcd more kindly than 
by tlicband — aud the quantity of butter not much, 
diminifhed : but the greateft advantage i? r that the 
'.Milter is thus rendered of the fin eft quality that could 
pollibly be defireei- It has been often remarked, 
that well made Highland butter is of the fincft quality 
that can be found any where ; but this circymftance, 
which contributes lb much to its perfection, has, I 
believe, been overlook < d 

I: cicfewes to be noted, that there is not near fuch 
,1 difference between the firft and Lit drawn milk o£ 
in old qalvcd cow, as of one that is but lately calved. 

+ Leontodfii h Jpidnm. This plant is fometimes call 
ed hawkv. eed, and ranked by botanitts under the 
eneric name of liicracium. 

£Jays relating to Agriculture and Rural A 1 fairs* 

It wasimagined, the peculiar flavour of the 
milk was occasioned by the cows cropping 
thefe. flowers in greater quantities than at 
any other time ; which appeared the more 
probable, as it was obferved that this 
bitter tafle was not perceived in the milk, 
after the cows had remained in that field 
for a few days, when the flowers of this 
plant were almoft entirely con fumed. 

As I have not had a» opportunity of 
trying any experiment that could afcertain 
the truth of this conjecture, I would not 
delirc that it fhould be relied upon as an 
undoubted fait ; but, from the eircum- 
flances above narrated, it leem* extremely 
probable, that the flowers and flower- 
llalks of fome plants are fometimes endow- 
ed with qualities in this refperft very dif- 
ferent f; om thefe of the leaves ; which 
ought to afford a leffon of cautious cir- 
■cumfpeclion to the experimental farmer. 

Although it is by no means certain that 
plants, in all cafes, communicate the fame 
flavour to milk, as that with which they 
affect our palate in their natural Rate, yet, 
as we know that this fometimes happens, it 
may perhaps, in fome cafes, affift us a lit- 
tle in discovering fuch plauts as may pro- 
bably affect it, either with an agieeablc 
flavour, or the revcrfe, — ferving at lealt, 
to point them out as proper fubjects for fu- 
ture experiments intended to elucidate this 
point. With this view, having chewed at 
•different times, many different kinds of 
graffes that grow naturally in our fields 
and meadows, I was particularly ftruck 
with the agreeable aromatic flavour of the 
■common vernal grafs*, which feemed to 

approach fo nearly to the rich almond- like ed to it, more cream will be feparated from 

flavour which is always obfervable in the 


it feems probable that this may be, in ge- 
neral, the cafe, and that many of the 
plants that anfwer the one of thefe inten- 
tions may anfwer the other purpofe alfo ; 
yet it is by no means certain that thefe are 
not fometimes disjoined. For I have often 
met with butter of a very rich flavour with 
little colour, and the revcrfe ; fo that ic 
would be of confequence to the farmer to 
have a lift of the plants poffeffmg thefe 
two qualities, leparately made out. 

It is a vulgar prejudice, founded upon 
very inaccurate observations, that plants 
which pioduce yellow flowers, in general, 
tinge the butter with their own colour ; 
than which, hardly any opinion could be 
more abfurd, Yet, upon no better foun- 
dation refts the general prejudice in favour 
of paitures that abound with the butter- 
flower*, which has evidently derived its 
names from that cirevmitance ; although 
more accurate obfervations (how, that fo 
far is it from being beneficial to cow?, that 
they refufe to taite the plant, till they are 
reduced to the greateft diftrefs by hanger. 

Probably fome plant* encreafe the rich- 
nefs of the milk, but do not produce a 
proportional quantity of cream ;— feme 
certainly make it afford cheefe of a finer 
quality, and probably in greater' quanti- 
ties than others. If fo — Required — A 
lilt of fuch plants as produce the fined 
cheefe, as well as of thof- that caufe milk 
yield thegreateft quantities of it? 

It has been often remarked, that if milk 
is of a very thick confidence, the cream is 
not fo perfectly feparated from it as if it 
were thinner: — That is, if water be add- 

it than if it had got no mixture. But, in 

fined butter, that I refolved to gather! in that cafe, both the butter — cream — 
fome of the feeds, and fow them by them- j and whey, are poorer in quality than if it 
felves, with a view to feed a cow for fome! had not been mixed. And as milk natu- 
time upon this plant by itfelf, to difcover J rally thin, is nearly in the fame itate as 
what effect: it would have upon the fla-j thick milk when mixed with water, it (eef^s 
vour of the milk. The feeds are faved,] probable, that if any plant tends to ren- 
and are fowed ; but it will neceffarily be'der the milk thicker, it will not afford an 
fome confiderable time before the refult ] additional quantity of cream proportioned 
can be with certainty be difcovered. 1 to the richnefs of the milkf. But, if this 

Some plants communicate to milk a j is converted into cheefe, we may expect 
rich yellow colour, and others render ] that it would afford a greater proportion of 

it pale, and almoit colourlefs. Re-! curd, and that of a richer quality. For 

quired — A lift of each of thefe claffes of 
plants, with refpeel to all the different 
clafles of domeltic animals ? 

It is commonly imagined, that the but-! ^ whole of the cream was feparati 

*».. ...u: ,U •'„ r .1 , l a '1 l drawn, the milk that remained was thi 

ter which is or the decpeit yei low co our, ' r ,-, . ,, , . 

.... . , n - J . , , ' i m every refpect than the cream ol t 

* Ranunculus repeal, — bdbefus, — 
f In the lait mte, I have taken notice t*f the dif- 
ference between the firft'and laft diawn Hiilk. After 
cream was feparated from the lull 
lickei and i ichrr 
r jefpect than the cream of th« hilt drawn, 
IS alio the richeit in taite ;- and although The m [lkof the firitdrawn refembled water, colour- 

. — led with milk— that of the lad vsas thick like ciearr. 

AiU ; i'j.<antlfim ejuraium. jj — and the whey of it, when made iu'.o cheefe, MRU 

I richer than the milk of the other. 

Of Quick- lime and ether Calcareous S usances, as Manure, 


goats milk, which feparates no cream, 
yields a very large proportion of curd, as 
well as the riched whey : — Sheeps milk, 
which is likewife thick, and feparates lit- 
tle cream, comes next to it in both thefe 
qualities ; — after thefe, in all thofe refpedts, 
comes cow's milk ; — and, lad of all, the 
milk of mares and afles, which are thinner, 
and more watery than any of the others. 

It may likewife happen, that fome plants 
which caufe better to have a very difagree- 
able tafte, may probably yield cheefe of 
an uncommon agreeable flavour ; as we 
require a mot e acrid talle in the lad than 
the fird. This ought, therefore to be at- 
tended to. 

Of Quick- li me, and other Calcareous 
Subjiances t as a Manure 



IT would eafy for me here to amufe the 
reader with a critical analyfis of the 
feveral theories that have been invented by 
ingenious men to account for the ?nanner 

in which lime operates as a manure It 

would be no difficult matter to demonftrate 
the defeds of their feveral fydems ; — and 
I might, with great facility, make an idle 
difplay of apparent fuperiority, by ridi- 
culing their feveral hypothefes. — But, as I 
could not fubditute any thing in their (lead 
that would be more fatisfa&ory to the fen- 
fible reader, I choofe to wave this ungra- 
cious difcuflion ; and (hall content myfelf 
with enumerating a few fails concerning 
the ufe of calcareous fubftances as a ma- 
nure, that it much imports the practical 
farmer fully to underfland. 

The fird idea that occurs in reflecting 
on this fubjedt is, that all fubftances in 
which calcareous matter is contained, have 
be*en fuccefsfully employed as a manure, 
at different times, and in different places. 

Thus — lw:e y — marie of all forts, — chalk., 
lime-f 'one-gravel,— foelly fand, or pure 
fnells of every denomination, have all been 
employed as manures with the grcatefl 

And, as all thefe, excepting lime, al- 
ways contain the calcareous matter in its 
mild flate, we art led to conclude, that 
they operate on the foil merely as calcareous, 
and not as fa line, fubftances. 

Lime, indeed, is fometimes applied to 
the foil in its caujlic ftate, as it comes frefh 
from being flaked, but more commonly 
at fome confiderablc diltance of time af- 

ter it has been burnt. However, as burn-* 
ing is the only mode ufually employed for % 
reducing lime-done to powder, attd thui 
preparing it for a manure, the opinion, m 
general, prevails, that calcination is a. j ne- 
ceffary for rendering lime capable ct be- 
coming a manure, as for making it fit to 
be employed as a cement. 

It is, however, of importance for the 
practical farmer to be informed, that thi» 
is not the cafe. — Mr. Du Hamel was the j 
firft who, from an accidental txperii. . 
was led to believe, that powdered liniefione 
was an equally efikaiious manure as lime 
itfelf. He recorded the experiment as a 
great difcovery. 

Having had occafion to drefs a marble 
chimney-piece for repairing one of coun- 
try-houfes, the mafn chofe a lawn n<-ar 
the houfe, as the mod convenient plact for 
hewing the done. — After tlu operation 
was finifhed, all the large chipj vvere picked 
up and carried away, that they might not 
disfigure the lawn ; — but the fine powder 
that had been grinded off by the action of 
the chide! mixed fo intimately with the 
grafs, that it could not be gathered up. — 
In confequence of this very full cirefling of 
powdered lime-done, the grafs afterwards 
came up upon that ipot with much greater 
luxuriance than on any other part of the 
lawn, and always continued to have a much 
livelier verdure. 

From hence he, with good reafon, con- 
fcluded, that powdered lime- fl one might 
be employed as a manure with fuccefs. To 
try if this would always be the cafe, he re- 
peated the experiment feveral times, by 
caufing fome limeftone to be pounded on 
purpofe, and found that it never failed to 
promote the fertility of the fpot on which 
he applied it in a very high "degree. 

I chofe to relate this experiment at large, 
for the fatisfadtion of thofe who may be 
unacquainted with the phyfical caufe of the 
difference between lime and lime-ftone. — 
To fuch as are fully apprized of this, a 
little reafoning might have been fuflicient 
to afford a certain conviction, that the re- 
fult oE the experiment muft have been 
what Mr. Du-Hamel found it. 

Lime is no fooner flaked than it imme-' 
diately begins to abforb its air, and return 
to its former mild ftate, — or, in other 
words, it becomes £$£/(? ; in which ftate it 
pofleffes the fame chemical qualities in 
every refpcdl, as lime-done. 

\To be continued.'] 

The Columbian Parnaffiad. 

tii mm i 



Columbian Parnaffiad. 


■They cajl their lines away, 

And fad and fallen hate the golden day. 

<Oh .' with (vhatjoy the wretches now would bear 

Pain, toil, and woe, to breathe the vital air .' 


DIRE fuicide, atrocious crime, 
Thou foul difgrace of England's clime, 
Too horrid e'en to paint! 
Inflated with prefumptuous pride, 
Shall man his future fate decide, 
And act without reftraint ? 

Shall earth-born fear o'er fenfe prevail, 
Whentrariient ills of life aiTail, 

And tempt us to depart? 
Each hat.' his proper lot aflign'd 
In w/ldom, by tii' eternal mind, 

Who aids the grateful heart. 

«that th^e v'tfual fenfe furveys, 
|od beneficent difplays, 
flio rules earth, fca and iky, 
Who bids the foft-defcending fhow'r 
Refrefh each herb and op'ning flow'r^ 
To glad the human eye. 

His ire provoke, at whofe command 
Kingdoms and empires fall or Hand, 

Dare children of the duff ? 
In moments of impatient fpleen, 
Shall they th' Almighty partial ween 

Deem Providence unjuil? 

Then venture on a world unknown^ 
Appear, un-fent for, at the throne 

Of guilt avenging pow're 
The mufe now trembles to declare 
What horrors mull convulfe 'em there 

In that tremendous hour. 

Lo! crimfon'd with the vital flood* 
With hands imbru'd in their own blood> 

Abafh'd, confus'd they ftand : 
Unfit for fpotlefs realms of light, 
They fear th* abodes of endlefs night, 

And wait the dread command. 
Proud fophiftry, thou boaft of fools, 
Difdaining wifdom's fober rules, 

Canft thou relieve our pain ? 
Religion, orTspring of the fky, 
Alone can teach man how to die, 

And every ill fuftain. 

Trull him, frail man, who {fills the deep 
When thunders roll and tempefts fweep, 

And calm thy mind to reit ; 
Thy guaidian angel (bail ciefcend, 
And whifper — "for the wifeil end" 

" Thy fpirit was opprefs'd i 

Yet Hill, alas! we pity thofe, 

Who feek to end their poignant woes 

Of complicated kind, 
Who piere'd with cold, and torn with cries 
Of tender babes whom hunger tries, 

In death relief would find. 

ply ere this, they begg'd in vain 

f haughty pride with fur-lin'd train 

To grant the fmalleft mite; 
But callous to their piteous moans, 
She heeded not their heart-felt groans. 

And ipurn'd them from her light. 

Col. Mag. Vol. IV. No. 2. 

Britons renown'd for generous deeds, 
Whofe charity ten thoufand feeds, 

How ftrange to you the found, 
That oft in winter's keeneft frolf, 
Some harmlels wanderer is loft, 

Lies perifh'd on the ground. 

Yeftoicsrich, who will not grant 
The aid implor'd by tearful want, 

Know, Heav'n your conduct views; 
Steel then your breafts 'gainft nature's plea, 
Diftiefs without emotion fee, 

To lave from death refufe. 

O N 


[Ext rafted from a Poetical Epi/lle to a Curate. By lofiak 
Thomas, AB] J J 

THIS is the natural effufion of an honeft and cul- 
tivated mind. Though the writer has the mo. 
defty to difclaim ail expc&ation as a poet, the follow, 
mg lines will give our reader no unfavourable impref. 
fion both of his genius and tafle : 

Retirement, hail !— thy hofpitable (bade, 
By blundering pride injurioufly pourtray'd, 
Demands my verfe— could gratitude infpire 
The Sage's wifdom, or the Poet's fire, 
How would the Mafeth' immortal theme prolong, 
And blefs thy fond encomiaft and the fong; 

Retirement, hail ! though ridicul'd by p'ride, 
Sublime th' aiTcciates in thy bower abide. 
Sublime thy joys, however difavow'd 
By inilinci's herd, the profligate and proud. 

Though round thy bower no pompous building 
Nor tafte's capricious vanities be there; 
Within the fweet recefs truth loves to dwell; 
And meek fimplicity adorns the cell • 
Learning the volume of the world difplays, 
Blaz'ning the wonders of the Si re of Days; 
Genius, with eye undazzled by the fun, 
Traces each foot ft cp where old time has run : 
Science the exhaultlefs uni verfe explores, 
Dives to the bottom, to the mmmit foars : 
There contemplation by &ge wifdom led, 
Holds her high converfe with the mighty dead. 
While fair content and peace, congenial powers, 
Crown with delight the conlccrated hours. 

Retirement, hail ! beneath thy foltering care, 
The mufe fir ft gives her callow wing to air; 
To thee the liberal arts their luftreowe, 
Plants, that reward the foil wherein they grow. 

From thee the Poet — whofe illumin'd page 
Glows, like the fun, above the wrecks of acre; 
From thee the Sage — whofe meditative mind 
Prefcribes the laws that civili.-x- mankind : 
From thee th* Historian — whofe fagacious pen 
•To man inculcates his firfl ftudy, MEN : 
From thee the keen Philosopher — whofe eye 
Darts through the glooms that fhroud futurity : 
From thee. Retirement! ALL their glories claim ; 
Thine the firll triumphs in the fields of fame. 

Blest is his lot, from vice, from folly free, 
Whofe tranquil pafiions are airang'u by thee ! 
To him, though faction's difcontented rout 
Pronounce deilruction — while themfelves are out ; 
Though countries, with endemic frenzy curs'd, 
Contend and war which cypher (ball be firft, 
To him the clamour but one fonow brings, 
That men fhould madden for fuch idle things.. 

When, darling radiance o'er the brighteninc 
The fun renews his race : or while, on high 
The dewy clouds involve the morning ray, 
As loth to yield their Kation to the day, 
How fweet the opening morn ! — the genial hour, 
Retirement! calls thy votary from thy bower, 
To meet fair health upon the mountain's (ide : 
There, while blue mills the lower vallies hide, 


The Columbian Parnatjiad. 


Health imd her rofc-lipt zephyrs meet, to pay 
Their balmy fragrance to tie new-born day. 
When evening hovers, in her noifeltfs car, 
t T Don the fhadowy Lofoin ot the air, 
What time the liar, that bids the dewsarife, 
Drinks the lafl radiance of the weftern fkics, 
And nature breathes refrefh'd — quick let ray feet, 
Retirement! hallen to thy lov'd retreat: 
'Ihere, while each paffioH calm'd, and wifh rclin'd, 
Expand the heart, and elevate the mind, 
Let fancy bear me to th' immortal clime, 
Wheic Poesy, above ihc moon fublime, 
. With infpiration dwells—Or, let me hold 
Converfe with f.igts of the years of old ; 
And gleaning ev'ry truth and moral art, 
Tiealure the living harvift in my heart. 

Fim BO E T I US. 


FROM one eternal fountain flow 
The various nations or this ball : 
To him all things their heingowe, 
And healone difpenfes all. 

He gave the fun his golden robe, 
The meeker moon her liber horns, 

With human race the pendent globe, 
With jemmy ffars the pole, adorns, 

Hr lock'd within our mortal breads 
Immortal fouls, infus'd from high: 

In tenements of clav fuch guefts 
Divine afLrt their purer fky. 

Why, thus defended, fhould ye boafl 
Of birch ancT parentage beneath? 

Reflect upon your native coaft, 

The fpbit, whence your fpirit breathe. 

No creature is ignobly born, 

L'nlefs, by vices mean miflcd, 
He llain the ftream, and, worthy fcorn, 

Defcrt the glorious fountain-head. 


THE man fercne, with foulfedate 
Who triumphs over haughty fate, 
And cither fortune can behold 
With eyes unmov'd, and fpirit bold, 
The boiling billows of the main 
Would tlmaten, and afT.iult in vain: 
Not rent Vefuvius, while he breathes 
From red volcanoes fumy wreaths, 
Not thunder, wont to blalt the pow'rs, 
And crufhthc pridcof ILtely tow'rs, 
Though wing'd with lightning, can molcft 
The calm contentment ot his bread. 


WHILE yet invclop'd all round with gloom, 
Nor fully linifh'd in the fecret womb, 
1 lay as dead, and ratine was my tomb. 

Wiif. n from the dark inclofurc, where I flcpt, 

Into thisbufy, noify world I leapt, 

I faw, 1 felt itsmiferies, and wept. 

Ere yet the grofs, hereditary feeds 

Of fin primaval fhot up into weeds, 

Or dawning thought fore-ran maturer deeds ; 

Them thrcat'ningtem] (fls check'd the budding plant, 
Then fenfe fupply'd what icafon would not grant, 
And bitter cries proclaim'd my woeful want. 

But, when imagination's warmer beams, 
Play'd on the mind, milled through wild extrerrfts, 
I graip'd at joys, which vanifh'd into dreams. 
The world's grelai wood, prcfented to my view, 
Seem'd fair, and gay : fuch (tore of bloffoms grew, 
The fruit, I thought, of courfe, in plenty too. 
Thus trifles charm'd beneath a bright attirej 
While youthful fancy kindled fond defire, 

And hope delufivefed the growing lire. 

In vain fhould reafon labour toconfute, 
Too weak to Hop me in the hot purfuit: 

I rufh'd, and panted for the promis'd fruit. 

In vain the painted bleffings I purfue; 

In vain the bloffoms fmil'd upon the view ; 

Black ftorms defcend, and blalt their lovelfy hue. 

No golden fruits the naked boughs adorn ; 

Too late, alas! by difappointments torn, 
T tafte the fruit of knowledge from the thorn. 

Cool reafon then re fumes the flacken'd rein; 
I look with forrow on the meafur'd plain, 
And wifhrny couife were to commence again. 

False fortune frowning, which at firft had fmil'd 
My labours baffled, ar.d my hopes beguil'd : 
I grieve a dotard, as I wept a child. 

If mifery with infancy thus fprings, 

If youth and manhood are fuch wretched things, 

And age begets from knowledge pointed flings; 

Why fhould I grieve to leave a life of woe, 
To lbun the caufe, whence all my evils flow, 
And reft in peace among the dead below ? 

But, if I am fo very fond of life, 

Where pains and difappointments are fo rife, 

Succeflive labours, and perpetual ftrife; 

Why fhould I not embrace my coming fate, 
Since death, which ends my cares, is but a gate 
To life immortal, and a blifsful ftate ? 

ODE. "~ 

LATELY in the noon of night, 
When the bear with fickly light 
Wheel'd around the itarry train 
Of the flow-revolving wain, 
Cupid, fraught with fell deceit, 
Came, and thunder'd at my gate.- 
Who, faid I, my gate annoys, 
Who, to break my balmy joys? 
Patient hear without furprize, 
I am but a boy, he cries: 
Through the moonlels night aftr3y, 
Hither have I bent my way. 
Keen affliction he cxprefs'd : 
Tender pity touch'd my bread. 
Lighting then a taper, flraight 
1 unban 'd my bolted gate, 
And behold a boy — but, lo! 
With a quiver and a bow ; 
Pinions to his body clung, 
Drooping, dripping, as they hung: 
Genial motion toinfpirc, 
I repos'd him by the fire, 
Softly (rated, and benign 
Chaff 'd his chilly hands with mine: 
From his azure locks I drain 
Plentiful the chilling rain. 

As the boy began to glow, 
Let us try, faid he, my bow, 
If, relax'd by rain, the firing 
Haply loft its wonted fpring. 
Quick he bent the bow; his arrow 
Deep transfix'd my very marrow. 
Then in merry mood he cries, 
Stranger triumph in thy prize: 


The Columbian 

Safe's my bow, and fafc my dart — 
Anfwer for thy bleeding heart. 


THERE was (fo Chaucer hands the dory down) 
A good old man, the parfon of a town, 
Meetly aira\ 'd in humble, fable weeds, 
And poor in purfe, but rich in holy deeds. 
Pure was his heart, and able was his head, 
Deep-vcrs'd in books, but mod in fcripture read. 
True to the text, his doctrines would he preach, 
And each parilbioner devoutly teach 
Without the help of puzzling glofs abfurd, 
Benign in thought, and affable in word, 
Of heart undaunted, in demeanor mild, 
A man of God, but of the world a child. 
Few minutes trom his office would he fpare, 
His patience only could furpafs his care, 
Through frequent trials of diflrefsapprev'd, 
Dillrefs, true touch-done of the faith he lov'd. 
Full loth was he, although he wanted fhoes, 
To breathe anathemas, forunpaid dues: 
But rather trom his own domeftic dore 
With pious hands reliev'd the needy poor. 
Though much he gave, on little wont to live, 
Httonlv iiv'il, that many more might live. 
^Be was his parilb, and the houles flood 
Aurnder; yet thro' thunder, hail, or flood, 
At morning by the dawn, or tv'ning late, 
Heiteer'd his journey to the fick man's gate, 
Uncheck'd by levers of infedtious rage, 
He walk'd : A ftaff fuftain'd his awful age. 
This good example to his flock he brought, 
That tirfl he gave, and afterwards he taught. 

The farmer and the philosopher. a fable. 

^1 HE morning role in Summer's pride, 

X f-nd fpread her ample fhield; 
The clown hib fork and (hovel ty'd, 
And, whilUing, fought the field. 
The rural labours of the day 
Began with rudic joys; 
And fonglters, twitt'ring from the fpray, 
Increas'd tlie jocund noife. 

With hafly pace, themanhon's gate, 
That clos'd the greenlin'd way, 
Philatus pals'd, to contemplate 
The rifing of the day. 

He depp'd along, in filent thought, 
And meduai ion. warm, 
Till chance his tieedlefs footdeps brought, 
Where culture chcer'd the farm. 

Faft to a tree a rifing fleer, 
With (fill fubmiifion, {food ; 
A fiuvcly farmer fharpen'd, near, 
The kniie, to fpill his blood. 

But why, my friend ! Philatus laid, 
Confign to (laughter s hand 
The hopeful bead, whofe future aid 
Would cultivate thy land r 1 

This flubbom brute (reply 'd the man) 
With lolt'ringcare I rear'd, 
Nor, fince his being firft began, 
Have cod or trouble fpar'd : 

Worrecompenfing toil rcquii'd, — 

Until, this bufy morn, 
jl led him forth, in years attir'd 
'. To till the ground for corn. 

'When, — oh ! the black ungrateful deed, 
• That calls the vengeful knife, — 
[His horns attack, with dreadful f peed, 
|His ben-fatlor's life. 


For this, his guilty blood (ball flow; 
And I, in future time, 
Will red convinced, of all bclow r 
His was the deeped crime. 

My friend, — the venerable fage, 
With foft'ning accents, fpoke, — 
I marvel not thy honed rage; 
Such horrid deeds provoke. 

But, e'er the bloody work's r 

Attend the truths I feel ; 

The very crime is thine, good man, 

That rears the vengeful deel — 

The fathers, brothers, of this fleer, 

That headllrong (corns command, 

Were early taught the yoke to bear, 

By man's iubjecting hand. 

'Twas his, to break the dubborn foil, — 

The wildemefs to tame; — 

Or draw the wood, through wintry toil,. 

That cbeer'd thy focial flame. 

This long-exerted, lab'ring power, 

Let recollection tell ; 

And let remembrance mark the hour, 

That, wounded deep, he fell — 

'Twas when his deady faithlul life, 

Drew near a final dole, 

Thy arm deep plunged the murd'ring knife, — 

When nature claim'd repofe. 

Oh! proud, unthinking tyrant — worm ! 
Too ready to condemn : 
The hand, that gave thee human form, — ■ 
Tnat hand created them. 

The great, the allproviding plan 
Meant not, that blood fhould fpiil;. 
Or needlejl death be fpread by man, 
At his capricious will. 


G. P.J. 


On the Marriage of Mira to Thiksis. 

YE lolemn pedagogues, who teach 
A language, by eight parts ot fpeecb* 

Can any of you all impart 
A rule to conjugate the heart ? 
Grammarians, did you ever try 
To conflrueand expound the eve: 
And from the fyntax of the lace 
Decline its gender and its rale ? 
What faid that, nuptid tear, that fell 
From fav'rite Mini, can yon fell ? 
.And yet it fpoke, upon her cheek, 
As eloquent as teai could (peak 

« Here before parfon H I 'buid, 

To plight my vow, and yield my ha. id, 
With fauk'rmg lips, while I procJaiAi 
The eellion of my virgin name ; 
Whilft, in my ears, it read at Inge 
The rubi-ick's fteni unfoftencd charge; 
Spare me. the filent pleader cries! 
Ah ! fpare me ! ye furro'uiiding eyes . 
Ufhcv'd amidfta blaze of light, 
Wliillt here I pafs in public light,. 
Ungrateful were I, to forbear 
The tribute to a father's care; 
For all he fuffer'd, all he taught, 
Is there not due fome tender thought f 
And may not one left tear be giv'n 
To a dear faint, that refts in Hcav'n ? 
And you! to whom I now betroth, 

In light ofHeav'n, toy oath, 

Who to nobility of birth, 

True honor joined, and na-ivc worth* — 


If my recording bofom draws 
Onefigh, mifconftrue not the caufe; 
Tiuft me. tho' weeping, I rejoice, 
And biufhing glory in my choice," 

Philadelphia, Feb. iCjth. 





4°7 4 











Cf)e Cftronicle* 



AT the anniversary meeting of the Revolution 
Society, held in London (at the London 
Tavern)on the 4th of November lalt (the right 
Hon Earl Stanhope in the chair) the following 
refolu ion w.s maved by the Rev. Dr. Price, and 
unanimoufly approved, viz. 

" The Society for commemorating the Revolu- 
tion in Great-Britain, difclaining national partiali- 
ties, and rtjoicingin tve.y triumph of liberty and 
juflice over arbitrary power, offer to the National 
-Aflemhly of France, their congratulations on the 
revolution in that country, and on the profped it 
gives to the twj firfl kingdoms in the world, of a 
common paiticipation in the blcfllngs of civil and re- 
ligious liberty; they cannothelpaddingtheirardei.t 
vi.lvs for a happy fettlement of fo important a 
revolution, and at the fame time expreffing the 
paiticular iatisfaition with which they re 6e& on 
the tendency of the glorious example given in 
France, to afltrt the unalienable reformation in 
the government of Europe, and to make the 
world free and ha fpy .'' 

On the fame occafion, it was alio una.nimr.ufiy 
refolved, " That the faid refolntion be figned bv 
the chairman, in the name of the meeting, and 
that it be tranfmitted by him to the Natioi ai Af- 
femblyof Fiance. '' 

Parit, Nov. 25. The addrefs of congratulation 
from the Revolntion Society was read and the 
sfll-mbly decreed, on the motion of the Duke de 
Lian-.ourt, that the PreGde.H (hould write a letter 
<pf thanks to Lord Stanhope, as Chairman of the 
Society; and that the addrefs and the letter 
ihould be printed. 


lift of the nanus of tho i « hofmt the greatefl quantity of 
fiber to the French mint. 

The King, in gold 
Ditto, in Silver, 
The Queen, c'i to, 
Monficur, ditto, 
The King's aunt, ditto, 
Madame, ditto, 

The Queen, afecondtime, ditto, 
Count Montmorin, ditto, 
Duchis, a Notary, ditto, 
Marfhal de Contadcs, ditto, 
Vandeinver, a banker, d.tto, 
Duke d,: Noaillts, ditto, 
Count de la Luzerne, ditto, 
Marquis de la Taluro, ditto, 
Prime de Beauveau, ditto, 
M. Neckar, ditto, 

* The value of a mark, in filver, is about nine 

Foreign Intelligtncf. 

Count d'Eftaing, ditto, Marks. 

Marquis de la Fayette, ditto, 

Count de St. Prieff, ditto, 

Mole, a Prefidtnt, ditto, 

Keeper of the Seals, ditto,, 

De Parfcoal, ditto, 

Marflial de Segur, 

C nmtefs de Maurepas, dkto, 

The facrifices of property in France for the ge- 
neral good have been great. The clergy have, be- 
fides money, made an offering at the uUar of their 
country, of a'l the fuperfluiiy of plate, amounting 
to 120,000,000 iivrrs. 


London. Nov. 17. Letters from France fay. that the 
fpirit of liberty has maniiefted itfelf in Spain ; and 
tha. . ie people finding that pains were taking to pre-*ij 
vent tbem from being mac!e acquainted with thfl 
caufes and effefti of the late revolution in France, afj 
cribed this meafure to the Inquifiaon, and n»| ■:& 
refolution enough to call for the heads of the IN* 


This, it is faid, happened in Catalonia. Six 
thoufand men were fent to extinguifh this fir ft fpark, 
of liberty ; but the meafures have had the contiary 
effed"), for 2000 of the foldiers declared for tut peo- 
pie, and the remaining 4000 relufedto act. 



• M.rt 










J 334 
























Baltimore, Feb. ;q. A letter from Bourdeaux, dated 

the 20th of Nov. at nine o'clock at night. R.eceiv-» 

ed by a veffel (bound to this port] arrived at Anna* 
polis, fays, " A veffel fails to-morrow morning fos 
your port, and gives me an opportunity of announc- 
ing a decided viftorv, gained by the patriots oi Bra*. 
bant, at the cxpence of 3000 men, over an army of 
8oco Imperialifts, under the command ot o^enera! 
Dalton. The battle was fought between Ghent and 

Bruges, in Auftrian Flanders 4000 regular troops 

betiv^ killed on the Ipot, the Commander in Chief, 
with the general and field officers, were made pri- 
foners of war. 

" This intelligence arrived fince dinner, by a cou» 
ner extraordinary — levcral letters have been received) 
to the fame purport, and it is farther confirmed by 
the Bulletin of Breda, which is in the neighbourhood. 
The regular poft from Paris will arrive 10-morrow i 
and, fhould any accident delay the departure of; 
the fliip till the evening, 1 fhall forward the parti-, 

" From a printed detail of previous hoflilities, it 
appcais, that after the affair at Turubout, Major-Ge- ' 
nera) Soiocder, with 2500 men, was rcintorced by i 
General dArbergh, with a detachment of 4000;! 
and as General Dalton had reached the Imperial camp, 
before this action, it is rcafonable to fuppole theirj 

numbers mutt have amounted to 8000 men The* 

force of the patriotic party could not have been lef*/ 
than 12000, of which 4 or 5000 are faid to be de- 
ferters trom the regular army of this country. 

" The patriotic General, M. Van Meerfen, has ef- 
fectually lecured the independence of his country, 
by this fignal and unexpected victory. The fuccefs of 
the Imperial arms in the Eaft, had already begun to 
operate on the minds of thcfirmeft patriots of Bra- 
bant. Without a hope of afiiftance from Pruttia — of 
refuge in Holland— or of mercy at home — difunioiv 
mult have inevitably refulted from a moment's re-.' 
ucction or delay ; but when a battle was unavoidablei 
defperation in the patriots lupplicd the place of diCi 
ciplinc (in which alone their enemies could be fuppof- 

cd to excel) and gave them fieedom and victory, 1 

when they only fought for life and fafety ! 


In the multiplicity of News from this country, 
and each account varying very materially, accord-. 

Foreign Intelligence. 


big to the place from whence it is written it is I fori does its duty, for it is a fortrefs of very cr 
difficult to know which deferves the greateft cre-j derable ftrength. The chief hopes of the Auf- 

trian party are depolited in the podeffion of that 
place. The popular force is become confiderably 
augmented by all the troops, which were lately 
in Dutch Brabant, having joined the main army. 

Antwerp (till holds out, though the pofleflion of 

it to the emperor is extremely precarious from the 

temper of the inhabitants being inclined towards 

the popular fide. They feem only to wait for a 

I happy opportunity to free themfelves from the 

j Imp> rial yoke. 

The overtures of the Emperor made through 
\ Count Trautmanfdorf, are treated with contempt 

dit. Oitend being the moll neutral place, and ! 
more free from the fpirit of party, becaufe the 
inhabicants are chiefly engaged on their private 
concerns, the accounts from thence feem to bring 
th" forell intelligence. It is certain, that all the 
pu lie papers printed in Flanders, are filled with 
the grofleft falfehoods and abfurdities ; private 
correspondence is therefore the only true fource 
of information, and we are happy to fay, our's 
Comes from one of th>r moft eminent houfesat Of- 
tend, in immed'ate communication with the prin- 
cipal towns in Bra »ant. We are determined that 

ws from any oi her than private channels fhall jj and indignation, becaufe they are merely the ef- 

find its way into this paper. What follows may 
be depended on : 

Bruflels is preparing for a mo(t vigorous refin- 
ance, and though the recal of Genera! D'Aiton 
was moft confidently reported, it turns out to be 
a manoeuvre, as be II ill hold., the command. He 

feci of fear, and want of other refource. The offer 
comes too late, and every day makes it more cer- 
tain, that his Imperial majelly has loft this fine 
country, at leaft tor the prefent. 

To make thefo overtures of peace come with 
the better force and effect, it is reported that the 

has entrenched the city as ftroflg as the time al- Prince de Ligne, who has ferved before Belgrade, 
lowed him for it will permit, and the fine park at and the Countde Cobenzel, are on their way from' 
the top of the town is converted into?, camp. On Vienna, with full powers to negociate with the 
the other hand, the Brabantine patriots are deter- | Brabantines. The clergy have almoft to a man 

joined the flandard of oppofition. 

jjujQificatory Memorial of the Brabantine Patriots. 
It is beneath the dignity of truth to defcend 
to a refutation of the atrocious and unprovoked 
calumnies, which the increments of defpotifm 
have circulated by Imperial command againft the 
peaceable and hitherto loyal inhabitants of the 

mined to befiege it, ?nd from their ardour and in the attack of Gr-ent, theconflict, when- 
ffrer the two armies meet, mult be dreadful. It 
js to be feared that Bruflels will be reduced to afoes, 
which ever party gains the day. Hitherto every 
thing has remained quiet there, excepting that 
every one is making the bed of his way out of it, 

with his property. The majority of the Engiilh I Beigic provinces 

there, have lodged their moft valuable effects 
Lord Torrington's Hotel, though we fear it will 
afford little protection in cafe the town is pillaged. 
The capture of Ghent has thrown a great damp 
on. the Imperialifts, and has confiderably weakened 
the -mperor's caufe. Perhaps there is no inftance 
in modern hiftory of fo dreadful a carnage as took 

The innumerable edicts with which they have 
been haralTed fince the death of the late Emprefs 
Queen, contain the beft anfwer that can be given 
to the various libels of a fanguinary and vindictive 
government ; and if the provident induftry of 
Prince Kaunitz, had not incefl'antly examined and 
prudently deftroyed, almolt as fall as his Royal 

place in thf attack of this city. The returns of I mailer writ, the prefs would have groaned under 

killed and wounded proved far grearer than were 
«t firft known, and moderate people reckon them 
at 5000 men, other accounts fay 12000. One hun- 
dred and twenty capital houfes were burnt to the 
ground, or otherwife deftroyed. Since the town 
has been in the pofllfiiou of the patriots, they 
have promifed to indemnify the inhabitants forall 
their lodes. How far their finances wiil hold good 
, to fulfil this promife, is another matter; hut at 
prefent they have abundance of money, and pay 
lor every thing punctually. They have offered 
rewards of 30 guilders for every prifoner taken, 
and three for every gun taken from the enemy. 
As foon as things were a little fettled, the inhabi- 
tants all took an oath of allegiance to their new 

The deputies of the dates of Flanders are afF.'m- 
hled at Ghent, and have declared themfelves inde- 
pendent. They have further taken in confidera- 
tion the mode of collecting duties, the fafety of 
tranfits, &c. The victory at that place has had 
the moft happy confequences, for the patriotic 
caufe ; and the bravery difplayed on that occafion 
has been a principal inftrument of its more recent 
foccefs. It has been as fudden as complete ; for 
the furrender of Bruges, Coutrai, Oitend, Nitu- 
port, Tournay, Ypres, Mons, and Namur, has 
followed rapidly, a conqueft almolt without paral- 
lel. The place was not taken without great daugh- 
ter on both fides. 

Flufhcd with foccefs, the patriotic army has de- 
tached 15,000 men towards Euxemburjh, though 
|ftth nc great probability of foccefs, if the garri- 

the pre dure of his pen ; and the country have 
been deluged with ordinances which common fenfe 
would blulh to avow, and refignation, herfeif, re- 
volt at. Had the Emperor confined his rage for 
legiilation to his hereditary dominions, where his 
obligations are rather implied than afcerlained, 
and where no pofitive contract appears to exill be- 
tween the fovereign and the fubject — the execu- 
tion of his mandates would not perhaps have been 
difputed — although all ranks of people complain 
of his defpotifm, and would cheerfully fhake off 
the yoke, if they happily poihfTjd the means : 
but his fituation on the Netherlands is different, 
his power is circumfcribed, the limits of his autho- 
rity are marked and clearly defined by legible and 
exiding laws, which he has folemnly fworn to pre- 
ferve inviolable, and which he cannot infringe 
without incurring the guilt of perjury, and forfeiting 
the allegiance ot the people. 

The hiflory of all nations proves that fol-jcfls are 
not cafily provoked to revolt, that their grievances 
mult be enormous whenever they appeal from the 
juftice of the Prince to the deciiion of the fwoid. 
All Europe is informed of the illegal feizure of un - 
offending citizens, by a forcible entry into their 
houfes at midnight, without any fpecial crime laid 
down to their charge or form of procefs ; and of 
their being clandeftinely tranfportcd to Vienna, lo 
periih in a dungeon, or on the banks of the Danube; 
all Europe has beheld with equal horror and in- 
dignation, the wanton mallacrc:. committed by the 
military in noonday, for a diabolical puipofe of 
exciting the people to revolt, that a pretext 


jpightbe had for havoc and devadation, and levy- 
ing war againd the dcfencelefs natives; yet thefe 
injuries enormous as they are, and aggravated a? 
they have been by the ferocious tyranny of a fub- 
altern defpot, whofe brutality in Hungary has 
been rewarded with the command of the army in 
the Low Countries, could not have compelled them 
to deviate from that patient and exemplary fub- 
miffion, which has ever didinguifhed them, and 
ftill lefs could they have forced them into a conteit 
of danger and difficulty, theifiue of which is un- 
certain — if their conltitution, the lad remaining 
fecurity they poflefTed for their lives, liberties and 
fortunes, had not been annihilated and themfelves 
reduced to the precarious dependence on the boun- 
ty of a man, whom kindnefs cannot win nor gra- 
titude bind; under thefe circumdances, no alter- 
native remains, but fubmiffion or refinance 

They have adopted the latter, in preference to an 
abject and ignominious fubmiffion of their dearefl 
rights, and in appealing to Heaven for the judice 
of their caufe, they trud they will dand acquitted by 
God and the world, for the mifchiefs which may 

The expedient of configning the towns and vil- 
lages to the flames, and dill more horrid cruelty 
of cxteiminating men who contend only for theii 
rights, may he terrible for the moment, and im- 
pofe on weak and timid minds; but the natural 
courage of a nation, roufed by repeated injuries, 
and animated by defpair, will rife fuperior to thefe 
lad efforts of vindictive tyranny, and render them 
as impotent and abortive, as they are wicked and 
unexampled. Far, however, from imitating a 
conduct fo contrary to the received maxims of 
jo (Hce and humanity, their enormities will only 
be retaliated on the immediate authors and advifers 
of them, fhould the chance of war throw them 
into the hands of a people, reduced by innume- 
rable oppreffions, to declare themfelves indepen- 
dent, and forever releafed from the Houfe ot 

••<>--<>-<3s>^><S>-o- ••••«►-. 



Bvjion, Jan. 21. It is with a great decree of plea- 
sure we announce to the public, the entire difcharge 
of the forcgn debt of this commonwealth — the 
treafurer having been enabled, during therecefsof 
the General Court, to pay the fame in fpecie. Om 
•f the demauds thus difcharged, we are told, 
amounted to more than 6o,coo dollar?. 

Salem, Jan. 26. A fubfci iption was lately open- 
ed in this town for a Duck Manufactory, and was 
immediately filled for 1500I. 


Cincinnati Proceedings. 

At a general meeting of the New-York State 
Society of the Cincinnati, held at the Holland 
J.odge-room, in thecity of New-Yoik, February 1. 
1790 : 

A petition having appeared in the public papers, 
as propofed to be frgned by a number of officer.' 
of the late army of the United States, and prr- 
fented to the National I.egiflature, praying that, 
in the fydem for funding the national debt, a dif- 
crimination maybe made in favour of the original 
holder? of public fecurities — The petition was reau, 
whereupon it was 

Refolved unanimoufly, That this Society dif 
claim the principle contained in the faid petition 
conceiving it inconfident with the character thc\ 

Domejlic Intelligence 

have uniformly maintained, to feek any advantage- 
to themfelves which might be incompatible with 
the principles of an honorable policy. 

Refolved unanimoufly, That the foregoing re- 
folnCion be publifhed in the feveral newfpapers in 
this city. 

Extract from the Minutes, 

JOHN STAGG, Jun.Sec'ry. 


Charleflon, Jan- 28. A more abundant crop of rice 
was never known in this ftate, than that of the pre- 
fent year. Indigo has not fucceeded quite fo well on 
account of an unufual froft, about the latter end of 
September lad, at the fame time, our riversabove the 
tide waters are fo low, for want of rain, that it is 
with the utmoft difficulty, the rice can be got down 
in fufficient quantities to fupply the European de- 
mand, which is this year very confiderable — Ma- 
chines for boating out the rice, and ploughs are com- 
ing very rapidly into fafhion, and from this circum- 
ftance alone we may predict that any future importa- 
tion of flaves will be rendered unneceffary, as the 
far greater part of the labour will be laved. 


Savannak, Jan. 28. A large fhip has lately appear- 
ed in our river from Bourdeaux, in France, for a fup- 
ply of mails and fpars of the firft dimenfions. She 
has now proceeded for St. Mary's river, where fhe 
is to take in her load. If this fpecies of export 
fhould fucceed, it will be no fmall advantage to this 
Hate, as our foieds may be almod called inexhaudi- 
ble, and abounding with the bed of pine for the pur- 
pofe. St. Mary's river has an excellent bay of 23 feet 
at high water, and in the river itfelf no lefs than 
18 feet for a great dillance up the country; the 
landing places are numerous, and timber of every 
kind may be rafted down with very little expence or 
inconveniency; the lands are in general excellent, the 
climate without difpute, the fined in the world ~ y 
the air being pure and healthy and will probably 
ever continue fo, unlefs the fwamps fhould hereafter 
be overflowed for the fake of watering the rice 
fields in the dimmer feafon. There cannot be a more 
eligible fkuation for the indudrious. 


Extracl of a letter from Benjamin Weft to Doder Franklin, 
dated London, 03.8. 1789. 


"The bearer of this letter is our ingenious coun- 
tryman, Mr. John Trumbull, who has redded in 
London to fludy painting; and I have the happinefs 
to acquaint you, and his countrymen in general, that 
through force of genius and indudry, he has already 
attained that excellence in painting, which places 
him in the firfl clafs of men of that profeffion now 
living. He vifns his native climate to perpetuate 
the faces ot fome of his didinguifhed countrymen, 
and I hope he will meet with their approbation, 
both as a gentleman and an artid, of equal worth 
and efleem." 

Premiums on the introduction of foreign- grain and 
flour into France, commencing the id of De- 
cember, 1789, and to be continued till the id o£ 

J ul y>i79°- 

On wheat, per cwl. 30 

On ditto flour, per ditto 40 

On rye, per ditto 24 

On ditto flour, per ditto 32 

On barley, p cr ditto 20 

On ditto flour, pet ditto 27 

The figures are in Jb/i ox Jons of this country. 
A letter from London", dated December 2, in- 
forms that the prohibition laid lad year on the im- 
portation of American wheat, from an apprehea- 

Domejiic Intelligence. I2 _ 

cording to the refolution which had had been en- 
tered into for that purpoie. But it has fo happened, 
from what cauic your memorialift will not undertake 
to explain, that no further ftcps have ever been taken 
m relation to it : and your has remained 
expoled to the lurmifcs, which the appearance of an 
intention to enquire into his conduct, had a tendency 
to excite, without having been afforded an opportunity 
of obviating them. That the unfettled condition of 

fion that the Heffian Fly or Weavel might be propa- 
gated from it in this country, has within a few days 
been taken off: it being now acknowledged that 
there were no grounds for fuch an opinion. They 
have been further induced to this meafure from the 
profpect of a fcarcity the enfuing fpring. 

The following letter and memorial of the Hon. 
Robert Morris, were read, on the 10th of the pre- 
fent month, in the Houfe of Reprelentatives of the w 

United States, and referred to Meifis Madifon, Sedg- certain accounts of a comme 
wick and Sherman; and were then ordered to be , United States and the late houfe of Will 
entered, at large, on the journals of the Houfe. j and Co. and your memonalit, prior to his°'appoint- 

SlR ' ,, . , , . ,' I ment asSuperintendant of the Finances, having been 

I take the liberty to trouble you with the enclofed confounded with his tranfactions in that capacity, your 

memorial, and mult pray you to lay it before the 
Houfe of Reprelentatives. The requett which is 
therein made, will be found fo confonant with juftice, 
that I cannot doubt of its being granted. Permit me 
through you, Sir, to make another, which is, that 
the laid memorial may be entered at large on the 
journals of the Houfe. 

I have the honor to be, 

with great refpett and efteem, 

Sir, your obedient humble fervant, 

New-York, Februarys, 1790. 
To the Honorable the Speaker 
of the Houfe of Reprefenta- 
" fives of the United States. 
To the President, the Senate, and the House 
of Representatives of the United States 

ity, yc 
memorialift has in various ways been fubjected to 
injurious imputations on his official conduit, the only 
fruits of fei vices, which at the time they were rendered 
he trulls, he may, without incurring the charge of 
preemption, affirm, were generally efteemed both: 
important and meritorious, and were at leaft ren- 

j dered with ardour and zeal, with unremitted atten- 

I tion, and unwearied application. 

That your memorialift defirous of refcuing his re- 

J putation from the afperfions thrown upon it, came in 
the month of October 1 788 to the city of New-York 
as well for the purpofe of urging the appointment of 
commillioners to iulpect his official tranfactions as 
for that of procuring an adjulfmcnt of the accounts 
which exifted previous to his adminiftration. But 
the firlt object was frullrated by the want of a fuffi- 
cient number of members to make a Congrefs; and 

of America. ! the lalt was unavoidably delayed by the preliminary 

The memorial of Robert Morris, late Superin- J inveftigationsrequilite on t\,z part of the commilTioner 

tendant of the Finances of the laid United States 
Humbly fhoweth, 

THAT on the 20th day of June, 1785, and fub- 
fequent to your memoria lift's refignation of his of- 
fice of Superintendant, the Congrefs palled a relo- 
cation in the words following, "Refolved, That three 
coinmiflioners be appointed to enquire into the re- 
ceipts and expenditures of pubiic monies, during 

j named by the late board ol treafury, towards a com- 
petent knowledge of the bufinefs. That in the month 
of February, 1789, your memorialift returned to 
New-York, for the fame purpofes, but the obftacles 
which he had before experienced, ftill operated ta 
put it out of his power to prefent the memorial which 
had been prepared by him in October, prayin^ for 
an appointment of commillioners. That he was 

the adminiftration of the late Supeiintendant of Fi- therefore obliged to confine himfelf to meafurcs for 
nance, and to examine and adjuft the accounts of the J the fettlement of his accounts refpectiug the tranfac- 
United States with that department, during his ad- i tions antecedent to his appointment asSuperintendant, 
miniftration, and to report a ltate thereof to Con- j whicli he entered upon accordingly with the commii- 

grefs ;" which refolution, to perfons unacquainted 
with the nature of the office, and the mode of con- 
ducting the bufinefs of the department, gave occafion 
to the fuppofition, that your memorialift had accounts 
both difficult and important to fettle with the United 
States : in iefpeit to his official tranfactions. That 
though your memorialift forefaw the difagreeable con- 
fequences which might refult to himfelf from the 
diffufion of fuch an opinion, he notwitftanding not 
only torebore any reprefentation on the fubject, but 
fcrupuloufly avoided every fpecies of interference di- 
rect or indirect, left it ihould be imagined, either 
that he was actuated by the defire of obtaining from 
Congrefs thofe marks of approbation, which had in 
repeated inltances been beftowed on the fervants of 
the public, or that he feared to meet the propofed 
inveftigation. Refpcct for the fovereign of the Uni. j 
ted States, concurring with motives of delicacy, 
to forbid even the appearance of afking, what, if 
merited, it was to be prefumed would be conferred, 
{as being the proper reward of fervices, not of loli- 
citation) and a firm confidence in the rectitude of 
his conduct, leaving your memorialift no inducement 
to evade any enquiry into it, which it might bethought 
fit to inftituie. 

That your memorialift taking it for granted, that 
the reafons which had produced a determination to 
^ftablifh a mode of enquiry into the tranfactions of 
the moll important office under the government, 
would have infilled a profecution of the object till 
it had been carried into effect, longrcmained infilenl 
expectation tf the appointment of commiffioners, ac- 

fioner appointed by the board of treafury; and in 
which, as much progrefs as time and circumftances 
would permit was made until the fourth of March 
lalt, when that commiflioner, conceiving his authori- 
ty, by the organization of the new government to 
have ceafed, declined further proceedings, and of 
courfe, your memorialift was obliged to wait the efta- 
blifhment of the new tfcafury department for the 
further profecution of that fettlement, which has 
been accordingly refumed, and he hopes will fpeedily 
be accomphfhed. But in as much, as no mode of 
enquiry into his official conduct has hitherto been 
put into operation, and as doubts of its propriety 
have been railed by an act of the government, your 
memorialift conceives hirulelt to have a claim upon 
the public juftice, tor fume method of vindicating 
himfelf which will be unequivocal and definitive. 
Wherefore and encouraged by a conlcioufncfs of the 
integrity of his administration, your memorialift is 
defirous that a Uriel examination mould be had into 
his conduct while in office, in order that it he has 
been guilty of mal-adminiflration, it may be detected 
and punifhed; if otherwife, that his innocence may 
be manifefted and acknowledged. Unwilling from 
this motive, that longer delay fhould attend the ob- 
ject: of the refolution which had been recited, your 
memorialift humbly prays, than an appointment of 
commillioners may take place, to carry the faid refo- 
lution into effect. And your memorialift as in duly 
bound, will pray, &c. 

New- York, February 8, 1790. 


The following letter is publifhed by order of the Philadel- 
phia Society for promoting Agriculture, as an encourage- 
ment to American farmers and manufadurers. 

Samuel Powel Griffitts, Sec'ry. 

Philadelphia, Feb. n, 1790. 

Promotions — Marriages — Deaths. 

Jofhua Skinner, jun. to be Surveyor, at HertforcL 
Hardy MurfreejHEfq. to be Surveyor, at Murfreef- 
boro. Levi Blount Efq. to be Surveyor, at Plymouth, 
Henry Hunter, Efq. to be Surveyor, at Shewarkoy. 
William Wynns, Efq. to be Surveyor, at Wynton; 
John Baker, Efq. to be Suiveyor, at Bennet's-Creek. 

The Philadelphia Society for promoting Agricul- 
ture, duly received your fourteen chedes weighing 
5 zo pounds, together with your claim to the pre- 
mium offered bv them " for the greatcft quantity not 
lets than 500 pounds weight of cheele made on one 
farm in any of thefe dates, equal in drynels, nch- 
nefs and flavour to the Chefhire cheefe ulually Lm- 
ported from England, and which fhould be produced 
to the Society by the firft day of January, 1793." 
And purfuantto a vote of the Society, at a numerous 
meeting on the g'.h inftant, I now, with much plea- 
fure, inform you, that after a careful trial of the qua- 
lity of the cheele, they vnammou fly adjudged the premium 
to you.— The GOLDEN MEDAL will be accord- 
ingly prepared and tranfmitted to you as fpeedily as 
poffible. In the mean time, they have ordered their 
trealurer to pay to your agent 27I. 10s. for the cheele, 
being at the rate of is. perpound, with the addition 
of 10 per cent, agreeably to the terms of the ottered 
premium. Chefhire cheele equal to yours would 
now fell at 1 2d, though the wholelale price of that 
lad imported into this city was only iod. but the So- 
ciety, highly gratified with fo excellent a fpecimcn 
of American cheefe, readily agreed to the above 
price, which was reported as the prefent value of 
Englifh cheefe of the Chefhire quality by a commit- 
tee appointed for the purpofe. It was no fmall ad- 
dition to their pleafure to receive fatisfadory proofs 
that you made from five to fix thousand weight of 
fuch cheefe annually. 

I have further to inform you, that the Society have 
di-eded one of your cheefes to be fent to the PRE- 
themfelves, that while it will give him very great fa- 
I tisfa&ion to find the art of cheefe-makmg in thefe 
' flates has arrived at fuch perfe&ion, it will extend 
the reputation of your cheefe, and eventually pro- 
mote your intereft.— And fince the practicability of 
producing fuch excellent cheefe in large quantities, 
has been thus afcertained, the Society hope that many 
of our farmers will follow your example, and by 
their encrcaicd exertions, foon furnilh a full fupply 
tor the confumption of the United States. 
I am, Sir, 

on behalf and by the direction of the 
Society, your moft obedient, 
humble fcrvant, 

SAMUEL POWEL, Prefident. 
Joseph Matiiewson, Efq; 
of Coventry, Kent County, 


I faac Gregory, Efq. to be Collector, at Plank-Bridge 
on Sawyer's Creek. Hugh Knox, Efq. to be Sur- 
veyor, at NixonLou. Thomas Williams, Efq to be 
Surveyor, at Indian-Town. Edmund Sawyer, Efq. 
to be Surv,evor, at Pafquotank-River Bridge. Elias 
Albertfon, Efq to be Surveyor, ar Newbiggin-Creek. 

Chriftopher Hillary, Efq . to be Collector of Brunfwick, 

m Georgia Richard Taylor, Efq. to be Collector 

of Louifville, Kcntuckey. Comfort Sage, Efq. to 
be Surveyor of the p,rt of Middleton, county. 

John Tucker, Efq. to be Clerk of the Snpreme 
Court of the U. S. appointed by the Court. 


nevv-york. In the Capital. — Mr. Samuel Deremer, 
to Mifs Heifer Anthony. 

Pennsylvania. In Philadelphia Dr. Hugh 

Hodge, to Mifs Maria Bouchard. In Lancafiet 
County — Mr. James Simpfm, to Mifs Clmgan. 

Maryland. In Ha fur d -County — Nathaniel Ram* 
fay, Efq. Ma.lhal of the diftrift, to Mi's Cirarlotte 
Hall. In Baltimore — Mr. James Dall, to Mifs 
Charlotte Lane. 

Virginia. In Berke/y-CouKty — Mr. James Ham- 
mond, to Mifs Polly Rankin. In Altxandtia — Mr. 
Daniel M Pherlon, to Mils Polly Benfon. In Orange* 

O.unty. Mr. Benjaman Twent; man, aged 70, to 

Mrs. Betty Nutty, aged 50. 


Samuel Shaw, Efq. to be Conful of the U. S. of 
America at Canton in China. 

The Hon. James Iredell, Efq. to be one of the af- 
fociate judges of the Supreme Couit of the U.S. 
Vice the Hon. RohertH.Hanifon, Efq. who declined. 

William Neilfon, jun. Efq. to be attorney for the 
diffrift of Virginia; vice John Marfhal, Efq. who 
declined acceptance. 


James Reid, Efq. to be collector, at Wilmington. 
John Walker, Efq. to be Naval-Officer at Wilming- 
ton. Thomas Calender, Efq. to be Surveyor at Wil- 
mington. John Daves, Efq. to be Collector, at New- 
bcrn. John Eafton, Efq, to be Surveyor at Beaufort. 
Nathan Keais, Efq. to be Colleflor, at Wafhington. 



new-york. In the Capital — Mrs. Barbara Reid. 
new-jersey. At New- Br urf wick, Col. Azariah 

Pennsylvania. In Philadelphia The Rev. 

George Duffield, D. D. Miniflerof the Third Pref- 
byterian Church, in this city ; Mrs. Mary Swift,' 
Confort of Charles Swift, Efq. Henry Hale Graham, 
Efq. of Chefter, in the 59th year of his age ; Mrs. 
Catharine Lux, confort of Mr. George Lux, of Chatf- 
worth, near Baltimore; Capt. Alexander M'Clinto. 
At Warminjler, Bucks-County Mr. Jonathan Wal- 
ton, in the 73d year of his age. At Ma pie, Delaware 
County — Dr. 'Bernard Vanlear, in the 104th year of 

his age. At Haverford, Delaware -County Mrs. 

Elizabeth Humphreys, in the 87th year of her age. 

At Middlefex, near Carlijle James R. Ried, Efq. 

late a Major in the armies of the U. S. in the 39th year 
of his age. 

Delaware. In Wilmington, — Mr. Thomas Crow. 
Maryland. In Balt'more — Dr. John Boyd ; Mr. 
John Morgan Bowen ; Mr. Horatio Hollinglworth. 
At the feat of Mr. Edwaid Dorfcy, on Elk-RnJge— 
Mrs. Elizabeth Van Bibber, in the 24th year of her 
age ; confort of Mr. James Van Bibber, of Baltimore, 

Virginia In Richmond Mr. Arthur Stewart ; 

Mrs. Lucy Latill; Mr. Hugh Patton, merchant. In 

Norfolk Mr. Patrick M-acauly. In Ptterfburg 1 

Mr. Walter Buchannan. 

south-carol in a. In Charleflon, Mrs. Hannah 
Moultrie, contort of Gen. Moultrie. 

Georgia. At Savannah Baron QJaubeck, late 

n officer in the armies of the U, S* 





Columbian Magazine, 

For M A R. C H, 1790. 



An account of Benjamin Lay, 133 

Defcription of a newly-invented cham- 
ber-lamp, 136 
Character of General Lee, 137 
Account of Dr. Abraham Chovet, 138 
Magnanimity of the ladies of Charles- 
ton, in the late war, 139 
Modern fpellinghumouroufly expofed,l40 
Anecdote of Columbus, ibid. 
Account of the Capra Ibex and Capra 

Defcription of a good orator, 

On matrimony, 

On Oman's poems, 

Effay on muiick, 

Reflections on national vanity, 



.t 7 3 

Rupicapra of Linnaeus, 141 

On the phenomenon of dew, I43 

The Retailer, No. XVI. I46 

Addrefs to the fociety of Friends; I49 

Mifcellaneous reflections, 151 

Philofophical maxims, 15* 

On the influence of the female fex, 153 

On the neck-attire of the ladies, 154 

On the ftudy of hiftory, 155 

Importance of premiums, 156 

On comets, 157 

influence of utility in producing beau- 
ty, 161 

Premiums for promoting agriculture, 163 

Of quick-lime, &c. as manure, 167 

Letters to, and from, the King of Swe- 
den, 169 

Addrefs to the citizens of New-Jerfey,l7l 

New theory of rain, with an ingeni- 
ous method of preventing its ill ef- 
fects, 174 

To which are prefixed the Philadelphia prices current, of merchandize and pubhek 
fecurities ; and the courfe of Exchange, 

Columbian Parnassiad. 
Original tranflation of Oman's addrefs 

to the fun, }%5 

On Indolence, ibid* 

The epicure, *&6 

Advice to the fair fex, ibid. 

The parting, ihid. 

In praife of mirth, 187 

To Fortune, ibid - 

Anfwer to an enigmatical lift of pa- 
triots in the December Magazine, 188 
Ode to Spring, ibid. 

Cupid flung,- ibid - 

Nancy wilt thou gang wi' me {fet to 

niuftck) 189 

Song, *9* 

Ode to a lady on drefs, ibid, 

The Chronicle. 
Foreign intelligence, 
Domeftic intelligence, 
Marriages and deaths, 
Meteorological tables, 




Printed, for the Proprietors, h WILLIAM YOUNG, 
Bookseller, the corner of Sig<pnd mi ChesNUi-strssts, 

riiiiADELrKiA riuers current, March ji, 179O 


. \ Bar, pe, 



y/,r-r, pot, p. ton, 37/.IO/. 40/. 

Brandy, French, 5 S -Sf(> 

Bread, pip, per eivt. %$s. 

C American f in bottles, per 

~ -^ dozen 8/. 4</. 

*i L Ditto, per bH. 30s. 

C Oak, p. m.feet, 67/6-S5J. 
) Merchant, pint 60.7.-65/ 
! S , 4°'-4?/6 

{.Cedar, 5S S -~^S S 

C'j'ictlute, per lb. 1/ 

C Superfine; p. M. 55s 

• 1 Common, 5 2 /6 

^ < /?*/- mm/. ^7, 45^-47/6 

*< # Middlings 40/ 

L.ShipJ!iif,p. czvt. 18-30/ 

/•/: v, £«■#. 7^-8^. 

Flu. ••feed, per tujb. 4/4 

Ginfeng, per lb. Is 

Gin, Holland t per gal. 4/9 
(Wheat, p. bujb. I 1/ 

I Ry*y S-> 

-. J GW.f, 31": 

Indian corn, 5-f.-5/"6 

ier ton. 

2 2/6- 3 O/. 


Jl. 15/.-8/. 




Barley, 4/2-4/6 

beflfhelled, 20s. 

Nail rods, 
Meal, Indian, p. III. 2 2-X 6. 
Molajes , per gal. XflO-2. 

Nails, IO, 12 fcf 20.Z 8|< 
Fai :'mcnt, per dox. 37/6-50 
Porter, American, 9-IO/. 

Burlingtcn, 65/ 

river Co. 57/6-60.1 
Rice, per eivt* 

C Jamaica per g. 
j Wind-ward, 
J Antigua, 
I Barbudocs, 
1 Country, 

i German, p. civ} 
*£ j Englijh, blifered, 
£3 j Amer.p. ton, 40-60 
\_Croivley's,p.fag. 85 

CAlh<m,p.buJb. tfl-yb 

*£>\ Liverpool, Is.-()d. 

w 1 C^'z, 1/6- 1/8 

(.Lift/on, 2s. 


iV. ?«•■ 24^. 7/6-9'- 

'arolina, 32£-I0/6-I2/"6- 
Turpentine, 1 7/6 

Jlahrs, per lb. 

id h*nps,p.nt. 
Jiide: raio, per lb. 
.Indigo, Fr. per lb. 


S ld-6d. 

9 £-10/. 

4 j- 6/6 

&. -2/6 

4/1 0-5 J- 






Snale root, p. lb. 
Soap, common, 


CLump, per lb. 

j LoaJ\fng. reftn. 

I Ditto, double ditto. 

1 Flr.var.nah, luhite, 

I Ditto, broitin, 

CJ.R.neiv,beJ}, $$-$%/& 

Inferior, 28-35/. 

O/i/, 45-50J. 

Rappahan. 2 ""' 

j Coloured Maryl. 40 

; ZW>6, 25-28/. 

Zowir /<?<?/, 25-28/. 

Eajlern Shore, 1 8-25/. 

Carolina, new, 25-27/. 

«/</, »« 

J Souchong, 
j Congo, 





9 d. 





\_Mafco.p. act. 60-65/, W ax , bees, per lb. 

r Mad.p.p. 40-82/. rc/. 
Z^o«, 37/. IO/. 

Tcnerife, 22-24/. 

Fayal,p.g. 3/4- 3/6 

Port, per pipe, 39-40/. 
Ditto, per gal. 5/IO 

Z>/'tf 0, />«- a'oz . &>/. 30/. 
C/arrf, 3°-45J- 

Sherry , p. gal. 6/9-7/6- 



Current Prices of Public Securities, March 31, 1790. 

<**. 7-— 7/6 

reflation, os. — 7/6 

Unfunded ditto, 9^. — ic/. 

/ M.'d-ojce certifitaies for rvarranting 8/4 
fMfar ABWjry, 10 aMance on the face. 

Jerfy money, dif count, 25 — 30 

Pennfylitania Ne-zv Emijfior., advance, II2/IO 
Shilling money of2l, for one, ii 

Continental certificate/, 7 — 7/6 

Facilities, 5/6 — 6 

Course c/ Exchancz. 

London, 90 (/jvfj 42-§-45/. 
■/-VV.'o, 60 rt'./j/, 45-50/. 

"j" 9 * 30 tf'.ijr, 5c.'. 

Amflcrdam, 60 aty/, /^r guilder, 

30 flky/, 
France, 60 ^ijj, ^ r j livres, 

7 /i 


AR E refpe&fully informed, that the Columbian Maga- 
zine has been lately transferred to new proprietors i 
between whom and the gentlemen, who lometime ago pub- 
lifhed propofals for the Philadelphia Magazine and Univer- 
Jal AJylnm % an agreement, to unite the tv/o, has taken 
place. The joint-proprietors, have, therefore, refolved to 
continue the Columbian Magazine, on an enlarged and 
improved plan, under the title of 







L To promote the bcfl biterefts of 
fociety, and to afford rational 
entertainment, to readers of a 
judicious and cultivated tafte, 
fhall be the invariable objects 
of this Mifcellany. 

II. It fhall contain a great variety 
of interefting original commu- 
nications. Many valuable frag- 
ments, and fugitive pieces, 
which might otherwife fink in- 
to oblivion, fhall alfo be pre- 
ferved in this Afylum. It fhall, 
moreover, contain a faithful 
regilter of foreign and domef- 
tic occurrences, meteorological 
tables, bills of mortality, ire. 

III. This work fhall be publifhed, 
for the proprietors, by Willi avi 
Young, at the coiner of Chef- 
nut and Second-ftreets, Phila- 
delphia, in monthly numbers, 
each containing 64 pages, in- 
cluding an engraving, and a 
piece of mufiek. Should either 
the engraving or mufick be o- 
mitted, 8 additional pages fhall 

be given in lieu thereof; and 
ihould both be left out, at any 
time, the Afylum, for that 
month, fhall contain 80 pages. 

IV. It fhall be printed on fine paper 
and a good type. The iize 
fhall be the fame as that of the 
European magazines, corref- 
ponding with the former vo- 
lumes of the Columbian Maga- 
zine. The prefent proprietors 
fhall obviate any inconvenience 
that may arife, to the fubferi- 
bers, from the largenefs of the 
pages in the January and Fe- 
bruary magazines. 

V. It fhall be publifhed in the firft 
week in every month, with u- 
niform punctuality. 

VI. The fubfeription fhall be the 
fame as heretofore, viz. two 
dollars and two thirds, annu- 
ally ; to be paid in two equal 
payments, either in advance, 
or at fuch time, in every half 
year, as may be raoft fuitabie 
to the fubferibers. 

Gentlemen are requcfled to inform the publifher, if, at any time 
regularly ferved, that the neglecl may be remedied. 
Philadelphia, 31// March, 1790. 

thfv arc not 



Citizen of the State of New-Tork, is entitled to our thanks, for 
the friendly hints contained in his candid criticifms. Some of them 
we fliall adopt. His future correfpondence is requested. 

The juvenile eflay in favour of duelling, and alfo the reply to it, (hall 
appear in our next. The fubjecl, though a trite one> is difcuffed in an 
ingenious manner. 

Peter Quiz is witty ; but his wit might be better employed. We 
fliall always endeavour to keep clear of even the moft diftant perfonal al- 
lufions. If a vice, or foible, be general, it is cruel to attack it in one per- 
fon only : if it be peculiar to one, then we conceive it is too trifling to be 
brought before the publick. 

A Ij's jiriflures on female drefs are dull and infipid to a proverb. 
Why are the fair lex the fatirift's only game? Are there rtot equal extra- 
vagance and abfurdity difplayed in the drefs of the other fex ? 

To Brutus it may fuffice to obferve, that the Al'ylum is not a recepta- 
cle for political controversies. 

The tranllation of Oflian's addre/s to the Sun is inferted in our prefent 
number. The battle of Cuchullin, tranllated by the fame gentleman, is 
referved for our next. 

Matilda's elegy is replete with all that tender fenfibility, and delicacy 
of fentimtnt, which charadterife the more amiable part of her Tex. If 
permitted to correal a few inaccuracies in the compojition, we {hall cheer- 
fully infert it in the Afylum for April. — Should the ladies condeicend to 
favour us with their literary correfpondence, we mail ever treat their 
communications with the utmoft refpect. To improve and refine publick 
manners and tafte, to affert the equal dignity of the female mind, and to 
refcue it from the illiberal and degrading imputation of inferiority, are 
certainly objedts which ought to induce the accomplimcd fair one to take 
rip her pen. Let not diffidence make her Ihrink from the laudable under- 
taking. — She need not be known either to the publick or to us. 

To Strephon we recommend a perufal of the eighth commandment. 

Ed-win s verfes, addrefled to Mil's K — are incomprehenjllley at leall to 

Utility being our firft objeel, every communication refpecfing the 
agriculture, the manufactures, and commerce, of the United States fhall 
meet with a grateful reception. 

£V An accurate vhio of Clartcflon, from any correfpondent in that city, will particu- 
larly oblige the proprietors of this work. 

' g»eg ~- — griB^Hj^fa 





Columbian Magazine, 

For MARCH, 1790. 

For the Universal Asylum, and Columbian Magazine. 
An account of BENJAMIN LAY. 

TfiERE was a time when the 
name of this celebrated Chris- 
tian Philofopher, was familiar to 
every man, woman, and to nearly 
every child, in Pennfylvania — His 
fize, which was not much above 
four feet, his drefs, which was al- 
ways the fame, confiding of light- 
coloured plain clothes, a white hat, 
and half-boots ; — his milk white 
beard, which hung upon his breaft ; 
and, above all, his peculiar princi- 
ples and conduct, rendered him to 
many, an objecl of admiration, and 
to all, the fubject of converfation. — 

He was born in England, and 
fpent the early part of his life at 
fea. His firft fettlement was in 
Barbadoes, as a merchant, where 
he was foon convinced of the ini- 
quity of the flave trade. He bore 
an open teftimony againft it, in all 
companies, by which means he ren- 
dered himfelf fo unpopular, that he 
left the ifland in difgult, and fettled 
in the then province of Pennfylva- 
nia. He fixed his home at Abing- 
ton, ten miles from Philadelphia, 

Uni. Asyl. Vol. IV. No. 3. 

from whence he made frequent ex- 
cursions to the city, and to different 
parts of the country. — 

At the time of his arrival in 
Pennfylvania, he found many of 
his brethren, the people called 
Quakers, had fallen fo far from their 
original principles, as to keep ne- 
gro Haves. He remonftrated with 
them, both publickly and privately, 
againft the practice ; but, frequent- 
ly with fo much indifcreet zeal, as 
to give great offence. He often 
difturbed their public meetings, by 
Interrupting or oppofing their 
preachers, for which he was once 
carried out of a meeting-houfe, by 
two or three friends.— Upon this 
occafion he Submitted with patience 
to what he confidered a fpecies of 
perfecution. — He lay down at the 
door of the meeting-houfe, in a 
fhower of rain, till divine worfhip 
was ended j nor could he be pre- 
vailed upon to rile, till the whole 
congregation had ftepped over him 
in then- way to their refpective 


f4* An account of 

To fhew his indignation againfl: 
the practice of flave-keeping, he 
once carried a bladder filled with 
blood into a meeting ; and, in the 
prefence of the whole congregation, 
thruft a fword, v/hich he had con- 
cealed under his coat, into the blad- 
der, exclaiming,, at the fame time, 
" Thus mall God fhed the blood of 
thofe peri'ons who enflave their fel- 
low creatures." The terror of this 
extravagant and unexpected act 
produced fwoonings, in ieveral of 
tiie women of the congregation. — 

He once went into the houfe of 
a friend, in Philadelphia, and found 
him feated at break-foil, with his 
family around him. Being afked 
by him to fit down and breakfafl 
with them, he faid, "Doit thou 
keep naves in thy houfe I" Upon 
being anfwered in the affirmative, 
he faid, " Then I will not partake 
■with thee, of the fruits of thy un- 

He took great paim to convince 
a farmer and his wife, in Chefler 
county, of the iniquity of keeping 
negro ftaves, but to no purpofe. 
They not only kept their Haves, 
but defended the practice. One 
clay he went into their houfe, and 
after a faort difeourfe with them, 
iipon the wicketlnefs, and particular- 
ly the inhumanity, of feparating 
children from their parents, which 
was involved in the (lave trade, 
he feized the only child of the fami- 
ly, (a little girl about three years 
old) and pretended to run away 
with her. — The child cried bitterly, 
" I will be good,-! will be good^" 
and the parents (hewed iigns of be- 
ing alarmed. Upon obferving this 
fcene, Mr. Lay faid, very empha- 
tically, — " You/c-i*, andyi^/now a 
little of the diftrefs you occalion eve- 
jry day, by the inhuman practice of 

This venerable philofopher did 
itot limit his pious teitimony againlt 

Benjamin Lay. 

vice to flave-keeping albne. He 
was oppofed to every fpecies of ex- 
travagance. Upon the introduction 
of tea, as an article of diet, into 
Pennfylvania, his wife bought a 
fmall quantity of it, with a fett of 
cups and faucers, and brought them 
home with her. Mr. Lay took 
them from her, brought them back 
again to the city, and from the bal- 
cony of the court-hopfe fcattered 
the tea, and broke the cups and 
faucers, in the prefence of many 
hundred fpectators, delivering, at 
the fame time, a ftriking lecture up- 
on the folly of preferring that un- 
wholefome herb, with itsexpenfive 
appurtenances, ro the fimple and 
wholefome diet of our country. 

He pofTefTed a good deal of wit, 
and was quick at repartee. A citi- 
zen of Philadelphia, who knew his 
peculiarities, once met him in a 
croud, at a funeral, in Germantown. 
Being defirous of entering into a 
converfation with him that fhould 
divert the company, the citizen ac- 
cofted him, with the moft refpect- 
ful ceremony, and declared himfelf 
to be " his moft humble fervant." 
" Art thou my fervant," faid Mr. 
Lay, — " Yes — I am" faid the citi- 
zen. " Then, laid Mr. Lay, (hold- 
ing up his foot towards him,) clean 
this flioe". — This unexpected reply 
turned the laugh upon the citizen. 
Being defirous of recovering himfelf 
in the opinion of the company, he 
.".fked him to inftruethim in the way 
to heaven. " Doft thou indeed wifh 
to be taught," laid Mr. Lay. " I 
do," faid the citizen. " Then, faid 
Mr. Lay, Dojuftice — love mercy, 
and walk humbly with thy God." 

He wrote a fmali treatife upon 
negro-flavery, which he brought 
to Dr. Franklin to be printed. Up- 
on looking over it, the Doctor told 
him that it was not paged, and that 
there appeared to be no order or 
arrangement in it. " it is n© BiM* 

An account of 

ler faid Mr. Lay — print any part 
thou pleafeit firft." — This book 
contained many pious fentiments, 
and ftrong expreffions againft ne- 
gro-llavery; but even the addrefs 
and fkill of Dr. Franklin were not 
Sufficient to connect its different 
parts together, fo as to render it 
an agreeable or ufeful work. This 
book is in the library of the city of 

Mr. Lay was extremely atten- 
tive to young people. He took 
great plealure in vifiting fchools, 
where he often preached to the 
youth. He frequently carried a 
balket of religious books with him, 
and diftributed them as prizes, a- 
mong the fcholars. 

He was fond of reading. In the 
j.Tint of him, which is to be feen in 
many houfes in Philadelphia, he is 
reprefented with " Try on on hap- 
pinefs" in his hand, a book which 
he valued very much, and which he 
frequently carried with him, in his 
excurfions from home. 

He was kind and charitable to 
the poor, but had no compaffion 
* for beggars. He ufed to" fay, "there 
was no man, or woman, who was 
able to go abroad to beg, that was 
not able to earn four pence a day, 
and this fum, he laid, was enough 
to keep any perfon above want, or 
dependence, in this country." 

He was a fevere enemy to idle- 
rsefs, infomuch that when he could 
not employ himfelf out of doors, or 
when he was tired of reading, he 
ufed to fpend his time in fpinning. 
His common fitting room was hung 
with fkains of thread, fpun entirely 
by himfelf. All his clothes were of 
his own manufactory. 

He was extremely temperate, in 
his diet, living chiefly upon vegeta- 
bles — Turnips boiled, and after- 
wards roafted, were his favourite 
-dinner. His drink was pure water. 
From a delire of imitating our Sa- 

Benjamin Lay. is*- 

viour, in every thing, he once at- 
tempted to fait for forty days. This 
.experiment, it is faid, had nearly 
colt him his life. He was obliged 
to defiii from it long before the for- 
ty days were expired ; but the fall- 
ing, it was faid, fo much debilitated 
his body, as to accelerate his death. 
He lived above eighty years, and 
died in his own houie, in Abington, 
about thirty years ago. 

In reviewing the hiftory of this 
extraordinary man, we cannot help 
abfolving him of his weaknefles, 
when we contemplate his many ac- 
tive virtues. He was the pioneer 
of that war, which has lince beeu 
carried on, fo fuccefsfully, againft 
the commerce and flavery of the 
negroes — Perhaps the turbulence 
and feverity of his temper were ne- 
ceiTary to roufe the torpor of the 
human mind, at the period in which 
he lived, to this interesting lubject. 
The meeknefs and gentlenels of 
Anthony Jlenezer, who completed 
what Mr. Lay began, would pro- 
bably have been as infufEcient for 
the work performed by Mr. Lay, 
as the humble piety of De Renry, 
or of Thomas A Kempis, would 
have been to have accompiifhed the 
v/orks of the zealous Luther, or the 
intrepid Knox in the hxteenth cen? 

The fupcefs of Mr. Lay, in fow- 
ing the feeds of a principle which 
bids fair to produce a revolution in 
morals, — commerce, — and govern- 
ment, in the new, and in the old 
world, fhould teach the benefactors 
of mankind not to deipair, if they 
do not fee the fruits of their be- 
nevolent proportions, or undertak- 
ings, during their lives. — No one 
leed of truth or virtue ever perilh-. 
ed. — Wherever it may be lowed, 
or even fcattered, it will prei'crve 
and carry with it the principle of 
life. — Some of theie feeds produce 
their fruits in a fhort time, but the 

3 ^6 Defcription of a Chamber- Lamp. 

moft valuable of them, like the ven- vegetable productions, in being in- 

erable oak,-are centuries in grow- capable of decay. They exift and 

but they are unlike the pride bloom for ever. 


oAhe forefls, as well as all other 

To the Editor of the Universal Asylum, and Columbian 


S I R, 

Jf you think the following defcription of a Chamber-Lamp worthy of 
communication you will be flea fed to give it a place in your Magazine. 

HAVING tried various lamps convenience, certainty, and econo- 

in common ufe withont the my, feems to be preferable to any 

fatistaction I wilhed, I contrived. I have feen. 
one, about a year ago, which, for 



A B is a round Box (feen in pro- 
file) made of the thinnefl tin, 2 1-2 
inches in diameter, and 1-2 an inch 
deep at A and B. CDisa pipe 
through which the wick pafles, and 
E E are two fmall air pipes, about 
the fize of a knitting needle, com- 
municating with the cavity of the 
box. This box mud be every 
where carefully foldered, fo as to be 
ever tight, it will then fwim in oil 
and become a floating lamp. The 
fmall pipes E E are doled at top 
with a drop of folder, and are eve- 
ry wherfe tight, except that two ve- 
ry fmall holes are punched at the 
places defignated by the dotted lines 
from r\ Without this provihon the 
air in the box A B will be fo dilated 
by the heat of the flame, when the 
lamp is lighted, as to force a paf- 

fage through the foldering, through 
which the oil will enter the box, 
and the whole will fink. — Theie 
pipes ferve alfo as handles to take 
out the float when occalion mall re- 

The veflel in which the oil is to 
be put, is a common tin cup, 3 inch- 
es in diameter, and 2 inches deep, 
furnilhed with a lid or cover move- 
able on a hinge. The box A B 
with its wick being placed in this 
cup, will float in the furface of the 
oil, and the lamp be complete. 

In the morning when the lamp is 
of no further ufe, the lid is flmt 
down, which will immediately ex- 
tinguifh the flame, and keep the oi! 
and float free from dull during the 

A Tingle itrand of common cot- 

Character of 

ton wick will be fufficient, and {hould 
always ftand loofe and free in the 
pipe. If the oil be good and clear, 
the lamp will never fail. The cup 
half filled with oil will be fufficient 
for the longeft winter night. 

When the lamp is to be fupplied, 
the oil may be poured over the 

General Lee. 


float, which will rife with the oil : 
only taking care not to pour the oil 
directly on the little pipes E E, left 
any of the liquor mould get through 
the fmall holes at F, into the air box, 
and caufe it to fink, which is the 
only accident to which this lamp is 
liable.* F. H. 


THE character of this perfon is 
full of abfurdities and quali- 
ties of a mod extraordinary nature. 
His underftanding was great, his 
memory capacious, and his fancy 
brilliant. His mind was ftored with 
a variety of knowledge, which he 
collected from books, converlation 
and travels. He had been in moft 
European countries. He was a cor- 
rect and elegant claflical fcholar ; 
and both wrote and fpoke his na- 
tive language, with perfpicuity, 
force, and beauty. From thefe cir- 
cumftances he was, at times, a moft 
agreeable and inftructive compani- 
on. His temper was naturally four 
and fevere. He was feldom ieen 
to laugh, and fcarcely to fmile. The 
hiftory of his life is little elle, than 
a hiftory of difputes, quarrels and 
duels, in every part of the world. 
He was vindictive to his enemies. 
His avarice had ho beunds. He 
never went into a publick and fel- 
dom into a private houfe, where he 
did not difcover fome marks of in- 
effable and contemptible meannefs. 
He begrudged the expence of a 
nurfe in his laft illnefs, and died in 
a fmall room in the Philadelphia 
tavern called the Canaftoga- wag- 
gon, on the 2d of October, i 782, 
after being Confined to his bed for a 
few days. His dilbider was a de- 

fluxion on the lungs of three months 
ftanding, which produced fome- 
thing like a fpurious inflammation 
of the lungs, accompanied with an 
epidemic remitting fever. He was 
both impious and profane. In his 
principles he was not only an in- 
fidel, but he was very hoftile to 
every attribute of the Deity. His 
morals were exceedingly debauch- 
ed. His manners were rude, part- 
ly from nature and partly from 
affectation. His appetite was fo 
whimfical, as to what he eat and 
drank, that he was at all times, 
and in all places, a moft trouble- 
fome and difagreeable gueft. He 
had been bred to arms from his 
youth ; and ferved as lieut. colonel 
among the Britifh, as colonel a- 
mong the Portuguefe, and after- 
ward as aid de tamp to his Polifti 
majefty, with the rank of major 

Upon the American continent's 
being forced into arms, for the pre- 
fervation of her liberties, he was 
called forth by the voice of the peo- 
ple, and eledled to the rank of third 
in command of their forces. He 
had exhaufted every valuable trea- 
tife, both ancient and modern, on 
the military art. His judgment in 
war was generally found. — He was 
extremely ufeful to the Americaes 

* Thefe lamps are made by Jacob Rizer, oppoiite to the Mcthodift church, in fourth- 

138 An account of the late 

in the beginning of the revolution, 
by infpiring them with military i- 
deas, and a contempt for Britifii 
discipline and valour. It is difficult 
to fay, whether the active and ufe- 
ful part he took in the conteft, a- 
rofe from perfonal refentment a- 
gainft the king of Great-Britain, 
or from a regard to the liberties of 
America. It is certain he reproba- 
ted the French alliance and repub- 
lican forms of Government, after 
he retired from the American Ser- 
vice. He was, in the field, brave 
in the higheft degree, and with all 
his faults and oddities was beloved 
by his officers and foldiers. He 
was devoid of prudence, and ufed 
to call it a rafcally virtue. His par- 

Dr. Abraham Chovet. 

tiality to dogs was too remarkable 
not to be mentioned inhischaracter. 
Two or three of thefe animals fol- 
lowed him generally wherever he 
went. When the Congrefs con- 
firmed the fentence of the court- 
rnartial, fufpending him for 12 
months, he pointed to his dog and 
exclaimed, " Oh ! that I was that 
animal, that I might not call man 
my brother." — Two virtues he 
poflefTed in an eminent degree, viz. 
Sincerity and veracity. He was 
never known to deceive or defert 
a friend ; aud he was a ftranger to 
equivocation, even where his fafety 
or character were at ftake. 


For the Universal Asylum, and Columbian Magazine. 

An account of the late Dr. ABRAHAM 

THIS aged phyfician, for above 
half a century, attracted the 
attention of perfons of all ranks and 
clafTes, in different parts of the 

He devoted the early part of his 
life to the ftudy of anatomy, under 
the ableft anatomifts in Europe, and 
afterwards fettled in the Ifland of 
Jamaica, where, under circumstan- 
ces that are not very friendly to 
ftudy of any kind, he continued his 
inquiries and directions in anatomy. 
He left the Weft- Indies, and fettled 
in this city, near twenty years ago. 
His anatomical preparations, which 
are extremely elegant, are monu- 
ments of great induftry, as well as 
ingenuity. We hope, for the honour 
and benefit of our country, they 
will be purchafed and prefer ved by 
one of the medical inititutions of 

In medicine Docl. Chovet was 
attached to the fyftems and modes 
of practice, which prevailed in Eu- 
rope 60. years ago. His prescripti- 
ons confifted of numerous ingredi- 
ents. He even refufed to admit the 
facts which eftablifti the efficacy 
and fafety of the Peruvian Bark, 
in fevers or diSeafes of any 

He vifited patients in all weathers 
till within a few weeks before his 
death. His faculties difcovered no 
marks of decay. He died on the 
24th of march, 1 790, in the S6th 
year of his age, of an acute difeaSe. 
He applied his wit, (of which he 
poiTeffed a very considerable fhare) 
ro his years, and uSed to Say, that 
" that phyfician was an impoftor, 
who did not live till he was eigh^ 

T^e laft ufe he made of his un- 


derftanding, which was a few mi- 
nutes before he expired, was to 
requeft: his family to give him a 
plain funeral, and by no means to 
have the bells rung for him, hi*- 
manely giving as a reafon for this 
requeft, that he did not wifli to 
difturb fick people by fuch an unne- 
ceflary noife.— If there were no 
other reafon for aboliflimg that ab- 
furd cuftom of ringing our friends 
•ut of the world, or to their graves. 

Hefoifin. 139 

this would be fufficient, but when 
we confider that the ringing of a 
faffing bell was originally the fignal 
of a foul's pafing from this world 
into the world of Ipirits, and in- 
tended to call upon all perlbns with- 
in the found of that bell, to fall up. 
on their knees and pray for that de- 
parted foul, it fhould induce us tt> 
lay the cuftom afide, efptciaHy in 
protectant focieties. 

F ema I e heroism; or magnanimity of the -whig ladies, 
in Charlefton, when that city was in the hands of the 

THEY fhowed an amazing for- 
titude, and the ftrongeft at- 
tachment to the caufe of their 
country, and gloried in the appella- 
tion of rebel ladies, Neither Tooth- 
ing perfuafions, nor menacing hints, 
nor their own natural turn for 
gaiety and amufement, could pre- 
vail on them to grace the ball or 
aflembly with their preience, to 
oblige the Britifh officers with their 
hand in a dance, or even to accom- 
pany them, notwi-hftanding the en- 
gaging qualities that many of them 
polfefled. But no fooner was an 
American officer introduced as a 
prifoner, than his company was 
fought for and his perfon treated 
with every poflible mark of atten- 
tion,and reipect. They even vifited 
the priibn-ihips and other places 
of confinement to folaee their fuffer- 
ing countrymen. At other feafons 
they retired, in a great meafure, 
from the publick eye, wept over 
the diftrefTes of their country, 
and gave every proof of the 
warmeft attachment to its fuffering 
caufe. In the height of the Britilh 
conquefts, when poverty and ruin 
feemed the unavoidable portion 

of every adherent to the independ- 
ence of America, they difcover 
ed more firmnefs than the men. 
Many of them, like guardian an- 
gels, preferved their huibands from 
falling in the hour of temptation, 
when intereft and convenience had 
almoft gotten the better of honour 
and patriotifm. Many examples 
could be produced of their cheerful- 
ly parting with their fons, htdbanda 
and brothers (among thofe who 
were banilhed, and whofe property 
was feized by the conquerors) ex- 
horting them to fortitude, and re- 
peatedly entreating them never to 
lufter family attachments to inter- 
fere with the duty they owed to 
their country. Such exemplary pa- 
triotifm excited in feveral Britilh 
officers a mean refentment, which 
put them upon employing the ne- 
groes in rude infults on thole diftin- 
guiflied heroines. When the fuc- 
cedes of General Greene afforded 
the tetter an opportunity, they a- 
dopted a genteel retaliation by 
drelfing in green and ornamenting 
their perfons with green feathers 
and ribbons, and thus parading the 
ftreets in triumph. 

1 40 Modem Spelling humonroujly expofed. 

Modern Spelling humour oujly expofed. 

Mr. Editor, 

I KEEP a fchool for little chil- 
dren, and being ambitious to 
commence author, 1 was composing 
a new horn-book, &c. A very ho- 
nourable ftudy, to be fure, is the 
elements of language. At length, 
in agreement with modern ele- 
gance, I was determined to ftrike 
out k, as an ufelefs letter : and ac- 
cordingly was writing bac, lac, flic, 
and ciCf when I received a woful 
ftroke on the hudibraftic place of 
difhonour. 1 turned about and what 
fhould I lee but the ghoft of k, fix 
feet perpendicular, with a mon- 
ftrous hand and prodigious foot. 
Thou wretch, he cried, how durft 
thou expel me from my natural 
right. Indeed Mr. K> I replied, 
it is not my fault ; it is the public 
writers who have cut you off from 
the public^. Ke faid, O innovaters! 
ignorant of the genius of the Eng- 
lifh language, they tear from its 
foundations, its ftrengtheners, its 
props, and bold lupports; and e- 
maiculate poor words, like Italians, 
in hopes of gaining an elegant 
fweetnefs. — Then in came u, with- 
out horror, and thus he faid : Is it 
notmonftrous ! — I laid, Indeed, Sir, 
it is. He replied, Hold your tongue 
— and thus went on : Is it not un- 

natural, that I fhould be left out of 
honour, and be turned into mere 
Latin, when the genius of the 
Englifh language requires that our 
words, whofe roots are Latin, de- 
rived from the French, fhould par- 
take, in general, of a medium be- 
tween both ? for honour fhould not 
be fpelt honor, nor honeur ; and 
fo on for many other words, which 
are finking into the decline of new- 
fangled fafhion. If there is not 

a ftandard for language, it muft be 
declining gradually, after it has 
reached its perfection. Now, as 
you have no particular ftandard at 
prefent, till there is one, myfelf 
joined with k command, That the 
writings of Shakefpeare, Milton, 
Dryden, Pope, &c. as they may- 
be feen in Johnfon's dictionary, 
be the ftandard till — Till when ? 
I cried : Till you have better poets 
he faid — I replied, We furely 
have better now. Then they burft 
into a loud fit of laughter, and 

Now, Sir, be So kind as to in- 
form me of your opinion upon k and 
u f and likewife about fpelling in 
general, and you will oblige, 
Tour humble fervant. 

An Old Maw. 

4, 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.4, 4, 4, 4. 4. 4, 4. 4, 4, 4, 4. 4, 4. 4, 


WHEN Columbus, after hav- 
ing difcovered the Weftern 
hemifphere, was by order of the 
king of Spain brought home from 
America in chains, the captain of 
the (hip, who was intimately ac- 
quainted, with his character, his 
knowledge, and abilities, offered 
ta free him from his fetters, and 

make his pafTage as agreeable as 
poflible ; but Columbus rejected his 
friendly offer, faying, " Sir, I 
thank you; but thefe chains are 
the rewatds arid honours for my 
fer vices, from a king, whom I have 
ferved as faithfully as my God, and 
as fuch I will carry them with me 
to my grave." 

An account of the Capra Ibex, Sec. 141 

For the Univerfal Afylum and Columbian Magazine. 

An account of the Capra Ib ex, and Capra Ru pi- 
ca p r a , of Linnxus , 

(Now Jirjl Publi/bed.) 

BOTH thefe animals belong, 
in the fyftem of the immor- 
tal Linnaeus, to the Mammalia, 
Pecora : Genus, Capra; and the 
two 1'pecies are Capra Ibex, and 
Capra Rupicapra. 


Capra Ibex, Wild Goat, Bou- 
quetin, in French, and Steinbock, 
in German, Capra gula barbata, 
cornibus iupra nodofis in dorfum 
inclinatis, corpore fulvo, arunco 
nigro, Lin. Syft. Nat. Edit. xiii. 
Vol. 1. P. 95. 

This animal is larger, ftronger, 
and more vigorous, than the com- 
mon Goat, and Chamois; full 
grown, it weighs about 20olib. The 
horns of an old Ibex are large, 
weigh nearly twenty pounds, and 
have as many knotty rings on their 
outfide. Thefe rings furronnd on- 
ly Wo thirds of the whole horn; 
they are difcontinued on the infide 
by two longitudinal lines, whole 
interftices form a well-marked, 
and pretty fmooth flat tide. The 
females, if we can crc dit the au- 
thority of the great Haller, have 
no horns. The fhape of our animal 
is much finer than that of the com- 
mon Goar : it has bright, fiery, 
I eyes; and, in the figure of the 
whole head, there is a greater 
refemblance to the Stag than to 
the common Goat. The celebrat- 
ed Conrad Gefner fays, " Corpu- 
lentum animal, fpecie fere cervina, 
minus tamen ; cruribus gracilibus, 
et capite parvo, cervum exprnnit. 
The colour of its body is a yellow- 
Umi. Asyl. Vol. IV. No. 3. 

ifh, white. It is cloven-footed 
and the hoofs are long, ftrong, 
cloven, firm, and pointed. Mr. 
Daubenton gives out the length 
of the whole body, the tail ex^ 
cepted, to be three feet, and one 
inch ; the height of it before, one 
foot, three inches, and that behind 
one, and eleven. I find in Dr, 
Blumenback's (of Gottingen) In- 
troduction to natural hiftorv, 
marked down two varieties of 
Ibex, one Corpore hirto, and the 
other Corpore glabro; the latter 
variety is unknown to me. 

C. Rupicapra. Chamifis, in 
French, Gems, in German, Capra 
cornibus erectis, uncinatis. Cor- 
pus rufo-fufcum, fed album, fronte, 
vertice, gula, auribus intus, cauda 
etiam fubtus nigricans. Labium 
perius fubfuTum. Lin. 

This animal has, upon the whole, 
muchfimilaritytothe Ibex, but the 
characters, juft mentioned, given 
by Linnaeus, are, I believe, fnflicient 
to juftify the opinion, that they 
really are two diftincl: fpecies : its 
horns are round, fmall, of a fmooth' 
furface, except near the roots, and 
of a dark brownifh colour— The 
greateft part of the body is of 
the fame colour, but that upon the 
rido-e of the back is, however, 
darkeft. It has longer feet than 
the common Goat, but its hairs 
are fhorter ; its neck is nine inches 
long, which is more than the 
neck of the Ibex. The length of 
the whole animal is three feet, two 
inches, and fix lines ; the height, 
before, two feet and fix lines. 
Count de Buffon adduces many 

An account of the Capra Ibex, &c. 


reafons to prove that the two qua- 
drupeds, whole defcription I have 
juil now given, conftitute, with the 
common Goat, (Capra hircus. L.) 
the fame fpecies ; and he believes 
that the females are of a conftant 
and fimilar nature, and that only 
the males degenerate into varie- 
ties. He confelles, however, that 
many arguments militate againft 
this opinion of his, and that he 
knows of no experiment by which 
it can be afcertained, that thefe 
three different animals will copu- 
late together, and bring forth fer- 
tile individuals. I have neither a- 
bilitiesnor time to decide the ques- 
tion between Count de Buffon and 
Linnaeus. If external appearance 
alone could determine, I would 
rather think that they are different 
fpecies ; certainly, as much fo as the 
dog, and wolf. 1 find, however, the 
greateft difference between the 
common Goat and the Chamois ; 
but this difference is Iefs confider- 
able betwixt the Ibex and the 
common Goat. 


Thefe animals r&fide in the 
fteepeft, and, for the human kind, 
;iimoil inacceflible rocks of Tyrol, 
Savoy, and Switzerland. They 
ieem to be the oniy inhabitants of 
our higheft mountains, except the 
Vakur Barb.itus, and Falco Chry- 
iaetos, Linnasi. The Ibex is par- 
ticularly perfecuted by the Vulture, 
whole principal food conlifts in the 

the other, if the diftance exceeds 
not fix paces. It is laid, if they 
jump down a precipiced, they fall 
always upon their horns, and thus, 
by their ftrength, they preferve 
their body from being injured — It 
runs as faft as a ftag. The for- 
mation of its hoofs is particularly 
adapted to its manner of life. If 
this quadruped is caught very 
young it will be eafily tamed, and 
will then, as has been fometimes 
tried, in Switzerland, accompany 
the common Goats to their pafture. 
O. Gefner, however, adds to this, 
(t progrefTu aetatis fero ingenio 
non prorfus carent." I faw only 
one fpecies of this kind, and even 
this was Ihewn through the lower 
parts of Switzerland as a great cu- 
riofity. It was very agile and 
lively, however tame and to its 
mafter following. 

The Chamois is an animal of 
great vivacity, and admirable agi- 
lity ; it will not, however, venture 
on the higheft cliffs of our Alps, like 
the Ibex, but keeps more the mid- 
dle part of the mountain. " Rupes 
montium colunt Rupicaprae, fays 
Gefner, non fummas tamen ut Ibex 
neque tarn alte et longe faliunt, de- 
fcendunt aliquando ad inferiora Al- 
pium Juga." 1 can fcarcely believe 
that the Chamois affift themfelves 
with their horns in afcending fteep 
rocks, as is commonly told, by many 
author.'. Some of thefe animals 
prefer the bare rock for their a- 
bode, others live in woods, and 
among Ihrubs : both varieties are 

prey of the Lamb, wild Goat, and diftinguifhed by us with different { 

the Chamois. 

The Ibex never defcends into 
the valleys ; it lives nearer the top 
of the Alps than even the Rupicap- 
ra, and, though it is very corpulent, 
it will, With the greateft facility, 
run down the fteep rocks, and leap 
over precipices, from one cliff to 

names, from their different abodes, 
Grathiene, and Waldthiene. They 
vary not reflecting their economy. 
They live together in fociety, of- 
ten to the number of twenty, and 
if they have a common paflurage,' 
it is laid that one of them keeps 
guard, and at the leaft noife ad vet- 


On tli Phenomenon of Dew. 

tifes the whole herd, -y a par- 
ticular whittling fou - upon 
which they betake the Mves to 
flight, after betraying n. . y figns 
of anxiety. The female is in its 
rut in the month of November; 
and brings forth one or two young 


comes near to the Epfom fait. The 
/^Egagropila found often in the fto- 
machs of the Chamois is formed 
from the indigeftible rents of the 
Athamanta Mei, Lin. and other fi- 
milar plants. Both the Ibex and 
the Chamois diflike the exceffive 

ones, in the month of April or May. 
The Chamois are eafily tamed, and 
fometimes defcend from their rocks 
to mingle with herds of the com- 
mon goats. During a violent win- 
ter they approach often nearer to 
the habitations of men, for the fake 
of food, which confifts, chiefly, in 
the delicate and aromatic plants of 
the Alps. This animal, as well as 
the Ibex, is in ufe to lick the rocks 
frequently : perhaps, in this way 
they make ufe of the Sal Alpinum, 
which is found in crevices of thefe 
rocks. The nature of this fait 

cold of winter. In the fummer, 
therefore, they inhabit more the 
northern parts of the mountains, 
and in the winter have recourfe 
to the fouthern parts, on account 
of the ftronger influence of the fun. 
The Chamois are, in many parts 
of Switzerland, very'frequent. In 
the Canton of Glaris there are fome 
mountains where it is even prohi- 
bited to hunt thefe animals, and 
where they, therefore, are in ie- 
curity and fafe from deftruclion. 

(To be continued.) 

To the Editor of the Univerfal Afylum and Columbian Magazine. 


7 he following experiments, and remarks, however unimportant to adepts 
in philofophy, viay not be altogether unacceptable to feme cf the more 
humble votaries of fcience. T. F. 


SOME philofophers have in* 
filled that the dew falls from 
the middle region of the air, o- 
thers as ftrenuoufly aflert that it 
rife s from the bowels of the earth, 
in vapour, which never reached 
the middle region of the air, but 
falls back condenfed into water, 
after having rifen a comparatively 
fmal! diitance above the earth's 

The former of thefe alledge, 
in favour of their opinion, 
" that it is moft natural : that we 
" fee the rain, which is of the 
" fame nature with dew, defcend- 
" ing from the fuperior regions ; 

■ and, confequently, ought not to 

* fuppofe that the dew has any o- 
' ther origin, fince it differs no 
1 otherwife from fmall rain, or 

* mijl'mg, than in degree. — That 
' the atmofphere is continually 
< replete with a valt quantity of 
' vapours ; and that, when the 

* folar heat is withdrawn, the 

* cold, which occupies the fupe- 
f rior regions, immediately con- 
c denfes and precipitates them, if 
' not diffipated by the wind, in 
( form of dew : and that ihofe 
' bubbles or veficules, though im- 
' perceptible to us while feparate 

* eafily gather into larger drc 

On the Phenomenon of Dew. 

the loweft fquare being firffe 
wet, then its upper furface ; 


" (when they fall) by their own 
" attraction ; and are, in that 
" itate, found on grafs, and on 
" the herbs of the field and gar- 
" den, in the morning, where 
" they remain till they are again 
" exhal'd by the fun. 

Thole of the contrary party fay, 
" That exhalations are continual- 
" ly flying off from the earth, be- 
" ing railed either by the folar or 
" fubterraneous heat, or both. 
" That thefe evaporations do not 
" ceafe ever, in the night. — Thar, 
iC during the heat of the day, thefe 
" vapours, being fpecifically light- 
" er than the circumambient air, 
" are diflipated in their afcent ; 
" but, in the night, they rife not 
ii far above the ground, being im- 
" mediately condenfed and pre- 
11 cipitated again by the cold. — 
" That though they cannot boafl 
"' of the univerfality of their opin- 
u ion, yet they hope it is eftablifh- 
u ed upon a furer foundation than 
te the other; as they have had re- 
" eourfeto experiments, the moft 
" rigid tefts of truth. That M. Du- 
" ' f a y> m particular, being refolved 
u to try the grand queftion, whe- 
" ther dew did or did not firfl a- 
* { fcend in vapour, reduced it to this 
u fimple procefs. He confidered, 
w that if the dew did afcend it muft 
" wet a body placed lower, fooner 
*' than one placed higher, and its 
" under part fooner than its upper ; 
" and upon thefe principles, he 
:' tryed the following experiments. 
" He placed two ladders, with 
" their tops refting againft each 
** other, their feet at a confider- 
" able dillance, and their height 
" 32 feet. To the fteps of thefe 
" ladders he fattened iquares of 
' glafs, in fuch a manner as not 
u to hang over each other. On 
'* trial, he found it exactly as he 
" expected ; the lower fin face of 

" then the lower furface of the 
" fecond fquare ; and i'o on gra- 
" dually through the whole fe* 
« ries." 

Thefe are fome of the ftrongeft 
arguments produced on each fide, 
in confirmation of each hypothecs. 
But perhaps neither fide has been 
fo fortunate as, upon the whole, to 
hit upon the true account, nor 
examined it fo narrowly as to 
preclude any future difcoveries. I 
am, however, apt to believe, af- 
ter repeated trials, that part of the 
dew does really fall. I fay part, 
for I hope to make it appear that 
a great deal of it, perhaps one half, 
except in thick foggy nights, rifes. 
But when I fay, rifes, let it be 
noted that I do not mean in form 
of vapour ; but in manner of per- 
fpiration from grafs, plants, and o* 
ther herbage ; the truth of which 
pofition the following experiments 
will, I hope, in a great meafure, 
put beyond difpute. 

Exper. I. About an hour be- 
fore fun-fet, I inverted a large 
tub upon fome fine frefh grafs, 
and ftopt it fo clofe at the bottom 
that it could have no communica- 
tion with the external air. Upon 
examination, in the morning, I 
found the grafs under the tub, to 
my furprife, charged as plentifully 
with dew, as that which was un- 
covered all around it: but the 
fpherules or drops, though equal 
in fize, were only on the fummits 
of the blades. — N. B. In a windy 
night there is feldom any dew, or 
very liitle ; but the wind never 
affects the covered grafs at all ; the 
drops being as large then, as at 
any other time. 

II. The former experiment I 
repeated, but with this addition; 
under the tub I fuipended a large 

On the Phenomenon of Dew, 


pane of glafs horizontally about 
a foot, and a little tuft of wool 
at the fame diftance, from the 
ground ; I alfo fufpended another 
pane of glafs and another little 
tuft of wool over the tub, expofed 
to the air. — In the morning I 
found the grafs as before. Glafs 
and wool under the veffel perfect- 
ly dry ; but that over it very 

III. Made a great many trials 
on fome grofs garden plants, fuch 
as cabbages, coleworts, brocoli, 
and feveral others of the fame 
fpecies, by covering them with 
the fame veffel. In the morning 
the edges of their leaves were 
always charged with large round 
drops ; each drop dependent from 
the extremity of one of its ribs, or 
fibres. When I traced my finger 
over the furface of the leaf, I could 
not be certain whether it was wet 
or not, but the furfaces of thofe 
that were uncovered were bedewed 
very plentifully. 

IV. About 10 o'clock in the 
forenoon, when the dew was all 
exhaled and the grafs quite dry, I 
inverted the tub again; taking 
care always, if it was not in a 
fhady place, to cover it with 
fomething that might hinder the 
fun beams from penetrating ; and, 
in a few hours I found the 
fummits of every blade of grafs, 
except thofe. that were withered, 
loaded with as large drops as 
they would have been in the fame 
fpace of time in the night , or per- 
haps larger. This experiment al- 
ways iucceeded in perfect regu- 

V. At mid-day I made the 
fame experiment on fome of the 
before mentioned plants. The 
refult was the fame with Exp. 
III. but the drops were larger, 
and none were difcernable either 



on the upper or under 

VI. Expofed a fquare of glafs, 
fome pieces of cloth, wool, dry 
wood, ire on the top of a build- 
ing, about 60 feet from the 
ground ; all which, in the morn- 
ing, were very copioufly wetted 
on their upper furfaces, but not ««- 

From thefe experiments, par- 
ticularly the 2d and 6th, and part 
of the 3d, it appears, that fome 
part of the dew a finally falls ; 
and, from the ift, 4th, and 5th, 
and part of the 2d and 3d, that no 
fmall quantity of it rifes ; that is, 
perfpires. It appears alio, from 
the 4th, that it rifes by perfpira- 
tion from the plants themfelves, 
for if it had riien in vapour from 
the earth, it would have been 
found on the withered blades, as 
well as the reft. 

It feems to be a point pretty 
well agreed, by the naturalifts, 
that there is a circulation, or dis- 
tribution, of the lap, or nutritious 
juices, in vegetables, fomething 
iimilar or analagous to that of the 
blood in animal bodies : and if fo, 
why may not the vegetables, as 
Well as the animals, have fome 
way or other of fweating out the 
redundant juices ? That there is in- 
deed fomething in all of them ana- 
logous to perfpiration in animals 
is highly probable ; but that it is 
fenfible in fome, the 4th and 5th 
experiments plainly evince. And 
of thefe fecretions we fhould be 
witneffes, day as well as night, 
did not the fun, at that time, ex- 
hale the moifture as fall as it ex- 
fudates, nay feveral times fafter ; 
for when the heat is extreme, it 
exhauits the veffels of their nu- 
trimental juice to fuch a degree, 
that the plant languifhesand droops 
till the fun retire?, and the wajle 


The Retailer No. XVI. 

is again made up by a frefli fupply quickly langutjh, and become quite 

& . _ t^ r *„ u*. /7^r/-/-.// Of thp truth r»f thi« anv 

from the root. It feems to be 
theie fecretions which keep the 
common cabbage frefh and cool in 
the very hotteft day ; for did it 
not evacuate this cooling fluid in 
fuch large quantities, being fuch a 
grofs and fucculent plant, it would 

flaccid. Of the truth of this any 
one may be convinced, by cutting 
one directly through the middle ; 
for, upon examining the ieveral 
plisatures or folds, they will be 
found plentifully Jlored with drops 
of dew. 

For the Univerfal Afylum and Columbian Magazine, 


There's no more heat in fire that heats you, 
Than there is pain in flick that beats you. 


HOWEVER, from the ftricT:- 
eft conviction of its dan- 
ger and impropriety, I may have 
cenfured female fatire ; yet, from 
the publication of the following 
letter, I fhall fully prove to the 
world, that I do not fear it ; and 
I doubt not of eftablifhing my re- 
putation for courage, by the moft 
inconteftible evidence, when I 
thus dare a woman's vengeance, 
by an oppofition to her known 
will. — Often indeed, and feverely 
enough, we fuffer for a breach of 
their unknown laws, and a non- 
compliance with their wills, or 
rather whims, which we had not 
the leaft intimation of.— What then 
can I expect for this open rebel- 
lion ? But, thank God, I am not 
married ; lb I can lie pretty fnug 
at home — Perhaps, from this want 
of refpect or fear of the female 
tongue or wit, Julia may be indu- 
ced to change her opinion ; and, 
inftead of taking me " to be a 
per fon who has been feverely lam- 
ed," rather fuppofe it impoffible 
for me to have known a woman's 
tongue, fince I do not dread it — 
Hut indeed I do not ; for, with 

Hudibras, I am of opinion that the 
fmart does not lie in the lafh, but in 
the feelings of him who is lalhed ; 
and my confcience being clear, I 
defy fatire. What a pity it is, that 
my female correfpondent, had not 
been in the fame fituation! it 
would have faved her from a vaft 
deal of unneceffary irritation. 

To the Retailer. 


THE manifeft partiality that 
appears through every line of 
your laft number, muft excite 
the jealoufy, if not roufe the in- 
dignation, of every female heart, 
pofTefling the leaft fpark of fenfi- 

By the unmerited and unjuft af. 
perfions, you indifcriminately caft 
on our lex, I take you to be a 
perfon who has been leverely lafh- 
ed, by what you fo malicioufly 
complain of. 

What man, in his fenfes, would 
ever think of curbing the genuine 
/allies of female wit; efpecially at 
a time, when, it is univerfally a- 
greed, we have not a retentive fa- 

The^ Retailer, No. XVI. 

(ulty ; and, of confequence, are 
obliged to fpeak all we think ? 
None, Sir, none but the " Re- 
tailer." But, Mr. Retailer, 
how comes it, that you have for- 
got the female politicians ? Why, 
Sir, I will tell you — We are above 
your cenfures ; and, to the immor- 
tal honour of our fex be it record- 
ed, we are all federalijis, in the 
ftricleft fenfe of the word. How 
often, Sir, has it been propofed, 
to have the chairs of Rhetorick — 
Divinity — and Phyfick, filled by 
refpectable females. Our abilities 
in government have never been 
queftioned, lince the times of Tho- 
rny ris, Semiramis, Judith, and De- 
borah. We can decide on the 
molt intricate law cafes, by inftinfi; 
and, although we are, unjuftly, ex- 
cluded from the fociety of mafons, 
we can tell you all the fecrets of 
the brotherhood, in lefs time than 
you could read their conftitution. 
Rhetorick is a fcience peculiarly a- 
dapted to the inclinations of our 
fex ; and the immortal 'jemima 
has inconteftably decided, as to 
our talents for divinity. It would 
be impertinence, in the laft de- 
gree, to doubt of our parts in me- 
dicine. The mildnefs and delicate 
fenfibility of the female, is never 
more properly employed, than in 
foothing the troubled foul of a lack 
man. 1 think 1 could fill the chair 
of this art with profejjorial dignity 
—I believe I was born a phyfician. 
It would do your heart good, Mr. 
Retailer, to hear the innumerable 
cures, 1 have performed, with the 
hifide of a hen's gizard, and 
a few other fimples. I happened, 
fome time ago, accidentally, to 
ftep into a friend's room, where 
I met with two Ions of—of— dfcle- 
plus, I think they call him, — de- 
puting, with all the rancour imagi- 
nable, on fuch an occafion. Oh ! 


my poor ears ! — although I have 

deluged them with goofe-greafe 

cart-wheel tar-and rabbit's-fat,- 
they ftill ache, by the grating of 
the hard words of thefe two Jgnor- 
amufes. " The complaint is that 
of debility," cries one, " give the 
child good nourifhing diet, and I 
will ftake my reputation on the in- 
fallibility of the remedy." " Good 
nourifhing diet !" replies the other, 
farcaflically. " By the beard of 
Hippocrates, you beat Sangrado 
himfelf — He curevl his patients by 
bleeding and warm water ; and 
you, to improve upon him, by 
wine and roaft beef — ha, ha, ha !■ 
The child is teething and has 
worms ; — fcarify the gums, cleanfe 
the primce via, by detergents and 
a gentle cathartic,— and our pitient 
is well." Well, Sir, off they went, 
— each courting the decifion of the 
nurfe, and myfelf, in favour of 
their refpeclive remedies; and 
we rejoicing at their dependence. 
But, what do you think I did? 
Why, Sir, after proving to the fa- 
tisfaclion of my neighbour, that 
they were both blockheads, I de- 
fired her not to mind what they 
faid ; but immediately to dip the 
child, over head and ears, into a 
tub of foft /dap and violates, and 
to tye a l'mall bag of coarfe fait 
and warm allies, to the pit of Bil- 
ly's ftomach. She did fo ; and I 
thus publickly recommend it, 
through the channel of your ma- 
gazine, as an infallible fpecific, in 
all the difeafes of children, to eve- 
ry nurfe, mother, and lady doc- 
tor, from St. Croix to the Miflifip- 
pi. I could here, Sir, were I not 
afraid of trefpaffing on your time, 
enter into a full detail of all the ex- 
cellencies of our fex — How they 
polifh men—" (top— ftop"— cries 
a booby — "you polifh men! — I 
never was in your company bur 

1^8 The Retailer, 

once ; and then I know I was very • 
roughly handled." 

JU L I A. 

February 22, 1 790. 

Well Madam, 
YOU fay, my afpcrfions on 
your fex have been indifcrimi- 
nate ; that is, you fay, that all 
women are indifcriminately thofe 
tongue-tyrants, whom only, I have 
cenlured. I will not contradict you, 
as you muft know your own fex 
better than I can ; but I durft not 
have faid fo much — You plead the 
want of a rete?itive faculty, " and 
therefore you are obliged to fpeak 
all you think." — If fo, indeed I 
pity you.— But I fhould never have 
iufpected it, from the furprifing 
volubility of your talkative inftru- 
ment, and the vaft fpirits you are 
in, when it has a fair chance of 
exercifing its powers to advan- 
tage. — Upon my word, this does 
not look as if you were compelled 
to fpeak by an undue reftraint — 
But " you are above my cenfures, 
and all federalifts" — Take care 
you dont hurt your party. You 
know the federalifts do not wifli 
to feem above — As to your filling 
the chairs of Rhetorick, Phyfick, 
Divinity, &c. I have not the leaft 
objection— Indeed I think it would 
fuit exceedingly well; and cer- 
tainly your claim to the honours 
of Rhetorick, ftands indifputed, 
iince the days of Xantippe, of 
famous memory, who feems to 
have been the moft complete and 
perfect woman, that ever blefTed 
a man — You are alfo quite right 
in referring the decifion of law- 
points to your wonderful powers 
of injVmtl — You can ft tell all the 
fecrets of the brotherhood, in lefs 
time than I could read their con-' 
ilifuiion." — Granted; but could 

No. XV L 

you keep them, until I got through 
the firit ten lines ? 

1 would advife you, not to brag 
too much of your heroines, of an- 
cient days — Let Judith, Deborah, 
and Semiramis, reft in their 
graves — I am fure they will thank 
you for it — remember the mil- 
lions of the human fpecies, whom 
their cruelty, their pride, and 
their ambition dellroyed — their 
greatnefs, that is their. fuccefs in 
arms, was the greatnefs of their 
fervants, but all their vices and 
follies were their own — Had they, 
like good Queen Befs, had a 
Sir James Melvil to deal with, I 
fear their examination would 
have been as little to their credit, 
as Elizabeth's was to hers — we 
hear nothing of their private lives 
and vices; for the individuals 
whom they injured, are long fince, 
together with their wrongs, moul- 
dered into nothing. 

You complain of my neglect of 
female politicians, that refpectable 
part of your fex, in point of num- 
bers — 1 faid nothing of thefe, for 
two reafons ; becaufe they did not 
come within the defign of that 
paper, and becaufe the fyftem of 
their politics is fo fimple, that I 
thought every body underftood 
them — more efpecially as, for 
want of the retentive faculty fec- 
recy is not one of their rules. They 
therefore have the moft interefted 
heralds of their fchemes and fuc- 
cefs — the fyftem is juft thus — if a 
political point is in agitation, the 
lady immediately takes her part.—- 
She is directed in her choice, 
either for the pleafure of being in 
oppolition to fome body (he dif- 
likes, or joining with fome fhe 
has a better opinion of — if Mrs. — 
flighted her, at the afTembly, fhe 
will never join politics with her 
hufband — as to the right or the 

To the Society of Friends. 149 

men, is fled away; the woman 

fteps forth in all the majefty of 

" Tis impoflible Mr- 

wrong of the matter, it is never 
worth her while to enquire about 
it ; for your boafted powers of 
Rhetoric are fuch, that all fides are 
equally defenfible by you — The 
political lady having thus taken her 
part, (he immediately lets about 
performing it — and now away (he 
goes, fword in hand, cut and flafh, 
among the characters of her op- 
ponents; for this is her province 
and game. — All their private a- 
necdotes, from their youth up- 
wards, are carefully collected, the 
ruft of time is brufhed off from 
them, they are put in better or- 
der, and mine more than they did, 
even when new, and with all 
necefTary embellifhmenis and ad- 
ditions, to adapt them to the 
times, they are let loofe, to do 
their duty.— Out female politicians 
grow warm with their fubject ; 
and, as they wifli to excel in 
every thing, their zeal encreafes 
in a double ratio, to that of every 
body elie. At length all reltraintis 
at an end — and rogues, villains t 
/jars, rajcals, pitiful ' fcoundrels &c. 
flow, with a wonderful fluency, 
from the female tongue — the dear, 
gentle, meek, creature, which 
itarted at the rude language of 

can be an honeft man — don't tell 
me, — a man who could do fo and 
fo miift be bale, and want the 
principles of a gentleman — He 
is a poor, low, mean-fpirited 

wretch" Ha! ha! ha! what 

fport this is, for one who can 
look on, and laugh at the weaknefs 
of female fury — in fuch cafes — 
There are fome of thel'e politicians 
who continually complain of our 
government, our laws, and our 
great men ; but I fliall let thefe 
alone, until further provocation. 

Now madam Julia, a word or 
two more to you. — I fliall fay no- 
thing of your fcene in the iick 
room, — as I am no doctor, and 
do not feel any of the effects of 
your application, I will allow it to 
be well done — you recommended 
dipping Billy in a tub of foap and 
molaifes ; and then inflantly fpeak 
of your immenie power in polijb- 
big men— I do not wonder that the 
booby cried ftop \ fince he had 
fuch good reafon to believe, you 
intended kq polifh him, by the dif- 
cipline you had jttft recommended 
to Billy. H. 


Worthy and refpetted Friends, 

THOUGH I have always 
held you in high, eftimation, 
on account of your integrity, your 
induftry, your economy, and your 
attention to the peace and good or- 
der of fociety ; yet the zeal and ac- 
tivity you have dilplayed, in your 
endeavours to fupprefs the com- 
merce carried on for Haves with 
Africa, 10 the reproach of huma- 
nity and religion, has added much 
Uni. A*y.l. Vol. IV. No. 3. 

to the refpect I before felt for you. 
Thci'e, however, who think lefs 
favourably of your principles, will 
aik, as a proof of your dilintereft- 
ednel's, fome initance of felf-deni- 
al; they will Cay, your fituation 
does not render ilaves necefTary, 
and that you expect, from others, 
that faciirice which, in their fitua- 
tion, you would reluctantly make. 
Permit me then, as a friend to you 

ijo To the Society 

and your purfuits, to fuggeft a 
matter, which may not only tend 
to refute this reaioning, but when 
traced through all its confequences, 
'i:ay, by God's bleffing, contribute 
more to the emancipation of Haves, 
than all the laws of all the legifla- 
tivc bodies in America. It is well 
known that nine-tenths of all the 
Haves brought from Africa, are 
employed in the culture of fugar. 
If then this culture could be dif- 
couraged, and rendered unprofita- 
ble, it would operate as a diicour- 
agemeat of flavery, and as the 
white inhabitants of the Weft-In- 
dies would, in fuch cafe, hare little 
inducement to remain in a climate 
Co prejudicial to their constitution, 
they would abandon the iflands to 
the blacks, for whom providence 
originally deiigned them. You 
alk how thefe deferable objects are 
to be effected ? I anfwer, by bring- 
ing into ufe fugars made by free 
hands. It is well known that the 
maple tree affords fugar of a very 
good quality, even though manu- 
factured by people who are igno- 
rant of the art of feparating the 
molaffes, of granulating and refin- 
ing the fugars. It is alio known, 
that there are boundlefs forefts of 
maple in America, from which an 
induftrious man, in the back coun- 
try, can by one month's labour, 
produce from 500 to 1000 weight 
of fugar, according as the feafon 
is more or lefs favourable to the 
bufinefs ; fo that were a market 
furnifhed for this fugar, it could be 
fold at lefs than half the price at 
which that of the Well- Indies could 
be furnifhed .1 am well informed 
that a fingle tree will produce up- 
wards of five pounds of fugar, and 
that there are many thoufand acres 
that will each contain From one 
hundred to two hundred trees that 
are fit to draw. So that when we 
conlider that the ieafbn for aiak- 

of Friends. 

ing fugar, is that in which no 
work can be done on a farm — *■ 
That women and children may be 
employed in it — That it requires 
no capital, it will be evident, that 
it may be made to advantage, for 
thirty (hillings a hundred. Its ex- 
treme cheapnefs would therefore, 
with the fmalleft encouragement, 
not only exclude Weft- India fu- 
gars from thefe ftates, and thereby 
lave one million and an half of 
dollars annually, but mighr, by be- 
ing fent to foreign markets, io re- 
duce the price of fugars there, as 
not only to compel the Weft-India 
planters to relinquifh the culture of 
the cane, and the dift illation of rum, 
which depends upon it, but final- 
ly to abandon the iflands to the 
black inhabitants, and all this at 
no greater charge, than that of a 
little attention, in teaching the back 
fettlers to refine and improve their 
manufactory, and a little felf-de- 
nial in uiing this our native fugar, 
in preference to that of foreign 
growth. It furely fhould not be 
laid that our women and children 
. could refrain, for years, from the 
afe of tea, though habituated to it 
from their infancy, to avoid the 
payment of an odious tax ; and 
that your fociety would not forego 
a trifling gratification, not only to 
promote thereby the eilential in- 
terefts of the community, but, what 
is of much more moment, thole of 
religion and humanity. Begin then, 
my refpected friends; fet an exam- 
ple that will be followed by e- 
very patriotic character; affociate 1 
with people of every denomina- 

1 ft, To confume no fugar, but 
that which is the product of our 
own country. 2d, To collect a 
quantity of it, in order to try how 
iar it may be refined 10 advantage, 
or, if incapable of improvement, 
from having been fpojlcd in the 

Temporary Reflections. 
firft procefs, to fet up works for 
making it properly, which would 
be attended with inconfiderable 
expence ; men of every rank, of 
patriotic characters; will fecond 
your endeavours, and unite in your 
association. By this mean there 
is reafon to hope, that you will 
root cut ilavery, by fpeakingto the 

interefts of the flave holders; and 
fllould your well-meant endeavours 
prove iniuflicient to effect this de- 
firable object, they will, at k aft, af- 
ford a new proof of your l'elf- de- 
nial, and, undoubtedly, promote un 
uleful and important manufacture. 

Nexv-York, March, 1790. 

— ^44^^' 4>-<^>4>^4>>- 

To the Editor of the Universal Asylum, and Columbia* 


Should you think the following Reflections worthy of a place in your Mifcel- 

lany, pleafe to infert them, and oblige yours, &c. A. M. 

TO tread the flippery mazes if ever, raifes a man to the higheft. 
of human life, without employments; and if we confider 
fometimes falling into the mire of the heroes and great men of paft 
cenfure, is not, perhaps, fo eafy a ages, we fliall be led to conclude, 
matter as fome people may fup- that they have owed every thing 
pofe, if it be at all practicable. As to their 'happy vices.** 
the talleft trees are weakeft at the If, then, men owe their rife to 
top, and envy ever aimeth at the happy vices, as the writer calls 
higheft, fo the moft exalted cha- them, how can they efcape cen- 
racters are ever the moft txpofed fure ? Long experience has, in- 
to cenfure. Though dignities, deed, taught us, that the furcft 
fortune, and connections, may le- means to rife in the world, are by 
cure a man from peribnal affronts, Undying and flattering the humours 
they will not fcreen him from the and follies of the great. Tiberi- 
private tongue of malevolence and ous promoted knaves and drunk- 
detraction, ards ; Caligula, executioners, and 
The gloomy hate the cheat ful, all who fomented and feconded his 
(lays Horace) and the jocofe the amazing luxury and cruelty ; Nero 
gloomy; the fprightly hate the heaped the greateft riches and ho- 
grave, and the indolent the bull- nours on Tigellinus, and the other 
ling and the active ; thofe who minifters of his debaucheries ; the 
tope at the pure Falernian from covetous Vefpafian was bountifil 
mid-day, hate you, when ycu re- to thofe, who could invent ways of 
fnfe the proffered glafs ; the mo- procuring gold ; and Commodus 
deft man too often palTes for ful- took from the amphitheatre, Gla- 
len, and the referved for four, diators, who were flaves, and rail- 
An ingenious writer has the fol- ed them to the higheft polls in the 
lowing Angular paffage :" Whe- empire. We are generally apt to 
ther a general corruption has infeft- judge of mankind, and applaud or 
td our taite, or that vices really cenlure them, rather from clrcum- 
give a luftre to virtues, yet ccr- ftances and connections, than from 
tain it is, that virtue ^lone feldom, realbn and experience ; and inter- 

1^2 Philofophical Maxims. 

eft, or a friendly attachment, will, be prudent to give up a point to 
at times, bials the opinions of the his fuperiors, even though he is 

molt impartial men. 

If it be difficult for age and ex- 
perience to avoid cenfure, how 
much more fo mult it be for thofe, 
who rufn into the commerce of the 
world, unrounded by the fire and 
impetuofityof youth, and who are, 
at that age, accuftomed to take but 
a (nperficial view of things, as they 

fully convinced of the rectitude of 
what he wilhes to fupport ; and, 
more elpecially, to do this, when 
he is certain, that, by giving up 
the point in queftion, he neither 
injures their character, hurts his 
own intereft, nor leaves accufed 
innocence undefended. 

The vices and follies of the gay 

p;ti's before them? To i'ucli, per- and profligate muft be cuutioufly 

mit me to give a fiiort leflun. To /hunned, by the youth who wifhes 

a young man, who wifhes to pufit to advance himfelf in life ; for the 

birafelf forward in life, many con- titles of Beau and Buck are as op- 

liderationsarenecelLry. lie mull, pofite to character and reputation, 

as much as poflible, diveft himfelf as is darknefs to light. A neatnels 

of pride and cftentation, and be ofdreis, without the iludied glare 

ever ready to lifted to the advice of fafhion ; a chearful temper, and 

ofthofe, whom age and experi- 
ence have taught wifdom, aud en 
whom, perhaps, all his future ad- 
vancement depends. 

a lively difpolition, without levity 
or puerility; and an unblemifhed 
character for honour, probity, and 
virtue ; all thefe, united, cannot 

To be too loquacious, denotes fail, in the end, to make the youth, 

impertinence; and to require be- who lha.ll purlue them, reipectable 

j vr .liked one queftion twice, be- and happy, and may, perhaps, fe- 

trays a fheepifhnels, which conveys cure him from cenfure. 
no promising idea. It will often 

-*+ v++v+********«f *.$. **■}.***- 


MAXIMS are the verdicts of 
wifdom, on the reports of 

Favourable conjunctures, like 
riches, and other gifts of hea- 
ven, are remembered with grati- 
tude by thofe only, who have un- 
derftanding to preferve and enjoy 
them. The Ipendthrift diflipates 
his thankfulnefs with his wealth ; 
and the fame imprudent folly, ren- 
ders him both mifcrable and un- 

To fay that a man lies, is as 
much a^ to fay, that he is a bravo 
towards God, and a coward to- 
wards men ; for a lie faces Cod, 
and (brinks from man. 

Prosperity beft difcovers vice, 
but adverfity beft difcovers virtue. 

Envy is like the fun beams, which 
beam hotter upon a bank, or fteep 
riling of ground, than upon a flat. 

In deciding on important quef- 
tions, in morality, the heart is 
the beft cafuift. 

Nothing is fo beautiful to the 
eye, as truth is to the mind ; no- 
thing fo deformed, and irreconcila- 
ble to the underltanding, as a lie. 

It is pleafant to be virtuous and 
good, becaufc that is to excel 
many. It Is pleafant to grow bet- 
ter, becaufe that is to excel our- 
f elves. 

It is pleafant to mortify and fub- 


The Influence of the Female Sex, Sec. 153 

due our lufts, becaufe that is vi&o- quenrly j by frequency of aft a 

ry. It is pleaiant to command 
our appetites and paffions, and to 
keep them within the bounds of 
reafon and religion, becaufe that is 

After we have praclifed good ac- 
tions a while, they become eafy ; 
when they become eafy, we begin 
to take plea lure in them; when 
they pleafe us, we do them fre- 

thing grows into a habit ; a coufirm- 
ed habit is a fecond kind of nature ; 
and fo far as any thing is natural, 
fo far it is neceffary, and we can 
hardly do otherwife ; nay we do it 
many times when we do not think 
of it. 

A great part of mankind employ 
their firft years to make their laft 

-♦•J************ ♦*****•$«***- 

The Influence of the Female Sex on ^Enjoy- 
ments of social Life. 

SHALL afk the indulgence of 
the fair fex, while I make a 
few obfervations on the figure 
which the ladies are calculated to 
make, in a matrimonial ftate, and in 
fecial life. It may afford them in- 
ftruction, and I think cannot fail of 
being agreeable. 

Matrimony, among ravages, hav- 
ing no object but propagation and 
flavery, is a very humbling ftate for 
the female fex. But, delicate or- 
ganization, quick fenfibthty, lively 
imagination, with fwectnefs of 
temper, above all, qualify the fair 
for a more dignified fociety with 
men, who are to oe their companions 
and boiom friends. In the common 
courie of education, young ladies are 
taught to make an agreeable figure, 
and to behave with external decen- 
cy and propriety. Very little at- 
tention is paid to the improvement 
of the mind, ar.d little doth it re- 
dound to the honour of the human 
race. Due cultivation of the femaie 
mind, would add greatly to the hap- 
piness of the gentlemen, and ilill 
more to of the ladies. Tine 
imperceptibly glides off; and, when 
youth and beauty vanifli, ifine lady, 
who never entertained a thought in- 
tu which her admirer did not enter, 

furrenders herfelf now to peeviih- 
nefs and difcontent. A lady, on the 
contrary, who has merit, improved 
by virtuous and refined education, 
retains, in her decline, an influ- 
ence over a gentleman, more flat- 
tering than even that of beauty ; 
fhe is the delight of her friends, as 
formerly of her admirers. Admir- 
able would be the effeeis of fuch re- 
fined education ; contributing no lefs 
to publick good than to private hap- 
pinefs. A gentleman, who, at pre- 
l'ent, mult degrade himfelf into a 
fop or coxcomb, in order to pleafe 
the ladies, would foon find, that 
their favour could not be gained, bur 
by exerting every manly talent, in 
publick and private life ; and the 
two iexes, inftead of corrupting each 
other, would be rivals in the race 
of virtue ; and a hiutual defire of 
pleating, would give fmootbnefs to 
their behaviour, delicacy to their 
fentiments, and tendernefs to their 
paflions. The union of a worthy 
man, with a trifling, frivolous wq- 
unn, can never, with all the ad- 
vantages even of fortune, be made 
agreeable. How different the un- 
ion of a virtuous pair, who have no 
aim but to make each other hap- 

nx, I 

,^ On the Moclefty-piecs , Sec. 

Cultivation of the female mind ii men, and they can rend i hem 

of great importance, not with re- virtuous and happy, or vicion and 

fpec't to private happinels only, but miserable. What a glorious prize 

with t-'jlpecl to locitty at large, is here exhibited, to be contended 

The ladies have it in their power for by the lex ! 
to form the manners of the uentle- J. D. W". 

-•*• -J- -5- -2- -V * 4» •} * + ■{<• * * •{* + * * * * * * ■ 

On the Modejfy-piece or Neck-attire of the Ladlf.x 

Mr. Editor, 

PRESUMING that your maga- 
zine has a ptetty general re- 
ception among ladies of falhion and 
ufte, I beg, through your favour, 
to be permitted to addrel's them on 
a fubjeet, which peculiarly concerns 
tl:is moil beauriful part of the crea- 

The wheel of fafhion is (compar- 
atively (peaking) but of Imall cir- 
cr. inference ; and the revolution of 
a few years brings former falhions 
to our eyes again. Some few changes 
they may, indeed, have undergone, 
in the circumrrtation ; but thele are 
of little importance : fometimes they 
appear like improvements; but at 
others, the beauty which before 
attracted our admiration, has, by 
an accidental attrition, been taken 

and the fame body (if the term 
bedy can be applied to any fajhio/i) 
appears with unwonted deformity. 
For instance, I will recall the 
reader to tbofe days, vs ben t he vijible 
rucks of the ladies attracted, with 
irrefiftible force, the eyes of the 
fanguine youth ; bu; then the molt 

-us infpect or could only difcover 
thole beauties, which dame nature 

formed. Far other is the cafe 

our days : the modern fair, 
i .1 of the gifts which na- 

. with no niggard hi'.nd, had be- 
lt wed, think, that by building 
higher ftill, and more prominent, 

I flie lias made eminent, by all 
the- rigid rules of proportion, they 

, by fomuch, rendej themfelves 

more worthy than me of admira- 

The Guardian was perpetually 
calling on the ladies of his day for 
the modifty-piece ; but, I believe, he 
left behind him no proper dimen- 
lions for it. Our faihionable females 
have adopted what, I fuppofe, is, in 
their eyes, a mode fly -piece ; bur, in 
the ardour of reformation, they 
feem to have over-fhot the mark 
for want of ibme examplar. Now, 
though I will not be lb audacious, as 
to alcertain the degree of height, 
or depth, or breadth, proper for 
the ntck-attire, yet I do humbly 
conceive, that many beautiful chins 
might, in our days, be developed, 
without the fmalleft offence to fe- 
male delicacy. 

The falhion I complain of, has & 
thoufand inconveniences too ; but 
I hardly dare mention mere incon- 
venienc-s, to thole who are followers 
of favourite ?nodes of dtefs. Col- 
lider me, dear ladies, as a fond 
hulbmd, who, in the happy mo- 
ment of domeftic tranquility, na- 
turally feek the bofom of my wife, 
for a pillow to my he;;d — I leek it, 
indeed ; but 1 find it hollow, (fa He 
emblem of the conftant heart with- 
in!) inflated, and fitter, alas! to 
catch crjtmbs at her dinner, and 
thus ferve as a cupboard for her 
lap-dog, than as a place of iweet 
repofe for conjugal cares. 

1 happened the other day to alk 
my wife ibme queilion concerning 

On the Study of Hifiory 

the hour, and was aitonifhed at 
feeing her actually bent into the 
form of a half moon, in order to 
get a fight of her watch. 

But I have lately carried my point, 
and the odious puft'has been abolifh- 
ed, by a fortunate ftroke of policy. 
My beloved, you mult know, has 
an unconquerable averfion to the 
gout of garlick. I found means at 
dinner, to introduce a fmall quanti- 
ty ; and as, by her own confeflion, 
fhe never could fee the contents of 
her plate, for the projection of 
her puff, the Icheme fucceeded to 
my wifh, and, inflead of her much 
loved lobfler-fauce, fhe filled her 
mouth with the naufeous, the de- 
tefted root. Indeed, fhe gave me, 


at the moment, fuch a look as I had 
never been accuftomed to ; but fhe 
loon difcovcred the caufe of the 
ini'.chief, and affined me, with a 
kifs of peace, that I fhould never 
again have the fame caufe of com- 
plaint, nor again the fame oppor- 
tunity of playing her a crick. 

I am a plain man mylelf, and 
perhaps the follies of tafhion may be 
more obvious to my fight, than to 
that of its votaries, for the fame 
reaibn that we lay, " A looker on 
often fees more of the game than 
thole who play." I may, therefore, 
by your leave, at a future time, 
tranfmit for infertion, fome more 
general thoughts on fdjbion. 

" Yours, &.c. X. Y. 

■™*f* , f**J* t 4**$* "J* 4*4*4**f*4 , *{"{*4*"} , '*'* , f'4*'."f*- 


ISTORY ought, in a peculiar 
manner, to be the ftudy of 
everv one, who would attain a li- 
beral education ; as it is a general 
ftore-houfe for all the fciences, and 
a fchool for all the virtues. Who- 
ever is appointed to inilruct \outh, 
fhould endeavour, in the firft place, 
;ftrongly to impreis on their minds 
a chronological feries, of all the re- 
markable events that are recorded 
in hifiory, from the creation of the 
\ world, down to the prefent day ; 
making them well obferve, at the 
fame time, the feveral fynchronifms, 
. or the various events that have hap- 
pened, at the fame period, in differ- 
ent parts of the world. By thefe 
means he will open, in their minds, a 
repcfitory, where every particular 
event may hereafter be ranged 
in its proper piace ; for, without 
this, hiftory would prefent a mere 
chaos to the memory, without order 
or connection. When the Undent 
I has thus acquired a ready knowledge 
ol chronology, he may undertake, 

with his tutor, a complete and ra- 
tional ccurie of hifiory. The ani- 
mated and flriking pictures of hifio- 
ry offer two forts of examples, the 
one to be imitated, and the other to 
be avoided. It is the bufinefs of 2n 
able inftructor carefully to point out, 
in the annals of ail nations, thole facts 
and characters, which mufl infpire 
his pupils with admiration or hor- 
ror ; and, confequently, excite, in 
their minds, a defire to imitate their 
virtues, and avoid their vices. The 
portraits of the truly great, as well 
as the tyrants, of antiquity, when 
drawn in a lively manner, mufl 
llrongly affect the young ftudent; 
for they will feem to fay : " Future 
generations, heroes, flatefmen, fcho- 
lars, philofophers ! Providence, for 
our greater reward, or mere exem- 
plary puniihment, has placed our 
itatues in this gallery, to ierve as 
amiable or dcteflable models, to fu- 
ture ages. Emulate our virtues, 
and have a juft abhorrence of our 
crimes. Know that your real d.a- 


The Importance of Premiums. 

thoufand fagacious obfervers conti- 
nually furround you, and a thou- 
fand pencils are cenftantly ready to 
paint you to pofterity, fuch as you 
really are. Hiftory flatters not : it 
is the witnefs, not the adulator of 

racters, that your actions, however 
abfurd or unjuft, and with whatever 
veil you may cover them, or un- 
der whatever malk you may dil- 
guife them, will, like ours, ftand 
naked before posterity. The pierc- 
ing publick eye will penetrate the 
muft fecret folds of your hearts. A 

The importance of Premiums, in encouraging Agricul- 
ture and the ufeful Arts, briefly confidered. 

THE offer of pecuniary re- he acquires it; and, with refpect to 
wards to thofe who excel in the publick, the encouragement of 
any ufeful art or manufactory, has arts and manufactures, is an advan- 
a much more powerful and exten- tage infinitely greater than could a- 
five influence, than appears at the rife, not only from employing the 
firft view: the benefit is much inconftderable fums, which are giv- 
greater to him that obtains fuch a en in premiums, another way, but 
reward, than the mere acquifition from the whole produce of the mines 
of the fum to which it amounts; of Mexico and Peru, if they could 
for it confers an honourable diftinc- be transported into this country, and 
tion upon him, to whom an increafe wrought by the very hands which 
of reputa.tiou is an increafe of wealth, now cultivate the ground. 
A reward of a few pounds, offered Nor is the advantage of thefe te- 
to an artificer, who lhall excel in wards confined to the artificer, by 
his profeffion, excites an emulation, whom they happen to be obtained: 
in proportion tothe ultimate advan- fetting afide the national advantage 
tages it will produce to the winner, arifing from the general improve- 
which is probably, not only in the ment which the competition neceiTa- 
eltimation of fancy, but of reafon, rily produces, the competitor ac- 
more than twenty times the fum. quires fome degree of eminence and 
The benefit that it produces to the honour, merely by entering the lifts: 
publick is, alfo, in proportion to the if the fcale hangs doubtful between 
benefit it confers on the individual ; ieveral, the gain of all is nearly e- 
for the more powerfully it excites qual ; for the mere pecuniary re- 
emulation, the more effectually it ward is but a very inconfiderable 
muft produce improvement : it is, part of the whole ; and even thole I 
at once, both ihe caufe and the re- whofe performances do not hold the 
ward of merit, in proportion, not judges in fufpenfe, will be drawn 
to its intrinfick value, but its relative out of a ftate of obfeurity, in which 
importance to the competitors : and, luch Abilities, as they poiiefs, might i 
in this view, the money appropri- have been buried forever ; they will] 
ated to encourage ingenuity and di- at leaft be known; they will have I 
ligence, is more improved than by their partilans ; they will be ftimu- 
any other application ; ior its value lated to new efforts, to juftify thel 
to the individual is mcreafed, per- partial opinions of their friends, 
haps, as an hundred to one, by the who will naturally encourage them,| 
maimer and circumftances in which in hopes that they may fucceed. 

On Comets, 



1 ■ ■ ; . 

\ Haft thou ne'er feen the comet's flaming flight ? 
Th' illuftrious ftranger pafling, terror fheds 
On gazing nations, from his fiery train 
Of length enormous; takes his ample round 
Through depths of ether; coafis unnumber'd worlds 
Of more than folar glory; doubles wide 
Heaven's mighty cape, and then revifits earth, 
From the long travel of a thoufand years. Young. 

THE aftronomy of comets may Taflb, who have been copied bv 
be properly faid to be yet Milton, in his fine companion of 
in its infancy, no advances having Satan to a comet : 
been made in it before the lalt cen- 
tury. With refpeft to the an- 
cients, they knew very little of 
their nature and motions. Some 

Incens'd with indignation Satan 

Un terrified, and 1 ike acometburn'd, 

confidered them as wandering ftars: That fires the length of Ophiucus 

Others fuppofed them to be mere 
appearances, formed either by re- 
flection or refractions of the fun's 
beams, having no real or diftindl 
fubllance from other Celeltial bo- 
dies. Others believed them to 

In the arCb'c fky, and from his 

horrid hair 
Shakes pettilence and war. 

Milton fi3s here exceeded his o* 

be fiery meteors, generated of bi- riginals in fublimity; and his com- 

tuminous exhalations ftom our ter- parifoo is applied with much great- 

raqueous globe, which, being ele- er propriety than theirs; for they 

vated to the higher regions of the defcribe only a mortal hero, but 

atmofphere, were there fet on fire, Milton is fpeaking of a iuperhu- 

and continued their appearance till man being. 1 fhall give two 

all their fulphureous particles were more quotations, in which, I think, 

confumed ; while others confider- the popular opinion is not only po- 

ed them only as ominous pheno- etically, but philoTophically, men- 

mena, difplayed by the Supreme tioned : 
Being, to terrify mankind, and 

warn them of the approach of fome 
dreadful calamity. Arid the fame 
opinion prevailed during the dark 
ages, between the decline of the 
Roman empire and the Reforma- 

The poets have frequently com- 
pared a hero in his mining armour 

In Fancy's eye encountering ar- 
mies glare, 

And fanguine enfigns wave uri- 
furl'd in air ! * 

Hence the weak vulgar deem im- 
pending fate, 

A monarch ruin'd, or unpeopled 

to a comet; and as poetry delights Thus comets, dreadful vifitantsj 

in omerts, prodigies, and fuch won- arife, 

derful events as were fuppofed to To them wild omens* fcience to 

follow upon the appearance of co- 
mets, eclipfes, and the like, they 
never fail to make fome allulion to 
the popular fu perdition, on this 
fubject. Thus Homer, Virgil, and 
Uni. Asyl. Vol. IV. No. 3. 

the ivi/ef 

Tbeje mark the comet to the fun 

* The Aurora Borealis, 


I5 g On Comets. 

While deep red flames around its The glorious Granger hail, f hey 

feel a joy 

Divinely great; they in their pow- 
ers exult, 

That wondrous force of thought, 
that mounting fpurns 

This dufky fpot, and meafures all 
the flcy ; 

While from his far excurfion thro' 
the wilds 

Of barren ether, faithful to his 

They fee the blazing wonder rife 

In feeming terror clad, but kindly 

To work the will of AU-fuftaining 
L,ove : 

From his huge vapoury train per- 
haps to make 

Reviving moifture' on the numer- 
ous orbs, 

Through which his long ellipfra 
winds; perhaps 

To lend new fuel to declining funs, 

To light up worlds, and feed th' 
eternal fire. 


centre mine ! 

While its fierce rear a winding tail 

And lights all ether with the 
fweeping blaze ! 

Or when, compell'J, it flies the 
torrid zone, 

And fhoots by worlds unnumber'd 
and unknown; 

Ey worlds, whofe people, all a- 
ghalt with fear, 

May view that minuter of ven- 
geance near! 

Till nowj the tranfient glow, re- 
mote and loft, 

Decays and darkens 'mid involv- 
ing frolt ! 

Or when it, fun ward, drinks rich 
beams again, 

And burns imperious on th' ethe- 
real plain ! 

The learn 'd- one curious eye3 it 
from afar, 

Sparkling through night, a new 
illultrious liar ! 


Amid the radiant orbs, 
That more than deck, that ani- 
mate the flcy, 
The life-infufing funs of other 
worlds ; 

When the terrors, which fuper* 

ftition and aftrology formerly ex-* 

cited, had fled before the dawn of 

philofophy ; when Newton, un- 

Lo! from the dread immenfity of folding the fyftem of the univerfe, 


Returning with accelerated courfe, 
The rufhing comet to the fun de- 

fcends ; 
And as lie finks below the fhaded 

With awful train projected o'er 

the heav'ns, 
The guilty nations tremble. But, 

Thofe fuperftitious horrors that 

The fond fequacious herd, to myf- 

tic faith 
And blind amazement prone, th' 

enlighten'd few 

had defcribed the laws by which 
the motions of comets are direct- 
ed, and Halley had carried, the 
theory of his illultrious predeceflbr 
to a high degree of certitude and 
perfection, their difcoveries gave 
rife to a new kind of anxiety and 
apprehenfion. It was feared, that 
fome of the comets, which move 
in all directions, through the dif* 
ferent regions of our planetary fyf- 
tem, might, fome time or other* 
meet with our earth in its courfe ; 
and it was fuppofed, that fome 
rencounters might have already 
happened, and produced revolu- 

Whofe god-like minds philofophy tions of which the veitiges : to 
CIa "*i be found in feveral parts of our 

On Comets, 

l 59 

globe. Thus Whifton considered 
the general flood as an inundation, 
produced by the tail of a comet, 
and fuppofed that the univerfal 
conflagration will be occalioned by 
the earth's meeting with one of 
thefe bodies, on its return from the 
fun. Maupertius imagined, that 
the tails of comets, by mixing 
their exhalations with our atmof- 
phere, might have a noxious in- 
fluence upon the health of animals, 
and the growth of plants. He 
farther apprehended, that their at- 
traction might, fome time or other, 
oblige our globe to change its or- 
bit, and to revolve about one of 
them, in the character cf a iatel- 
Jite, or, at Ieaft, expofe it to more 
violent viciffitudes of heat and cold 
than it experiences at prefent. But 
thefe terrors are merely vifionary; 
and have been refuted in an excel 
lent effay on this fubjedt,, by M. 
Dionis du Sujoir. This work, * 
which contains the belt theory of 
comets hitherto publifhed, has the 
double merit of having given new 
degrees of perfection and improve- 
ment to the fcience of aftronomy, 
and of calming the fears and ap- 
prehenfions of mankind, by (hew- 
ing, that we have abfolutely little 
or nothing to fear from thofe flam- 
ing bodies, which ignorance and 
fuperftition have rendered fo ter- 

Comets, according to Sir Ifaac 
Newton, are compacted, fixed, and 
durable bodies : in one word, a 
kind of planets ; which move in 
very oblique orbits, everyway, with 
the greatest freedom ; perfevering 
in their motions, even againft the 
courfe and direction of the planets; 
and their tail is a very thin {lender 
vapour, emitted by the head or 
nucleus of the comet, ignited or 
heated by the fun. 

From the lights which this great 

* F.iT.iir fur les Co metes en general, 
&c. Paris, 1775. 

philofopher has thrown upon this 
abftrule part of altronomy, there 
is reafon to think, that fucceeding 
aitronomers will carry it to the 
greate It degree of perfection. But, 
although we are indebted to him 
for a true theory of the motion of 
the comets, yet, with refpeel to 
the formation of their tails, and 
the ufes for which thefe great bo- 
dies are intended, his opinions have 
been controverted. Dr. Hamil- 
ton, in particular, in his " Philo- 
fophical Eflays," controverts Sir 
Ifaac's opinion. He afferts, from 
a view of the phenomena of a co- 
met, that the matter which con- 
ftitutes its tail, is not an illumi- 
nated vapour, but zjelf-Jhiningfub- 
Jiance, which, in all pofitions cf 
the comet, and whatever be the 
direction of its motion, whether 
towards or from the fun, is thrown 
off from its dark hemifphere, in a 
direction oppofite to the fun, a 
fhort time before and after its pe- 
rihelion, or neareit approach to 
that luminary. He finds, more- 
over, in the Aurora Borealis, a 
matter which greatly refembles it 
in appearance, its iituation, with 
regard to the fun, and to the bo- 
dy whence it flows, as well as in 
the nature of its fubltance, fo far 
as it is known to us : for the Aur 
rora Borealis is likewife a rare and 
lucid fubftance, thrown off in a di- 
rection nearly oppofite to the fun, 
from the dark hemifphere of the 
earth ; tending towards the zenith 
of the fpeftator, or the 'vertex of 
the earth's fhadow; rifing princi- 
pally from the northern part of 
the earth's atmofphere, and more 
frequently viiible while the fun is 
pilling throu h the fouthern fign.5* 
and the earth moving from the au- 
tumnal to the vernal equinox, thro' 
that half of its orbit which is near- 
ell to the fun; and, laflly, not in- 
tercepting, in any fcntible degree, 
the light of the ftwd Uavi. fo th?.:, 

I So On Comets. 

to a f; eclat or placed at a confider- ally, and at laft totally difappeats; 

able diftance from the earth, and and, inltead of being an electrical 

fhaded from the fun's light, it muft condu&or, which it was in its per- 

apptat as a tail to the earth ; fmall ihelion, it attracts the fluid, is 

indeed, in proportion to the earth's charged with if anew, and thus 

diameter; but, in its direction, li- becomes electric until its approach 

tuation, tranfparenry, and lucid to the fun, and the heat it acquires 

app arance, rt&mbling that of a thereby, change it again into a 

comet. conductor." f 

Abbe Mann, a learned Englifh- From the prodigious activity of 

man. long refident at Brufftls, has the electrical fluid, its tendency to, 

likeuife (hewn, by unanfwerable afcajpe from the bodies which con- 

arglime'nts, that there is a ma- tain it, and to diffufe itielf in the 

ni&ft and perfect analogy be- vaft planetary regions, which come 

taeen the tails of thefe great and the neareft to void l'pace, the in- 

Inminous bodies, and the Aurora genious abbe draws fome conjec- 

Borealis. Hence he concludes, tines, relative to the ufes, and the 

that they both proceed from the end. which comers mayierve, in the 

fame principle, and are formed of planetary fyftem. He ihinks, that 

the fame matter; that trey are e- con. els are real electrical bodies, 

manations of the electrical fluid defined to collect the electrical 

from their refpective bodies, and fluid, which has efcaped from the 

that this fluid often becomes a planets: that the comets, heated 

phlogifton, by the heterogeneous by their approximation to the fun, 

mixtures which it carries along communicate this fluid anew to 

with it in this emanation, which the planets, and thus the pcrpetu- 

accounts for the different colours, al circulation of this active fluid, 

and other circum fiances, in thefe fo neceffary to the great ivhole, is 

meteors " As electrics," fays maintained, and renewed, inceflant- 

the abbe, " when fufliciently heat- ly ; and that the operations of na- 

ed, become conductors of the e- ture, in the planetary fyftem, are 

ledtrical fluid, and yield emana- carried on in a manner analogous 

tions of it, in proportion to the to what we conftaiuly obferve, and 

quantity they naturally contain : experience, in the perpetual circu- 

this is precifcly the cafe with the lations of our atmofphere, where 

earth and the comets, in their pe- winds, vapours, and exhalations, 

rihelia. The approach of the co- rife and float ; then return to us in 

mets to the fun, and the fupera- rain, fnow, and fulminating ex- 

bundant degree of heat, which they plofions; and then again are exhal- 

reccive from tin's approach, difpofe ed, and raifed anew. " Every 

them to fend forth a proportional thing," he judicioufly obferves, 

pin of the electrical fluid, whofe «' is analogous and harmonical, in 

cmiflton produces all the phenc- univerfal nature." 

mena we obferve in the tails of co- I fhall conclude this paper with 

mets, the Aurora Boreali&, and fe- the moral refledions of an elegant 

veral electrical experiments. Thefe writer: f " 1 cannot forbear re- 

phenomena, therefore; have the fleeting on the inrignificance of hu- 

fame caufe, and one common prin- man ait, when fet in comparifon 
ciple. In the recefs of the comet, 

and its increafing diftance from * Memoir concerning Elementary Ejre, 

the fun, this viiible cmiffion of e- £, c ; ^"JJ 1 " ° f the Academ 5' at Bruf " 

irctrical matter diminifhes gradu- J Guardian, No. 103. 

The Influence of Utility. 


ith the defigns of Providence, muft the univerfe be, that gives 

In the purfuit of this thought, I 
confidered a comet, or, in the lan- 
guage of the vulgar, a blazing ftar, 
as a fky-rocket difcharged by a 
hand that is Almighty. Many of 

fuch bodies as thefe their full play, 
without fuffering the lead diforder 
or confufion by it! What a glori- 
ous fliew are thofe beings enter- 
tained with, that can look into the 

my readers faw that in the year great theatre of nature, and fee 

1680, and, if they are not mathe- myriads of fuch tremendous ob- 

maticians, will be amazed to hear, jects, wandering through thofe im- 

that it travelled with a much great- meafurable depths of ether, and 

er degree of fwiftnefs than a can- 
non-ball, and drew after it a tail 
of fire, that was fourfcore millions 
of miles in length. What amaz- 
ing thought is it, to confider this 
ftupendous body traverfing the im- 
menfity of the creation, with fuch 
a rapidity, and, at the fame time, 
wheeling about in that line, which 

running their appointed courfes I 
Our eyes may hereafter be ftrong 
enough to command this magnifi- 
cent profpedt, and our undeiftand- 
ings able to find out the feveral 
ufes of thefe great parts of the u- 
niverfe. In the mean time, they 
are very proper objects for our i- 
rnagination to contemplate, that 

the Almighty has prefcribed for we may form more exalted notions 

it ! That it mould move in fuch of infinite wifdom and power, and 

inconceivable fury and combuftion, learn to think humbly of onrfelves, 

and, at the fame time, with fuch an and all the little works of humble 

exact regularity! How fpacious invention." 

..<..<"<»«^g> <^g -0. ^ •■< 4»>- §& £fr<0> 5^>»->">»>» 

Of the Beauty which the appearance of Utility bejioivj upon all the. 
Productions of Art, and of the extenfive Influence of this Species 
of Beauty. By Adam Smith, L. L. D. 

THAT utility is one of the 
principal fources of beauty 
has been obferved by every body, 
who has confidered, with any at- 
tention, what conftitutes the na- 
ture of beauty. The conveniency of 
a houfe gives pleafure to the fpec- 
tator, as well as its regularity, and 
he is as much hurt when he ob- 
ferves the contrary defect, as when 
he fees the correfpondent windows 
of different forms, or the door not 
placed exactly in the middle of the 
building. That the fitnefs of any 
fyftem or machine to produce the 
end for which it was intended, be- 
ftows a certain propriety and beau- 
ty upon the whole, and renders the 
very thought and contemplation of 
it agreeable, is fo very obvious 
that no body hus cvcrlookcd it. 

The utility of any object pleafes 
the matter, by perpetually fuggeft- 
ing to him, the pleafure or conve- 
niency which it is fitted to pro- 
mote. Every time he looks at it, 
he is put in mind of this pleafure; 
and the object, in this manner, be- 
comes a fonrce of perpetual fatis- 
faction and enjoyment. The fpec- 
tator enters, by fympathy, into the 
fentiments of the m after, and ne- 
ceflarily views the object under the 
fame agreeable afpect. When we 
vifit the palaces of the great, we 
cannot help conceiving the fatis- 
faction we fhould enjoy, if we our- 
felves were the matters, and were 
podefTed of fo much artful, andinge- 
nioufly contrived accommodation. 
A fimilar account is given, why the 
appearance of inconveniency fnould 


The hjluence of Utility. 

render anyobject. difagreeable, both 
to the owner and to the fpectator- 
But that this fitnefs, this hap- 
py contrivance, of any production 
of art, fliould often be more valu- 
ed, than the very end for which 
it was intended ; and that the ex- 
a<ft acquitment of the means, for 
attaining any conveniency or plea- 
fure, fhould frequently be more 
regard:d, than that very conve- 
niency or pleafure, in the attain- 
ment of which their whole mer- 
it would feem to conlift, has 
not, fo far as I know, been yet 
taken notice of by any body. 
That this, however, is very fre- 
quently the cafe, may be obferv- 
ed in a thoufand inltances, both in 
the mod frivolous, and in the mod 
important, concerns of human life. 
When a perfon comes into his 
chamber, and finds the chairs all 
Handing in the middle of the room, 
he is angry with his fervant, and, 
rather than fee them continue in 
that diforder, perhaps takes the 
trouble himfelf to fet them all in 
their places, with their backs to 
the wall. The whole propriety 
of this new fituation, arifes from 
its conveniency, in leaving the floor 
free and difengaged. To attain 
this conveniency, he, voluntarily, 
puts himfelf to more trouble, than 
all he could have fuffered from the 
want of it; fiuce nothing was more 
cafy, than to have fet himfelf down 
upon one of them, which is, pro- 
bably, what he does when his la- 
bour is over. What he wanted 
therefore, it feems, was not fo 
much this conveniency, as that ar- 
rangement of things which pro- 
motes it. Yet it is this convt- mon- 
ey which, ultimately, recommends 
that arrangement, and beltows up- 
on it the whole of its propriety 
and beauty. 

A watch, in the fame manner, 
that falls behind, above two mi- 
autcs in a d::y, i, defpifed by one 

curious in watches. He fells it, 
perhaps, for a couple of guineas, 
and purchafes another at fifty, 
which will not lofe above a minute 
in a fortnight. The fole ufe of 
watches, however, is to tell us what; 
o'clock it is, and to hinder us from 
breaking any engagement, or fuf- 
fering any other inconveniency, by 
our ignorance in that particular 
point. But the perfon fo nice 
with regard to this machine, will 
not always be found either more 
fcrupuloufly punctual than other 
men, or more anxioufly concerned, 
upon any other account, to know 
precifely what time of day it is. 
What interefts him is not fo much 
the attainment of this piece of 
knowledge, as the perfection of 
the machine, which ferves to attain 

How many people ruin them- 
felves, by laying outmoney on trin- 
kets of frivolous utility ? What 
pleafes thefe lovers of toys is not 
fo much the utility, as the aptnefs 
of the machines, which are fitted 
to promote it. All their pockets 
are Huffed with little conveniences. 
They contrive new pockets, un- 
known in the clothes of other peo- 
ple, in order to carry a greater 
number. They walk about load- 
ed with a multitude of baubles, in 
weight, and fometimes in value, 
not inferior to an ordinary Jews- 
box, fome of which may fome- 
times be of fome little ufe, but all 
of which might, at all times, be 
very well f pared, and of which the 
whole utility, iscertainly, not worth 
the fatigue of bearing the burden. 

Nor is it only with regard to 
A:ch frivolousobjeds, that our con- 
duct is influenced by this princi- 
ple ; it is often the fecret motive 
of the moft ferious and important 
purfuits, of both private and pub- 
lic life. 

The poor man's fon, whom hea- 
ven in its anger has vifited with 

Premiums for promoting Agriculture, 163 

ambition, when he begins to look tors. He endeavours next to bring 

around him, admires the condition thofe talents into public view, and, 

of the rich. He finds the cottage of with equal afliduity, folicits every 

his father too fmall for his accom- opportunity of employment. For 

modation, and fancies he (hould this purpofe he makes his court to 

be lodged more at his eafe in a pa- all mankind; he ferves thofe whom 

lace. He is difpleafed with being he hates, and is obfequious to thofe 

obliged to walk a-foot, or to en- whom he defpifes. Through the 

dure the fatigue of riding on horfe- whole of his life, he purfues the i- 

back. He fees his fuperiors car- dea of a certain artificial and ele- 

ried about in machines, and ima- gant repofe, which he may never 

gines that in one of thefe he could arrive at, for which he facrifkes a 

travel with lefs inconveniency. He real tranquillity, that is, at all times, 

feelshimfelf naturally indolent, and in his power, and which, if in the 

willing to ferve himfelf, with his extremity of old age he (hould at 

own hands, as little aspoffible; and laft attain to it, he will find to be 

judges, that a numerous retinue of in no refpeel preferable to that 

fervants would fave him from a humble fecurity, and contentment, 

great deal of troubb. He thinks, which he had abandoned for it. 

if he had attained all thefe, he Jt is then, in the laft dregs of life, 

could fit Hill contentedly, and be his body wafted with toil and dif- 

quiet, enjoying himfelf, in the eafes, his mind galled and ruffled 

thought of the happinefsand tran- by the memory of a thoufand in- 

quillity of his fituation. He is juries and difappointments, which, 

enchanted with the diftant idea of he imagines he has met with, from 

this felicity. It appears, in his theinjufticeof his enemies, or from 

fancy, like the life of fome fuperi- the perfidy and ingratitude of his' 

or rank of beings, and, in order friends, that \\z begins, at laft, to 

to arrive at it, he devotes himfelf, find that wealth and greatnefs arc 

for ever, to the purfuit of wealth mere trinkets of frivolous utility, 

and greatnefs. To obtain the con- no more adapted for procuring eafe 

veniencies which thefe afford, he of body, or tranquillitv of mind, 

fubmits, in the fir ft year, nay, in than the tweezer-ca<es of the lover 

the fir ft month, of his application, of toys; and like them too, more 

to more fatigue of body, and more troublefome to the perfon who car- 

uneafinefs of mind, than he could ries them about with him, than all 

have fuffered through the whole of the advantages they can afford him 

his life, from the want of them, are commodious. There is no o- 

He ftudies to diftinguifh himfelf in ther real difference between them, 

fome laborious profeffion. With except that the conveniences of 

the moll unrelenting induftry, he the one, are fomewhat more ob- 

labours, night and day, to acquire fervable than thofe of the other, 
talents fuperior to all his competi- (To be continued,) 

Premiums, propofed by the Philadelphia Society, for promoting 
Agriculture, for the Tear 1790. 

I. large or fmall, on not lefs than four 

FOR the bed experiment made acres, agreeably to the Englifh 

of a courfe of crops, either mode of farming, a piece of 

1 64 Premiums for -promoting Agriculture. 

plate, of the value of two hundred 
dollars, infcribed with the name 
and the occafion ; and for the ex- 
periment made of a courfe of crops, 
next in merit, — a piece of plate, 
likewife infcribed, of the value of 
one hundred dollars. Certificates 
to be produced by the 20th of De- 
cember, 1790. 

The importance of complete 
farm or fold yards, for (heltering 
and folding cattle, — and of the belt 
method of conducting the fame, fo 
as to procure the greateft quanti- 
ties oi compoft, or mixed dung 
and manure, from within the farm, 
induces the fociety to give, for the 
belt defign of fuch a yard, and 
method of managing it, practica- 
ble by common farmers, — a gold 
medal ; and for the fecond beft, — 
a filver medal. The defign to be 
prefented to the fociety by the 
20th of December, 1790. 


For the beft method of raifing 
hogs, from the pig, in pens or 
flies, from experience, their fome- 
tinies running in a lot or field not 
totally excluded, if preferred, — 
a gold medal; and for the fecond 
beft, — a filver medal. To be pro- 
duced by the 20th of December, 


For the beft method of recover- 
ing worn-out fields to a more hear- 
ty ftate, within the power of com- 
mon farmers, without dear or far- 
fetched manures ; but, by judici- 
ous culture, and the application 
of materials common to the gener- 
ality of farmers, founded in expe- 
rience, — a gold medal ; and for 
the fecond beft,— a filver medal. 
To be produced by the 20th of 
December, 1790. 


For the beft experiment, foil 

and other cjreuraftances confider* 
ed, in trench-ploughing, not left 
than ten inches deep, and accounts 
of the effects thereof, alreadymade, 
or to be made, on not lefs than 
one acre, — a gold medal; and for 
the fecond beft, — a filver medal. 
To be produced by the 20th of 
December, 1790. 


For the beft information, the 
refult of actual experience, for pre- 
venting crops from damage by in- 
fects; efpecially the Heflian-fly, 
the wheat-fly, or fly-weevil, the 
pea-bug, and the corn chinch-bug 
or fly, — a gold medal; arid a filver 
medal for the fecond beft. To be 
produced by the 20th of Decem- 
ber, 1790. 


For the beft comparative expe- 
riments on the culture of wheat, 
by fowing it in the common broad 
caft way, by drilling it, and by 
fetting the grain, with a machine, 
equi-diftant ; the quantities ot feed 
and produce proportioned to the 
ground, being noticed, — a gold 
medal ; for the fecond beft, — a fil- 
ver medal. The account to be 
produced by the loth of Januarys 

1 79 I - 

For an account of a vegetable 
food that may be eafily procured 
and preferved, and that beft in- 
creafes milk in cows and ewes, in 
March and April, founded on ex- 
periment, — a gold medal; for the 
fecond beft, — a filver medal. To 
be produced by the 10th of Janu- 
ary, 179L 


For the greateft quantity of 
ground, not lefs than one acre, 
well fenced, producing locuft trees, 
growing in j 790, from feed fown 
after April 5th, 1785; the trees 
to be of the fort ufed for polls and 

Premiums for promoting Agriculture. \ 6$ 

trunnels, and not fewer than 1500 particulars, and the expence of 

per acre, — a gold medal ; for the 
fecond, — a filver medal. To be 
claimed in December, 1790. 


The fociety, believing that very- 
important advantages would be de- 
rived from the general ufe of oxen, 
inftead of horfec, in hufbandry and 
other fervices ; and being defirous 
of facilitating their introduction in- 
to all thefe ftates ; perfuaded alfo, 
that the comparative value of oxen 
and cows mult very much depend 
on the qualities of their fires and 
dams; and that by a careful atten- 
tion to the fubjedt., an improved 
breed may be obtained ; they pro- 
pofe a gold medal for the beft efTay, 
the refult of experience, on the 
breeding, feeding, and management 
of cattle, for the purpofe of ren- 
dering them moll profitable for the 
dairy, and for beef, and mod docile 
and ufeful for the draught ; and for 
the next beft, a filver medal. To 
be produced by the firft of January, 

N. B. Among other things the 
effay fhould notice the different 
breeds of cattle, and their com- 
parative qualities ; as their fizes, 
ftrength, facility in fattening, quan- 
tity of milk, &c. 


Tt is a generally received opinion, 
that horfes in a team travel much 
fafter than oxen ; yet fome Euro- 
pean writers on hufbandry mention 
many inftances, in which it appear- 
ed, not only that oxen would plough 
as much ground as an equal number 
of horfes, but alfo travel as fall with 
a loaded carriage; particularly when, 
inftead of yokes and bows, they were 
geared in horfe-harnefs, with fuch 
variations as were neeeffary to adapt 
it to their different mape. To af- 
certain the powers of oxer; in thefe 

Uni. Asyl. Vol. IV. No. 3. 

maintaining them, the fociety deem 
matters of very great moment; and 
are therefore induced to offer a gold 
medal for the beft fet of experiments 
undertaken with that view ; and for 
the next beft, a filver medal. In re- 
lating thefe experiments, it will be 
proper to defcribe the age and fize 
of the oxen, their plight, the kinds 
and quantities of their food, the oc- 
cafions, manner, and expence of 
fhoeing them : in travelling, the 
kinds of carriages ufed, and weight 
of their loads, andTeafons of the 
year, and the length and quality of 
the roads : and, in ploughing, the 
fize and fafhion of the plough, the 
qual'ty of the foil, the depth of the 
furrows, and the quantises plough- 
ed : and, in every operation, the 
time expended, and number and 
forts of hands employed in perform- 
ing it ; with any other circu relian- 
ces which may more fully elucidate 
the fubjeel:. Thefe experiments will 
enable the effayift to determine what 
will be the belt form and conftruc- 
tion of yokes and bows, and what 
of ox-harnefs, to enable the oxen, 
with the beft carriage of their bo- 
dies and heads, the moft eafe, and 
quickeft ft'.p, to draw the heavieft 
loadb; a defcription of each of which 
fort of gears, explained on mechan- 
ical principles, muft be fubjoined to 
the account of experiments. To be 
produced by the lit day of January, 


For the beft method, within the 
power of common farmers, of re- 
covering eld gullied fields to an 
hearty (late, and fuch uniformity 
or evennefs of furface, as will 
again render them fit for tillage; or 
where the gullies are (o deep and 
numerous as to render fuch recove- 
ry impracticable, for the beft me* 
thjoci of improving them, by plant- 
ing trvCS, or otherwiic, fo as to yield 

1 66 Premiums for promoting Agriculture. 

the improver a reafonable profit for 
his expences therein, founded on 
experiment,— a gold medal ; and 
for the next beft, a filver medal. To 
be produced by the ill of January, 


For the greateft quantity, not lefs 
than five hundred pounds, weight, 
of cheefe, made on one farm in any 
of thefe dates, eqi^l in richnefs and 
flavour to the Gloucester cheefe, hi- 
therto ufually imported from Eng- 
land, and which (hall be produced 
to the fociety by the I ft day of Ja- 
nuary 1791. — a gold medal; and 
for the next greateft quantity, not 
lefs than two hundred and fifty 
pounds weight, of like quality, — a 
filver medal. 


For the beft method, deduced 
from experience, of railing the A- 
merican white-thorn from the feed, 
for hedges, and the greateft number 
of plants raifed in a fpace not lefs 
than half an acre, — a gold medal; 
for the fecond belt, — a filver medal. 
To be produced by the fir It of De- 
cember, 1790. 


The fociety, believing that the 
culture of hemp on forue of the low 
rich land in the neighbourhood of 
this city, may be attempted with 
advantage, do hereby offer a gold 
medal for the greateft quantity of 
hemp raifed within ten miles of the 
city of Philadelphia. The quanti- 
ty not to be lefs than three ton ; 
for the fecond greateft quantity, — 
a filver medal. The claim to be 
made by the fh ftof December. 1 79 1 . 

*»* It will be left to the choice 
of thofe fuccefsful candidates for 

prizes, who may be entitled to the* 
plate of gold medals, to receive the 
fame either in plate or medals, or 
the equivalent thereof in money. 

The claim of every candidate for 
a premium, is to be accompanied 
with, and fupported by, certificate* 
of refpectable perfons, of competent 
knowledge of the fubject. And it 
is required, that the matters, for 
which premiums are offered, be de- 
livered in without names, or any 
intimation to whom they belong ; 
that each particular thing be mark- 
ed, in what manner the claimant 
thinks fit ; fuch claimant, fending 
with it a paper fealed up, having, on 
the outride, a correfponding, mark, 
and, on the infide, the claimant's 
name and addrefs. 

Refpecting experiments on the 
products of land, circum fiances of 
the previous and fubfequent ftate of 
the ground, particular culture giv- 
en, general Hate of the weather, 
&c. will be proper to be in the ac- 
count exhibited. Indeed in all ex- 
periments and reports of tacts, it 
will be well to particularize the cir 
cumftances attending them. It is 
recomm tided that reafoning be not 
mixed with the facts ; after Hating 
the latter, the former may be add- 
ed, and will be acceptable. 

Although the fociety referve to 
themfelves the power of giving, in 
every cafe, either one or the other 
of the prizes, (or premiums) as the 
performance (hall be judged to de- 
ferve, or of withholding both, if 
there be no merit; yet the candi- 
dates may be afTured, that the foci- 
ety will always judge liberally of 
their fcveral claims. 

Publifhed by order of the fociety, 
Samuel Powel Griffitts, 

Philadelphia, March 9, 1790. 

Of ^j dck-Ume , Sec. 


0/* Quick-lime, and other Calcareous Subftances, as 


(Continued from page no) 

IF twis be fpread out thinly upon 
the fur face of the earth, it sb- 
forbs its air in a very fhort time. — - 
A few hours, in this foliation, re- 
Itores a large proportion of its air ; 
and, in a day or two at molt, it 
becomes perfectly effete ; as mafons 
experience when they fvveep toge- 
ther the fcattered particles that have 
lain round their heaps of lime, and 
attempt to u(e it in mortar by itfelf: 

ufe to the farmer if calcination were 
abfoluteiy ncceflary. But, feeing 
this is not the cafe, lime-ftcne, even 
in thefe fituations, may be convert- 
ed into a moil beneficial manure, if 
a ftream of water can be command- 
ed Sufficient fordiivinga mill for 
reducing the ftone to powder. 

I have feen the model of a mill 
that had been invented for that pur- 
pofe, which was constructed on the 

For it is then no more coherent than fame principles with an ordinary 

land, or moiltened earth gun-powder mill It had feveral 

Hence, then, it mult follow, that, large ma fly Hampers, compofed of 

in every cafe, time is converted in- huge blocks of calt iron, that were 

to the fame Itate with lime-ftone, in fucceffively lifted up and let fall by 

a few days after it is mixed with a a wheel that catched their bandies, 

the foil ; fo that, if it produces any and, after a proper time, flipped 

effect at all av lime y — as a faline them again as it revolved round its 

iubftance, — it mult only be at the axis — Thefe Stampers fell with 

very fir ft when it is applied ; and it great force upon the lime-ftone, that 

mult act ever afterwards merely as had been previoufly broken into 

powdered lime- /lone. pieces of a moderate iize, and placed 

But it is well known, that lime in a Itrong trough formed for that 

produces fcarcely any fenfible ef- 
fect as a manure at the beginning. 
— Even the firlt year after it is ap- 
plied to the foil, its effects are in- 
. confiderable, in companion of What 

purpofe. — Through this trough, a 
fmall itream of water was convey- 
ed, which wafhed away with it the 
fmall pieces of lime-ftone, as they 
were fucceffively reduced to pow- 

it produces in- the fecond aud fuc- der by the itampers. This Itream 

(deeding years — From whence we of water was received into a large 

mult conclude, that it operates up- refervoir, in which it was allowed 

on the foil merely as a mild calcare- to ltagnate, and depofit, as a fedi- 

ous earth ; and that its calcination ment, the lime-ftone powder it 

is of no farther utility in preparing brought along with it ; the pure 

it for manure, than as a cheap and water flowing gently over a part of 

efficacious method of reducing the the brim, which was made lower 

lime-ftone to fine powder. 

It is of importance that thefe 
facts fhould be generally known ; — 
becaufe it may Sometimes happen 
that good lime-ltone fhall be found 
in places where fuel cannot be ob- 
tained for burning it ; in which 
cafe, fuch lime-ltone could be of no 

for tfiat purpofe. 

When the refervoir was nearly 
full of this fine powder, the work 
was ftopped. The water was drawn 
off from the refervoir, by taking 
out fome plugs left for that purpofe, 
at different heights, till all that was 
clear had run off. — The powdered 


ft one was afterwards thrown out to 

B bank, and allowed to dry fuffi- 

ciently fur ufe. 

I have heard that a mfll upon 

thefe principle!, wis erected by the 

'Indices for managing the forfeited 

< ib^te.s in Scotland, and that a good 

c!c il of iiiye Hone wa< pounded with 

if — But as it was erected in the 

Highlands of Scotland, where roads 

wcic bad, and where there was but 

little Jpirit for improvements in a- 

euhure ; — as There was no pub- 

l-ck demand for the man tire, after 

the experiment was (bfficiently tried 

to /how that it might be pracliled 

with advantage in other place-;, the 

mil was fullered to lie unemployed. 

But, although this may be conli- 

ed as a molt valuable difcovery 
* ,■ * 

l.<r ;!:o:e who may have a good 
lime-quarry, lb Gtuated as not to be 
within the reach qf any kind of fuel 
for burning hme-iio'.ie; — yet, to' 
fuch as can obtain fuel at a moderate, there can be no doubt but 
that bu: ning is ihe eafieft, and mcfl 
efficacious mode of reducing lime- 
Hone to powder that ever was in-i 
vented ; and therefore ought al- 
ways to be adopted, where neceflity 
does not prevent it. 

Reducing lime-ftone to powder 
by calcination, is attended with this 
farther advantage to the farmer, 
that it confiderably his 
expellee of carriage — Pure lime- 
Hone lofes about two thirds of its 
weight by being thoroughly burned ; 

Gf Quick-lime, Sec, 

felves to a very heavy charge in 
carriage, which would be avoided 
by an oppofne conduct. This* 

therefore, ought never to be prac- 
tifed, but w here other circumftances 
may counterbalance this unfavoura- 
ble one. 

Bur, as lime-ftone is often, in its 
native ftate, mixed with land in" 
various proportions ; — and, as fand 
lofes nothing of its weight by calci- 
nation, it mull happen, that thofe 
kinds of lime-ftone that contain the 
largeft proportion of fand will lofe 
leaft by calcination ; and, of courie, 
afford the weio;hrieft Itme-fheils. 

Hence, it is obvious, that thofe 
W ho ire under the neceflity of driv- 
ing lime from a great, 
ought to be particularly careful to 
mjike choice (>f a kind of lime-ftone 
as free from fand as poffible, and to 
drive it in the ftate of fhclls ; as 
they will thus obtain an equal quan- 
tity of manure at the leaft cxpence 
of carriage that is poflible. 

When lime is flaked, that which 
contains molt fand falls molt quick- 
ly, and abforbs the fmalleft propor- 
tion of water. — What is pure re- 
quires a very large proportion of 
water, and is much longer before 
it begins to fall. 

Hence it happens, that thofe who 
drive fandy lime-fhells in open car- 
riages, mult be very careful to 
guard againlt rain ; becaufe a hea- 
vy fhower would make the whole 

fall, and generate fuch a heat, as to 
lo that the man who is obliged to be in danger of letting the carts on 
drive this manure from a great dif- fire. Whereas pure lime-fnells 

tance, will find a very conliderable 
laving by driving it in the ftate of 

Jhd.'s. But, it it were reduced 

to a powder, by mechanical triture, 
he could not be benefitted by this 

Many perfons choofc to drive 
lime-ftone from a coniiderable dif- 

:e, and burn it at home: 

Bur, u i 3 obvious they fubject them- 

are in no danger of being damaged 
by that circumltance. — I have feen 
a cart loaded with fuch fhells, which 
had been expofed to a continued 
fhower of rain,' as violent as is ever 
known in this country, for more 
than three hours, and feemed hardly 
to be affected by it in the fmalleft 

Lime-fhells formed from the pur- 

Letters to, and jrom, 

fit lime-ftone, require more than 
I their own weight of water to flake 
them properly*; — whereas fome 
kinds of lime-ihellthat contain much 
i land, do not require above one 
fourth part of that quantity. 

Hence, it is much worfe oecono- 
my in tbcfe who have pure limc- 
fhell, to flake and carry them home 
in the (late of powdered lime, than 
it is in thole who have only a Tandy 
kind of lime-ihells. 

It is even, on fome occafkms, 
more advifcable for thole who have 
very fandy lime to drive it in the 
ftate of powdered lime, than in that 
oi'/I.\ j //s. For, as it is dangerous to 
give that kind of lime-ftone too much 
heat, left it mould be vitrified, thofe 
who burn it can never be certain 
that the whole of the ftone will fall 
to powder when water is added, 

till they have actually tried ir. 

Nor do they think it a great lols if 
fome part of it mould be imperfectly 
burned, as it requires much lefs fuel 
on a future cccalion than freih lime- 
ftone ; and therefore they much ra- 
ther chufe to err on this than on the 
pppolite extreme. 

But, fnou'd any one attempt to 
drive this poor fort of lime in the 
ftate of Jhilisy he would be in dan- 
ger cf carrying home many ftcnes 
that would never/?//, which would 
more than counterbalance the bene- 

the King of Sweden. 169 

fit that would be derived from the 
want of the fmall quantity of water 
that is required to Hake it. 

On thefe accounts, it may be ad- 
mitred as a general rule, that thofe 
who can have accefs to lime-ftone 
thct is free of fan d, will fa ve a great 
deal in the carriage of it by driving 
it in the ftate oijhclls : — and that, 
on the contrary, it will be moft e- 
conomical in thofe who can only get 
lime of a very fandy quality, to 
drive it in the ftate of powdered 

From hence it follows, that the 
practice which now prevails of car- 
rying (bell-lime by water from one 
part of the country to another, is 

)oie %\ho 
drive Ihells ot a fandy quality ; But 
a real and unequivocal advantage'ef 
very high importance to the com- 
munity at large, if thefe 'Melts 
are obtained from a pure lime- 

Thefe obfervations relate only to 
the faving of carriage to the farmer 
— an article of capital importance 

to him.— It is proper now to take 

notice of fome -other particulars that 
may equally affect him in this way, 
as well as in the application of the 
lime to his ground. 

(To be continued.) 

only an imaginary faving, obtained 
at a very high riique, to thoft 

-\^*&^^&^^<& °§«<$>*<£r°Q«£r- 

For the Universal Asylum, and Columbian Magazine. 

Mr.. Epitor, 

THE king of Sweden ftands great meafure owing to an excel- 
high in the opinion of man- lent education. His tutors were 
kind. He has ail thole qualities cf men of the fir ft talent*, who with 
(lie head and heart which make a a manly freedom improved his 
great man. This happinefs is in a mind with the rubleft precepts of 

* I have found, by experiment, that pure lime-iheUs cannot be fluked with lefs 
than one fourth more than their own weight of water. When Hacked in the ordina- 
ry way, the fume lime-fhclls took more than double their weight of water. 

170 Letters to, and from, 

truth and virtue. He was firft un- 
der the care of Count Sheffin.* 
Count SchefFer fucceeded him. The 
epiftolary correfpondence between 
this nobleman and his royal pupil 
deferves to be generally known; 
as it was never tranflatcd into En- 
gliili, the following extracts may 
be acceptable for the Univerfal Afy- 
lum and Columbian Magazine. The 
letrers of the prince were printed 
without the leait revifion from any 
per(on,and, in his early age, difplay 
the bloflbms of that fenfe and good- 
nefs, which have proved fo fruitful 
in bieflings to his country. 

Count SchefFer to his Royal High- 

The rjfll of March, I75of. 

THE feveial letters received 
from your Royal Highnefs, are lb 
many marks of frieudfhip, which 
lay me under a great obligation. 
Finding you capable of fuch regular 
and affiduous correfpondence, I 
have no more any fears from that 
volatility of which I complained fo 
much. To excufe my want of 
punctuality, I might pretend a de- 
fign to try your constancy ; but I 
confefs without any dilfimulation, 
that various amufements, ball-, and 
ftltivities, have diverted me from 
anfwering youi letters. I promile 
your Royal Highnefs to be more ex- 
act for the future. 

The king of Spain ftru ggles ob- 
ithiately againft death.' The king 
of Portugal has had a narrow el- 
c ;pe from the alfiflins. Our age 
is very bad ; yet had I my choice 
of thi« or the p*ft, I ihould not know 
how to choole : prefent evil is what 
we feel moft fenfibly. 

Adieu, gracious prince. 

the King of Sweden. 

His Royal Highnefs to Count 
The iSth of March, 1759V 

YOU blame me for levity, my 
dear fir, but if either of us is vela- 
tile, it mull be yourfelf. Durisg- 
the whole winter I have written to j 
you very regularly, and frequently 
complained of your filence ; yet this 
is the firft letter I have received.! 
You muft be in the wrong, by your 
own coufeffion, as diveriions have 
been the caufe of your neglect. But 
enough of this ; I "am fatisfied with 
your promife of greater attention. 

You think that the Spamih mo- 
narch dies very flowly ; I am of a 
contrary opinion : would you Hill 
have us to drefs in black ? For two 
years one mourning has fucceeded 
another; and now, when we hope 
foon to get clear of it, you want the 
king of Spain to die ! Pardon me 
fir, we have had enough of this ! 
Adieu, &c. 

Count SchefFer to his Royal 

I MUST iuppofe, my dear prince, 
that you deem the colour of your 
clothes an important object, as you 
lament fo much the neceffity of 
wearing black. Our friendfhip 
gives me the liberty to tell you that 
this is called in good French, to be 
a great petit maitre. 

To give you a contempt of this 
cha rafter, permit me the honour of 
alibiing you, that it will depreciate 
you in the eyes of men, and yet 
more with the ladies. The fair 
ftx, though cenfured for their fon#l- 
nefs of trifles, form neverthelefs a 
very good judgment of ours; they 
require from us folid fenfe and 
manly tafte ; and this certainly is 
not conliftent with folicitude about 
ornaments. Yet, I pray you not 

* Sec letters between a young prince and an old man. 
f The king was born in January, 1746. 

Addvefs to the citizens of New -J erf ey. 171 

to confound a love of finery with an 
elegant neatnefs ; which I warmly 
recommend. I know you have 
good logick in your head, and, in 
general, reafon very well, but here 
you have made a flip. You affect 
magnificence, but you care not to 
be genteel. Believe me, my dear 
prince, that I fliould be very forry 

to fee your drefs admired, and your 
perfon lefs pleating. 

Yours to the I ail moment. 

Anfwer from the Prince. 

YOUR reproach is juft. All I 

can fay in palliation of my fault is, 

that I do not fancy black, and like 

a change in drefs. Yours, &c. 

Address to the landholders , and other citizens, of New- 
Jerfey, (halving the practicability, and advantages, of 
efiablifhing ufeful manufactories in that State. 

T \ 7'E are guilty of innumerable publick debt to a feather in the fcale. 

V V and ailonifhing neglects of The expences of our police will be 

advantages, that are fully in our thereby reduced, for rum is the 

power, and we extravagantly con- fruitful par -ent of quarrels and 'crimes. 

fume articles, expenfively imported We {hall increafe the induftry of 

from foreign countries, for which our people, for rum is the' mifchiev- 

we have excellent fubftitutes, with- ous promoter of idlenefs, and the de- 

in ourfelves. It is not intended [troyer of hu??ian flrength. We fhall 

merely to afferf thefe things, but make wider, and more direct, the 
to prove them to your under/landings. • way to future happinefs, for rum is 

The foreign ipirituous liquors, the caufe of fins, more numerous 

viz, rum, brandy, gin, &c. con- than the grains of fund upon our 

fumed in New-Jeriey, amounted /bores. Let, then, the prudent 

to, at leaft, one hundred and farmer, the attentive landholder, 

seventy thousand dollars the patriot, who watches over the 

in each of the years 1784, 17'sf, temporal happinefs of the people, 

and 1786. Inftead of this, it is in and the minifters of God, of eve- 

our power, by beer and cider, to ry church, who are fhowing us the 

fave the whole fum. Our taxes, for way to eternal life, let all thefe 

the fupport of government, and join, as one man, to banifh from 

the payment of the intereft of all our land foreign fpiriis, as the 

the publick debts, amount to fome- fponge of our wealth, the diftur- 

where about one hundred and fifty ber of our peace, in this world, 

thoufand dollars. Foreign fpirits, and the deftroyer of our hopes of 

then, coft us 20,000 dollars more happinefs, in the world to come. 

than all our publick expences and 
debts ! Here is complete relief with- 
in our reach. Let us introduce 
breweries, improve and enlarge 
our orchards, and multiply our bees, 
fo far as to m ike malt-liquors, ci- 
der and metheglin, fufficient to ren- 
der rum, brandy, and gin, unne- 

The manufacture of pot-afh is 
another object that loudly demands 
our attention. The States of Mal- 
fachufetts, Connecticut:, and New- 
York, no v derive great profits 
from it. The landholders and mer- 
chants of Pcnnfylvania, have taken 
the hint from them, and are eu- 

criTaiy, and we fhall reduce our deavouring, 'with unremitted pains, 

1 7 2 Addrefs to the citizens of New-Jerfey. 

to introduce this beneficial manufac- fuch as are fit for furniture, as black 

ture into their State. New-Jerfey walnut, wild-cherry, and curled 

will not, furely, let the ftream of maple, and above all, that invalua- 

knowledge and induftry flow over ble tree, the fugar-?naplc, which, 

her, from New-York to Pennfyl- 
vania, and from Pennfylvania to 
New-York, without profiting by it 
herielf. Should we be thus lupine, 
we fliall be a reproach among the 
States of America. In every town 
and village, and at every country- 
ftore, a pot-ajh work mould be e- 
rected. The houfe-keepers and 
farmers will gladly fell their allies, 
and the manufacturer will find it 
eafy to fet up a work, that will not 
colt him one hundred dollars, and 
in which there is no rifque. The 
moil interior fituations will do for 
this bufmefs, for, as it is worth $ 
dollars per cwt. in Philadelphia, 
and New-York, it will bear the ex- 
pence of carting, better than bar 
iron, iuperfine flour, or pork. But 
the matter mould by no means ftop 
here. The manufacture of pot-afh 
may be rendered very profitable, 
to the owners of broken, rocky, 
and mountainous lands, and it may 
be the means of rendering more 
eafy the clearing of lands, in in- 
land townfhips, from which timber 
and wood will not J>ear the ex- 
pence of carting. The northern 
parts of this State, contain conlider- 
able quantities of itony woodland, 
at prefent of little ufe. Thefe lands, 
if cleared, might be hereafter of 
great ufe, as iheep-walks. Pot-alh 
might be made upon them, fo as to 
yield a profit, greater than the i'um 
at which the owners n<.w value 
them, though they have lain upon 
treir hands, an unproduttivc and 
bur den fain; property, for twenty, 
thirty, or forty years. In making 
pot-alh, upon thefe large tract-, 
careful attention fliould be paid to 
preferving fuch white-oak trees, 
as are fh for (mall craft or lhip- tim- 
ber, Ljat-boarck or (hip-plank; 

when left, a year or two, to the 
fiee action of the fun and air, i5 
worth as much to the managing 
farmer, as two apple-trees. 

For many years to come the 
owners of the above defcribed lands 
in Suffex, and in the north-weftern 
parts of Hunterdon, Somerfet, Mor- 
ris, and Bergen, might draw con- 
fiderable profits to therafelves, and 
encreafe the annual produce of the 
State by manufacturing pot-afh, 
upon their broken, ftony and moun- 
tainous tracts, and after they mould 
be cleared they would add greatly 
to the means of encreafing fheep. 
The exports of pot-aih from Bofton, 
are, on a medium, 200,000 dol- 
lars, per annum, although MafTa- 
chufetts has lefs wood-land than our 
State. If, then, we can be as carefur 
and induilrious as they, here is a- 
nother method of drawing forth an 
unimproved advantage, by which 
a fum equal to all the expences of 
government, and the monies necef- 
lary to pay our publick intereit, 
may be completely obtained. 

The manufactory of Leather, in 
Great-Britain, is a fource of im- 
menfe profit to individual^, and of 
wealth to the nation. It amounts to 
50 millions of dollars per annum ! 
We eat more meat, in proportion to 
our numbers, than they do, and, 
of coorie, have more hides to 
drefs and tan. Bark is cheaper 
here than there, for wc have a 
woody country. Lime is lower for 
the {av^ reaibn, and itreams of 
water are found in every townfhip. 
We have alio the opportunity of 
procuring deer-lkms, without a 
ght of 300 miles upon them, 
winch the European-; mult pay for 
all they work up. The tanning 
bufmefs requires very few hinds, 

Addrefs to the cik 

and, therefore, is particularly fuit- 
ed to a farming country. All that 
have tried this trade in New-York 
and Philadelphia, have thriven. 
Tan-yards Ihould be let up in every 
town of New- Jerfey, and in every 
thick fettled townlhip, that the mar- 
ket for fkins may be carried to the 
doors %J the jarviers. Sheep- ikins and 
larnb-fkins for breeches, drawers, 
and gloves, are worthy of atten- 
tion. We may export ihoes, boots, 
flippers, and breeches, to the fou- 
thern States, and to the Weft-In- 

The />rt/>?r-making bufinefs, and 
the branches connected with it, 
have become very profitable to fome 
of the States, but are much neglect- 
ed by us. The Paper-mills of Penn- 
fylvania are wonderful, and their 
beft informed people fay, the pa- 
per made there is worth 200,000 
dollars, per annum. They have 
eftablifhed the printing of room- 
paper, and have extended the 
printing of pictures and books, and 
making of blank- books, to help their 
paper-mills. No argument is ne- 
cefTary, to induce us to this branch. 
It is founded upon care and ftrict 
economy in preferving rags, which 
would otherwife be thrown away. 
Mill-feats are necelfary, of which 
we have many, and we have mill- 

'zcns of Nezu-fcr/ey. 173 

wrights, timber, iron, ftone, and 
lime. No good reafon can be giv- 
en, to juftify a longer neglect of 
this eafy and beneficial manufac- 

Family -maiinfatfi'res are an infi- 
nite laving to a couuiry, and may 
be carried to a great extent. The 
chief benefit of domeftic or houfe- 
hold manufactures, conlifts in the 
faving of fmall portions of time, 
which would be loft, if they were 
not fo employed. Another very 
great public benefit refults from 
them, whichis, the promotion of 
induftry, economy, and order, a- 
mong the people. It is worthy of 
obfervation, that the linen manufac- 
ture of Ireland, great and profita- 
ble as it is known to be, is carried 
on, almoft entirely, in this way, 
The good people of the country 
drefs their flax, and fpin their linen- 
yarn, at leifure hours, in evenings, 
and on rainy days, and have the li- 
nen wove, on their own account, 
by fome neighbouring weaver. 
When it is thus far advanced, they 
fell it to the bleacher in what is cal- 
led the green ,or unbleached, ftate. 
This is the firft tradefman, that has 
any concern, upon the large icale, 
in the great Iriih manufacture of 
(heeting, {hitting, and printed linen.* 
Our fellow citizens of Connecticut 

* In the prefent fituation of thefe States, this mode of carrying on family-manufac- 
turer would, perhaps, he preferable to any other. But the patriotic author feems to 
have been mifinformed, with refpecl to the mode of manufacturing linen in Ireland. 
Spinning is not done at leifure intervals; it is the almoft conftant employment of the 
women, in that country. Nor do they get any more linen wove, on their own ac- 
count, than what is barely neceffary for family tsfe. The linen yarn is carried to markets, 
which are not more than a few miles apart, all over the kingdom, and are held weekly. 
Here it is purchafed by men, whofe bufinefs it is to carry it to the northern counties, 
where it is again fold, in market, to the weavers, who chiefly refide there ; hut what 
isfpun in thofe counties, is generally bought up by the weavers in the firft inftance. It 
is true, there are not many large factories for weaving linen : there are feldom more 
than two or three looms in one houfe ; but then the houfes are fo clofe together, and 
weaving is fo generally carried on, that three or four contiguous counties may almoft 
be faid to conftitute one great factory. 

As the linen yarn is fold in weekly markets, fo alfo is the linen, to the bleachers, or 
to men whofe bufinefs it is to buy for them. 

It may be proper to remark in this place the influence of premiums in promoting 
ufeful manufactures. Exclufive of the Aims, annually expended, by government, in 

Uni. Asyl. Vol. IV. No. 3. Z 

174 New Theory 

have added a very great improve- 
ment to the Irifh plan, in teaching 
their women to weave, in the fa- 
mily way, as ours card and (pin. 
The girls and houle-wives of that 
induftrious economical, and well 
ordered ftate, are expert at making 
every Species of linen and cotton, 
and moil kinds of woollen cloth. 
Since the cultivation of iilk among 
them, thele good women have alio 
manufactured ferges and mantuas. 
Great advantage, to the landed 
property of New-Jeriey, and to 
the owners of lots, in and near our 
towns and villages, might be deriv- 
ed from fome legislative attention 

and encouragement to manufactur- 

ers, who may emigrate from Eu- 
rope. The different methods of 
doing this will require very great 
care and consideration. 1 decline 
to enter upon it as the idea is Sbme- 
what new and very important. 
Before I difmils the Subject of 

of Rain, Sec. 

New-Jerfey manufactures, I muft 
make one more call upon the men 
of property, the patriots, and the 
divines, of every chriftian church, 
to concur in the baniihment of rum. 
No argument can be neceflary, to 
prove, to the latter, that their good 
work will better fucceed, if we 
mall no longer be" led into temptati- 
on" by rum. To the man of land- 
ed property, it will be Sufficient to 
obierve, that more than 150,000 
buihels of barley will be required, 
to make malt-liquors enough to Sub- 
stitute for the foreign fpirits we 
now con fume ; and the Sincere pa- 
triot, who is ever in purfuit of 
honourable means to promote his 
country's good, need only be re- 
minded, that all the expences of 
juft government, and the intereft 
of our public debts, are inferior to 
the capital laving, which may be 
made in this Single article. 

A Landholder. 

New Theory of Rain, with a curious Method of pre- 
venting the III Effects of Storms. 

[ By the Abbe 

IT would be very aitonifhing if 
man, whole genius hath Subjec- 
ted all animated beings which inlia- 
6it the Surface of our globe, howe- 
ver ferocious they may be : to whofe 
induftry nothing is impoilible, and 
who, as powerful a? Jupiter in the 
fables of the ancients, holds in his 
hand the terrible thunder- bolts, 
and who checks, guides, and directs 
them at his plealure, (hould not be 
able toexeitiie his power over other 
mc-teors, the force, energy and vio- 

Bertholon. ~\ 

lence of which are not to be com- 
pared to thoie of thunder. Man 
has nothing to fear but want of 
courage ; if he has Spirit Sufficient 
to attempt every thing, he may 
furmount the greateft obstacles, and 
behold his labours crowned with 
iuccefs. It is not long fince I made 
this aSTertion, and I am perfuaded 
that man, a being feeble and weak 
at prefent, will one day rule the e- 
lements, and then, not till then, it 
may with truth be laid, that he is 

premium* for the raifing of flax, the exportation of linen &c. there are premium* raif- 
ed by fubfeription and diftributed, in many of the market towns, to thole who bring 
thr bell yarn or hncn, or the greateil quantity of them, to market. And it is not un- 
ufua! to fee lart-e and relpe&able linen-markets eftablifhed by thefe means, in a few 
ycais, where there had been fcarccly any linen fold before. E. 

Nevj Theory of Rain, &c. 

the king of the univerfe, and that 
he commands all nature. 

Rain, which fo often deferves to 
be called the dew of heaven, often 
alfo, efpecially that which falls du- 
ring the time of a ftorm, deftroys 
our crops, ravages our fields, and 
carries defolation and defpair 
through a whole country. To at- 
tempt to prevent thefe dreadful 
difafters, and propofe means for 
oppofing fo formidable a fcourge, 
is, in my opinion, doing an efTential 
fervice to mankind. To be con- 
vinced of the efficacy of the method 
I propofe, it will be necelTary to re- 
collect the certain principles which 
I have eftablifhed in my Memoir 
upon the new Caufe of Rain. The 
electric repulfion is this caufe, and 
it is at the fame time the'eonfequence 
of the following certain truths: 
Firft, that ftormy clouds are elec- 
tric, iince in their bofoms they 
carry lightning, which is a power- 
ful phenomenon of electricity, and 
iince electric f parks may be drawn 
from them, by the affiitance of a 
kite and conductors railed to re- 
ceive the aerial electricity. Second- 
ly, that bodies electrified, mutually 
repel one another, and that in con- 
fequence of this all light bodies Scat- 
tered over their furfaces, being 
themfelves electrified, experience 
a repulfion either from one another, 
or from thofe fubllances over which 
they are difperfed. Thus chaff, 
fnufF, or fmall drops of water fpread 
upon the furface of an electrified 
body, are driven from it, or repel- 
led to a diftance proportionable to 
the energy of the electricity. A 
ftormy cloud being then in a very 
powerful ftate of actual electricity, 
the watry globules which form its 
exterior furface, will experience a 
ftrong electric repulfion, which will 
make them fall towards the earth 
under the form of rain, until the 
electricity of the cloud be diffipated. 

In their fall thefe drops of rain will 
fhare with the conducting particles 
contained in the atmofphere, the 
excels of their electricity, and by 
thefe means produce thofe figns of 
electricity which are commonly at- 
tributed to the atmofpheric air. 

The experiments which I related 
in the Memoir above cited, prove 
that this caufe is real. I fufpended 
from an electric conductor a plate 
of metal, the inferior furface of 
which was befprinkled with fmall 
drops of water, and when the electri- 
cal machine was put in motion, the 
drops of water, were thrown with a 
certain velocity from the furface of 
the plate, and fell in the form of 
fm ill rain upon the table, which re- 
prefented the earth, as the plate re- 
prefented a ftormy cloud. This 
experiment is as certain as eafy, 
and carries conviction along with 

When the fource of an evil is> 
known, a remedy may foon be ap- 
plied. The caufe of ftormy clouds 
is the atmofpheric electricity whirl) 
prevails in the clouds, coniequently 
to diflipate, ftop, and even prevent 
ftormy rains, it will be necefTary to 
diffipate and draw off the electricity 
which reigns in the clouds and the 
atmofphere. Electric points railed 
in the air, and not infulated, have 
the power of drawing off the electric 
matter, as is proved by general ob- 
fervation. A conductor charged 
with electricity, when a fharp point- 
ed wire is prefented to it, lofes all 
its electric virtue, and no electric ef- 
fect is then obferved from it ; that 
is to fay, it neither emits fparks, 
nor repels or attracts light bodies. 
Stormy clouds being conductors 
charged with electricity, elevated 
points will draw down and deftroy 
their electricity ; they will prevent 
every effect of electricity, and by a 
neceilary confequence the repulfion 
of fmall aqueous drops. Let us 

1 7 6 New Theory 

therefore confult the lamp of ex- 
perience, and let us walk only by 
In light. 

The apparatus for the exeri- 
ment of electric rain, being prepa- 
red as already mentioned ; that is to 
lav, a plate of metal befprinkled 
with fmall drops of water, being 
fufpended under an electrified con- 
ductor, I prefented a (harp metal 
point at a certain diftance from the 
conductor or the plate, yet though 
the machine produced as ftrong e- 
lectricity as before,- the drops of wa- 
ter were not thrown off from the 
inferior lurface of the plate ; they 
constantly adhered to it, and exhi- 
bited no appearance of rain. I on- 
ly removed the point a lictle farther, 
nod the drops be^an to fall with vio- 
lence. I again approached my point, 
the rain immediately cealed, and 
Upon drawing it back the rain (hew- 
ed itfelfa fecund time. This alter- 
nate appearance and ceffation of 
rain, took place as often as 1 pre- 
fented or removed the electric point, 
and I produced or fufpended the 
rain at my pleaiure. 

If the experiment of the thunder- 
houfe, which is preferved when it 
is furnifhed with a conductor al'cen- 
ding and defcending, and which is 
broken or deftroyed when the con- 
ductor is taken away ; if the expe- 
riment of an electric earthquake 
which overturns fmall figures repre- 
senting houies, placed upon ground, 
fhaken by an electric (hock, and 
which are preferved when conduct- 
tors of earthquakes are ufed, iiich 
as I have defcribed, Ihew in a fenfi- 
ble manner, when ma<le in the phi- 
lolbphcr's cabinet, the efficacy of 
thefe conductors: the experiment 
which I am going to relate rejec- 
ting a preservative from rain, mutt 
afford a convincing proof of its uti- 
lity and influence. To preferve a 
country from itormy rains, it will 
be lufheient to raife to as great a 

of Rain f &c. 

height as poffible, in fields efpecial- 
ly where thofe valuable trealures, 
which induftry and agriculture 
tear from the bofom of the earth 
are moil expofed, metallic points, 
to draw off the electricity from 
the ftormy clouds ; the electric 
fluid, which determines the fall 
of rain by the repullion it produces, 
will be attracted and diflipated by 
thefe points, and the canfe of the 
rain no longer exifting, the effect 
v ill ceafe. The experiment which 
I have related leaves not the fmallcft 
doubt of it. 

Thefe electrical points muft be 
of metal, becaufe metals are the belt 
conductors known, as is proved by 
experience, and becaufeihe electric 
fluid is eaiily franlmitted through 
them. Thefe points muft be conti- 
nued to the earth, and will conse- 
quently have the figure of a large 
conductor railed perpendicularly, 
and terminating in a (harp point. 
As I here fpeak of thefe plains 
which are molt expofed to ftormy 
rains, and where their ravages are 
molt fatal, to leiTen the expence of 
this apparatus, one may emplov the 
largeft trees which are planted here 
and there, in order to place thefe 
electric points upon their fum- 
mits; a piece of wire fixed to them 
may be carried down the trunk of 
the tree, and funk into the earth 
near its root. The upper extremi- 
ty of thefe rods being then raifed 
into the atmolphere, will tranfmit 
the excels of the atmofpherical 
electricity to the earth, where it 
will lofe itfelf in order to reftore an 

This fimple and cheap apparatus 
may be multiplied in countries much 
expofed to rain, and efpecially to 
ftormy rain, and its happy ef- 
fects will loon be obierved. Should 
there happen to be no large trees on 
the fpot which one wilhes to pre- 
ierre, one muft take advantage ot 

Defcription of a 

every elevated place wherever that 
can be found. 

An apparatus, fuch as I have de- 
fcribed, for preventing the bad ef- 
fects of ftorms will coil very little. 
It will not be neceiTary to employ 
rods of iron for conductors, be- 
caufe being in the open fields, there 
is nothing to be feared from the 
melting of the metal and from elec- 
tric exploiions Should it be jud- 
ged proper, for particular reaibns, 
to erect thefe prefervatives in villa- 
ges and other inhabited places, iron 
rods muft be ufed. It may be need- 
lefs to mention, that it will be of 
great advantage to cover with paint 
or coarfe varnifh the furface of the 
wire or iron which is employed, in 
order to prevent ruft, which is to 
deftructive to that metal, and to 
daub over with fome bituminous 
fubftance that part which is put in- 
to the earth, unlefs it may be thought 
more convenient to make it of lead. 
A fure method of being convin- 
ced of the efficacy of thefe prefer- 
vatives from ftorms, is to obferve 
with a good udometer, fuch for ex- 
ample as that of Mr. Pafumot, the 
mean quantity of rain which falls 
in a country before thefe electric 
points are raifed, and to compare it 
with the mean quantity which falls 
after their conftruction. I am con- 
vinced that the difference will be 
found very great, at leaft in the 
laft refult. 

As it may happen in cafes of con- 
tinued drought, that rain may be 
much wanted, thefe conducting rods 
may be taken down. The obftacle 
which kept back rain being then re- 
moved, the atmofpheric electrici- 

good Orator. 177 

ty will be foon obferved to refume its 
ancient rights, and the clouds to dif- 
folve into rain. It will, indeed, be 
troublefome to take down and put 
up thefe conductors, but this incon- 
venience may be avoided. For this 
purpole thefe metal rods muft be in- 
itiated, as is done with regard to e- 
lectrometers ufed for meteorological 
obfervations, either by placing them 
upon glafs, or on a piece of wood 
well dried, and afterwards impreg- 
nated with oil of terebith and bi- 
tumen. A moveable conductor, 
forming an uninterrupted commu- 
nication to the earth, may be after- 
wards placed at a certain diftance. 
When it is found necefTary to pre- 
vent rain, the communicating con- 
ductor may be put on, and if the 
contrary is required, it will be found 
fufficient to take it away, as we 
have fuppofed it to be made move- 
able. The reafon of this apparatus 
is, becaafe electric points infulated, 
do not deftroy the electricity of a 
body before which they are prefent- 
ed, as is proved by experience. Let 
a perfon placed upon a glafs ftool, 
hold a piece of pointed metal at 
fome diftance from the conductor 
and metal plate, in the experiment 
already mentioned, and the drops of 
water will ftill continue to fall in the 
form of rain, but it will ceafe when 
the perfon communicates with the 
earth. According to the tempera- 
ture of different countries, it may 
be more or lefs convenient to raife 
thefe preventatives of rain; if they 
be of no advantage in dry countries, 
there are many others expofed to 
too much rain, in which they might 
be of the oreateft utilitv. 

* j "l'4 > *{ ,< f*'$'4**t' «|n|« «jt «*n|n|. «|« «}. »|« .j. «$. «|» <}■ 

Defcription of a good Orator. 

HE is always pure, clear, and 
harmonious in hisftyle ; and 
is more efpecially attentive to fuit 

it to the occafion : it feerns to fpring 
from his fubject, and the words 
wait ready, without his induftry, 


On Matrimony. 

to clothe his thoughts, as faft as 
they rife in the mind. He is plain 
and modeft in propofing; diftinct 
and accurate in unfolding ; weighty 
and prefling in confirming ; in the 
application touching, warming, pe- 
netrating. He is clofe, connected, 
full of dignity and energy in reafon- 
ing; clear and diftinct in ex- 
plaining; lively and fhort in relat- 
ing; exact, though concife, in def- 
cribing ; quick, rapid, animated in 

He mingles the fire of the poet 
with the fimplicity ofthe philofopher, 
and the grave majefty of the hif- 
torian ; is fparing of digreflions, 
eafy in transitions, accurate in com- 
panions, weighty in reflections. 
Never more artful than in conceal- 
ing art. Seeming mod natural, 
where mod fkilful; mod eafy, 
where he had laboured moft ; cor- 

rect: with fpirit ; entertaining with 
folidity; with feeming liberty obferv- 
ing always ftrict method; never 
appearing to wander, but in order to 
make his return more effectual ; 
nor feeking to pleafe, but with a 
view to perfuade. Still gratifying 
your curiofity with fomewhat new, 
yet ftill keeping it up by a profpect 
of more, ever rewarding your at- 
tention, at the fame time redoub- 
ling it. At every ftep, as in the 
attending of a high hill, he prefents 
to you a new profpect, with a 
glimpfe of more opening behind. 
Thus ftill fatisfied, ftill unfatisfied, 
you are led on from expectation to 
expectation, and remain in fuf- 
penfe, until you arrive at the fum- 
mit, the clofe and winding up of 
all ; from whence you fee the 
fcheme complete ; one juft, well- 
conducted whole. 


Marriage is honourable to all." 

IT is an inftitution wife, politic, 
and benevolent in itfelf ; — and 
leads to all the tender charities that 
knit the family of mankind in the 
happieft unities of love, concord 
and peace. 

When I behold a well regulated, 
happy family, the object infpires 
the moft pleafing fenfations and re- 
flections ; 1 caft my thoughts back 
to the period, when the parents of 
a lovely progeny firft commenced 
the acquaintance, that has proved 
the origin of Go many agreeable cir- 

cumftances Happy moments of 

love, honour, and mutual confi- 
dence ! — How refined and delight- 
ful the fweet intercourfe of kind- 
red minds ! — Their mutual attrac- 
tions, cemented by the facred bonds 
of wedlock, have gathered ftrength 

with advancing years — and their 
laft fetting fun fhall go down in 
peace. When this connection is 
founded on proper principles, it is 
not fubject to thole perturbations, 
and depreflion of fpirits which ren- 
der the marriage ftate a jeft to the 
thoughtleis libertine, and make the 
timid waver and doubt, till time 
extinguifh the beft paffions in the 
human heart — creates an indiffer- 
ence either to pleafing, or being 
pleafed. The cares of life, in every 
ftate, are many — In the married 
ftate they are divided, as they in- 
creale — and the pleafures of life are 
doubled — The mind retains its na- 
tural foftnefs and generous fympa- 
thy ; and having a variety of ob- 
jects to engage us attention, thofe 
objects intereft its feelings, and ani- 

DiJJertation on the poems of Offian. 179 

late the laws of reafon and fociety, 
in pafling thro' life, in the folitary 
walks of bacheloriim, lofe, by de- 

mate its exertions till its felicity 
confifts, in living to the happinels 
of its connections, and of mankind. 
Society derives its bell fecurity, 
from the attachments which oriffi- 
nate in the ties of Family — Fathers, 
mothers, and children, are the 
fureft and beft pledges of fidelity 
to the Commonwealth — To thofe 
endearing appellations nothing is 
indifferent, that has reference to 
the peace, and profperity, the mif- 
fortune or mifery of their country ; 
but the voluntary exiles from the 
temple of Hymen, while they vio- 

grees, the beft affections — they 
contract a temper of infenfibility to 
the happinefs or infelicity of their 
fellow creatures, and from neglect- 
ing, or being neglected by, the 
beft part of our fpecies, they ac- 
quire a morofe and cenforious dif- 
pofition — and making war with the 
world, by their contempt for its 
maxims and cuftoms, they always 
come off indifferently themfelves. 

Extracts from Dr. Blair's Critical DiJJertation on 
the poems of O s s 1 a n . 

After fume ingenious ohfervathni on the ancient Celtic poetry and bards in 
general, and on the antiquity and genuinenefs of "Ossian's poems in parti- 
cular, our author enters upon the profejfed fubjeft of his e§ay ; and fir fl 
gives a general character of Ossian's poetry in the following yuanner : 

(< r I ^HE two great characterif- 
I tics of Ofiian's poetry 
are, tendernefs and fublimity. It 
breathes nothing of the gay and 
chearful kind; an air offolemnity 
and feriouinefs is diffufed over the 
whole. Offian is perhaps the only 
poet who never relaxes, or lets him- 
lelf down into the light amufing 
ftrain ; which I readily admit to be 
no fmall difadvantage to him, with 
the bulk of readers. He moves per- 
petually in the high region of the 
grand and the pathetic. One key- 
note is ftruck at the beginning, and 
fupported to the end ; nor is any or- 
nament introduced, but what is per- 
fectly concordant with the general 
tone or melody. The events record- 
ed are all ferious and grave ; the 
fcenery throughout, wild and ro- 
mantie. The extended heath by 
the feafhore ; the mountain (haded 
with miit ; the torrent ruthincr 
through a iolitary valley ; the Shat- 

tered oaks, and the tombs of war- 
riors over-grown with mofs; all 
produce a iblemn attention in the 
mind, and prepare it for great and 
extraordinary events. We find 
not in Oman, an imagination that 
fports itfelf, and dreiles out gay 
trifles to pleafe the fancy. His 
poetry, more perhaps than that of 
any other writer, deferves to be 
ftyled, the poetry of the heart. It 
is a heart penetrated with noble 
fentiinents, and with fublime and 
tender paflions ; a heart that glows, 
and kindles the fancy ; a heart that 
is full, and pours itfelf forth. Offian 
did not write, like modern poets, 
to pleafe readers and critics. He 
fung from the love of poetry and 
fong. His delight was to think of 
the heroes among whom he had 
flourifhed: to recal the affecting 
incidents of his Jife ; to dwell upon 
his paft wars, and loves, and 
friendfhips ; till, as he expreffes it 

1 80 DiJJh'tation on the poems of Offian. 

himfelf, " the light of his foul rofe ; much deeper knowledge of human 

the days of other years role before 
him : " and under this poetic in- 
fpiration, giving vent to his genius, 
no wonder we fhould fo often hear, 
and acknowledge in his drains, the 
powerful and ever-pleafmg voice 
of nature. 

It is neceflary here to obferve, 
that the beauties of Offian's writ- 

nature. It was not to be expected, 
that, in any of thefe particulars, 
Oflian ccu'd equal Homer. For 
Homer lived in a country where 
fociety was much farther advanc- 
ed ; he had beheld many more ob- 
jects ; cities built and flourifhing ; 
laws inftiiuted; order, discipline, 
and arts begun. His field of ob- 

ings cannot be felt by thofe who fervation was much larger and more 
have given them only a fingle or a fplendid ; his knowledge of courie 
haity perufal. His manner is fo 

different from that of the poets, to 
whom we are moft accuftomed; 
hit ftyle is fo concife, and fo much 
crowded with imagery ; the mind is 
kept at fuch aftretchin accompany- 
ing the author ; that an ordinary 
reader is at fiiit apt to be dazzled 
and fatigued, rather than pleafed. 
His poems require to be taken up 
at intervals, and to be frequently 
reviewed ; and then it is impoffible 
but his beauties muft open to every 
reader who is capable of fenfibility. 
Thofe who have the higheft de- 
gree of it, will relifh them the 

Our author next proceeds to run a 
parallel between- Ossian and 

" As \\% mer is of all the great 
poets, the one whole manner and 
whole times come the neareft to 
Offian's, we are naturally led to 
run a parallel in fome inflances be- 
tween the Greek and the Celtic 
bard. For though Homer lived 
more than a thoufand years before 
Oflian, it is not from the a«re of 
the world, but from the ftate of 
fociety, that we are to judge of re- 
lc mbling times. The Greek has in 
feveral points a maniftft fuperiori- 
ty. He introduces a greater va- 
riety of incidents; be pofftffes a 
larger compafs of ideas; has more 
divcrlity in his character, and a 

more extenfive ; his mind alio, it 
{hall be granted, more penetrating. 
But if Offian's ideas and objects be 
lefs diverfified than thofe of Homer, 
they are all, however, of the kind 
fitteft for poetry ; the bravery and 
generoficy of heroes, the tender- 
nefs of lovers, the attachment of 
friends, parents, and children. In 
a rude age and country, though the 
events that happen be few, the un- 
diflipated mind broods over them 
more ; they ftrike the imagination, 
and fire the paflions in a higher de- 
gree ; and of confequence become 
happier materials to a poetical ge- 
nius, than the fame events when 
fcattered through the wide circle cf 
more varied ac~tion, and cultivated 

Homer is a more chearful and 
fprightly poet than Oflian. You 
difcern in him all the Greek vivaci- 
ty ; whereas Offian uniformly main- 
tains the gravity and folemnity of 
a Celtic hero. This too is in a 
great meafure to be accounted for 
from the different fituations in 
which they lived, partly perfonal, 
and partly national. Oflian had 
furvived all his friends, and was 
difpofed to melancholy by the in- 
cidents of his life. But, befides 
this, chearfulnefs is one of the many 
bltflings which we owe to formed 
fociety. The folitary wild ftr.te is 
always a ferious one. Bating the 
fudden and violent burfts of mirth, 
which fometimes break forth at 

E'jjay on 

their dances and feafts ; the favage 
American tribes have been noted 
by all travellers for their gravity 
and taciturnity. Somewhat of this 
taciturnity may be alfo remarked 
in Oflian. On all occafions he is 
frugal of his words; and never 
gives you more of an image or a 
defcription, than is juft fufhcient to 
place it before you in one clear 
point of view : it is a biaze of light- 
ning, which flaihes and vanilhes. 
Homer is more extended in his dei- 
criptions ; and fills them up with 
a greater variety of circumltances. 
Both the poets are dramatick ; that 
is, they introduce their perfonages 
frequently fpeaking before us. But 
1 Olhan is concife and rapid in his 
fpeeches, as he is in every other 
thing. Homer, with the Greek 
vivacity, had alio fome portion of 
the Greek loquacity. His fpeeches 
indeed are highly chara6leriftical ; 
and to them we are much indebted 
for that admirable difplay he has 
given of human nature. Yet if he 
be tedious any where, it is in thefe ; 
fome of them are trifling; and fome 
of them plainly unfeaibuable. Both 



poets are eminently fublime ; but a 
difference many be remarked in the 
fpecies of their fubiimity. Homer's 
fubiimity is accompanied with more 
impetuolity and fire ; Ofiiaa's with 
more of a fclemn and awful gran? 
deur. Homer hurries you along; 
OfRan elevates, and fixes you in 
altoni'hment. I-iomer is moil fub- 
lime in aclions and battles ; Ofiian, 
in defcription and fentiment. In 
the pathetick, Homer, when he 
chooies to exert it, has great 
power ; but Gffian exerts th^r. 
power much oftener, and has the 
character of tendernefs far more 
deeply imprinted on his works. No 
poet knew better how to feize and, 
melt the heart. With regard to 
dignity of femiment, the pre emi- 
nence miift clearly be given to 
Oflian. This is' indeed a lurpr-iiing 
circumftance, that in peint of .hu- 
manity, magnanimity, virtuous feel- 
ings of every kind, our rude £sii*,: 
bard Ihould be diftinguillied to fuch 
a degree, that not only the heroes 
of Homer, but even thole cf tho 
polite and refined Virgil, are 
far behind by thofe of Offian." 



USICK is both a fcience and 
an art: in theory and com- 
p^iition, founded upon regular and 
fixed principles of geometrical pro- 
portions, it is a Icience affording 
entertainment to the eye, the un- 
derflanding, and judgment; in its 
effects, by execution of the voice, 
or inftrument, delighting the ear 
with agreeable founds, it is an art, 
the relult of a lively fancy, cx- 
fjuifite tafte, and great attention. 

Mufick, lince the tenth century, 
hath been improved, to a wonder- 
ful degree, by a greater variety of 
melody, and by acceffion of har- 
mony ; but as the imagination, un- 

Uni. Asyl. Vol. IV. No. 3^ 

checked by feafon and judgment, 
was formerly apt to run wild, m the 
pre lent age we are many times more 
furprifed, attiie attempts aft^fxtra- 
vagance of execution, than 
with neatnefs ; the fimplfcffy of 
air is often fpoiled, by the redun- 
dance of variations and graces; na- 
ture is outraged, in imitations, and 
the ear is perplexed, if not loft, in 
a croud of harmony., or tired with 
everiafliug repetitions of the fubject. 

The Theory of Soxjicds. 

In purfuing this dehgn, the fir#J 
and leading points of inquiry will 
A a. 

jg 2 EJJay on Mufick 

be into the nature of founds, tingle, 
fuccemVe, and conjunctive. 

Of /ingle Sounds. 

To inquire liow found is propa- 
<v\xed by the air, whether in ftrifight 
lines or circular, by vibration or in 
undulation, might be matter of a* 
mufement, ratlier than of utility ; 
but a confederation of fbtirids them- 
felves, and their difference, is very 
necefHiry, and of great importance, 
i, perhaps, little entertaining 

tall, fall, which v/e will call the 
flrft, open, deep, and broad found, 
and the thira narrow found of i in 
him, fill? come a fecond open found 
of a in far, father, gravity, hallow- 
ed, /ball, /halt, man, mane, and a 
third, exprelled by ea in mean, and 
by e in men ; fo Hkewife between 
/ ye and u woo, come the founds of 
o in no, note, none, fon, fun, run', 
grin ; which laft found in none, fon, 
fun, run, gun, I would call the o- 
pen u like the French e feminine in 

to thole who have not attended to Ic, jc, to diftinguifh it from that in 

♦hem. Sounds, tones, and voices, 
are of two kinds, articulate, and 

Inarticulate founds, in contradif- 
tindtion to noifes and clangors, fuch 
as thofe of wind, water, thunder, 
fcreaming, bowlings, may be pro- 
duced, agreeably, by certain per- 
cuflions on a glafs, drum, bell, or 
by air through tubes and every kind 
of wind initruments. 

Tones a rife from a ftroke, touch, 

the words full, pull, which let it 
be named the clofe or fhut it, woo. 
Again, thefe founds, by nature, 
or in their mode of prolation, with 
refpecl to time and each other, are 
either long or ihort. Thus the open 
broad found of a. in all is naturally- 
long, as is alio the fecond iff father, 
mane, but in man it is fliort ; fo is 
e in men, i in [in, but in pen it is 
long: o in note is long, but m not , 
none, it is fliort : u in fun, run, is 

or preffure upon firings and wires, very fhort, but in foon it is long. ' 

Of different fizes and tendons, or by • When two or three of the fimple 

pinching them, with the nail or fin- vowels are joined together> and 

ger, caWzA pizzicotto. . made to produce a mixed found, 

Voices, thofe efpeciaally of the they are called diphthongs and iriph- 

human fpecies/ the nioft agreeable, thongs. Inftances of diphthongs are 

(jpnueu by the mouth opened ai in the word day ; cy in boy ; ua 

; and by the lips,' which fhape in quarry, ei ' in eight, either, eye > 

them, clofing with rotundity in the 
lower tones, but opening in the up- 
per, with, rotundity, exprefTed by 
the letters a, e, i, o, it, and in the 
words aw, eat, ye, oh, woo. 

Thefe lbunds, pure and fimple, 
or compounded, are the elements 
of vocal mufick and language. 

When the vowels or vocal founds 
are nicelv tried, it will be found, 

uc in quefl, well; ou in out ; iu in 
few : Of triphthongs are w, a, y t 
in way ,■ u, o, y, in buoy, or buoy' 
ant ,- and ;/, a, i, in quail. 

Diphthongs, fome are proper, 
and fome improper, fo are triph- 

Proper, where each found is dif- 
tinguilhed and audible, the firil co- 
alescing or melting into the other, 

that only three of them can, with and forming but one fyllable, as in 

ftnetnefs, be confidered as purely the words day, quail, eight, eye: 

iimple and independent, namely, quejl, out, few, now, word, way, 

aw, ye woo ; the others, being not and improper, where only one fin*. 

iumaently diftant or leparated from pie found is heard, as a in fault, awe, 

them, may be called intermediate, ought ; o in fword. know, knowledge * 

Thus between a m our words all, i in buify, ' 


Reflections on National Vanity. 

Ob'ferve, each of the vowels, kids, lambs, and children, Thefe 

even in diphthongs and triphthongs, articulations, by reafon of their ufe 

is liable to be changed in the hurry with the vowels, are named c&if«- 

©f fpeech into the found of the o- nants, from the Latin word conjouo, 

pen u, and become very fhort, as i to found with or in conjunction. 
Iti bird, ou in marvelous, ion in gra- This defcription of articulate and 

clous, glorious. inarticulate founds, is necefTary as a 

Articulate founds arife from gen- hYit principle or foundation in oar 

tie Hops or interpofitions, and quick prefent fubjed, and will be found 

removals, of the tongue and lips, of the utmoit utility to thofc, who 

jointly with the inarticulate, made wifh to fpeak and' fing properlv, 

ufe of in forming fyllables and words, diftinc"tly, and elegantly! 
as ab, ba, pa, a?n, ma, pater, mater, 
father, mother, naturally uttered by (To be continued.) 

Reflections on National Vanity. 

EW difquifitions are attended 
with more difficulty, than to 
account for that reciprocal contempt 
every nation entertains for the cuf- 
toms and manners of another : but if 
we proceed with caution in the en- 
quiry, we (hall, perhaps, be con- 
vinced, that it owes its origin to 
vanity. It is with nations as with 
individuals; every man believes 
himfelf infallible, places contradic- 
tion in the clafs of offences, and can 
neither efteem nor admire any 
thing in another, but what refem- 
bles ibmething in himfelf: fo every 
nation elleems in others only fuch 
ideas as are analogous to her own, 
Whiie every contrary opinion is be- 
held with contempt. 

The Arab, perfuaded of the in- 
fallibility of his Khalif, laughs at the 
credulity of the Tartar, who be- 
lieves the Great Lama immortal. 
The Negro, who pays his adora- 
tions to a root, the claw of a lobfter, 
or the horn of an animal, fees no- 
thing on the earth but an immenfe 
mais of deities, and laughs at the fear- 
city of gods among the Europeans. 
Thus every nation, convinced that 
ftie is the fole poffeilor of wifdom, 
confiders all others as fools ; and 
nearly refembles the inhabitants of 

the Marian iflands, who being per- 
fuaded that theirs was the only 
language in the univerfe, concluded 
that all other men were deftitute of 
the gift of fpeech. 

Should a Sage defcend from hea- 
ven, and in his conduct, confult only 
the light of reafon, he would be 
univerfally confidered as a fool ; 
and, like the phyfician whom, as 
Socrates fays, the paltry-cooks ac- 
cufed before a tribunal of children, 
for having prohibited the eating of 
pies and tarts, be certainly con- 
demned. It would be in vain for 
him to fupport his. opinions by the 
ftrongeit demonftrations ; all the 
nations would be, with refpeci to 
him, like the notion of hump-back- 
ed people, among whom, as the 
Indian fabulifts fay, came a god, 
beautiful, young and well-propor- 
tioned. This god, they add, enter- 
ed the capital, where he was foon 
furrounded by a multitude of the 
inhabitants; his figure appeared ex- 
traordinary, and their laughter and 
taunts declared their ailonifhment. 
They would even have carried 
their affronts ftill farther, had not 
one of the inhabitants, who had 
doubtlefs feen other men, in order 
to protect him, ciied out, " O my 


friends! what are you going to do? 
us'not infult this unhappy piece 
of deformity s it' heaven has laviified 
on us all the gifts of beauty ; if it 
has adorned our backs with a moun- 
rf flefli, let us be filled with 

thofe who are fools from the com** 
nion folly. 

But. however great the fqlly of 
mankind may be, it is certain, that . 
if they would often fay themfelves, ; 
" No perfon is free from error; 
gratitude, repair to the temple, and why then fhould I think myfelf a- 
n thaks to the immortal gods." lone infallible? may I not be de- ; 
fable is the hiftury of human ceived in thofe very things I -main- ! 
Vanity. All people admire their tain with the greateft reiolution V j 
own defects,, and defpife the con- If men had this idea habitually pre- j 
trary qualities. To fucceed in any lent to their minds, they w,ould be I 
country, we muft carry the hump more on their guard againft vanity, J 
of the nation into which we more attentive to the. objections of 
travel. their aclverfariesj and better pre- j 

There are in every country but pared to receive the tjorce of truth:* 
few advocates who plead the caule they woald be more mild, more in- 1 
of the neighbouring nations. clined to toleration, and doubtlefs ' 

Few men perceive the* ridicule of form a meaner opinion of their own -J 
their own nation, Which they cover wifdom. Socrates "frequently re-,: 
from the eye of reafon ; while, on* peated,' "All I know is, that ij 

foreign name, they laugh at know nothing." In our age, we 
their ow>i- folly : but there are ftill know every thing, except what 
fewer nations capable of improving Socrates knew. Men would not lb -1 
by fuch advice. All are fo fcrupu- often fall' into error, were it not ' 
loufly attached to the intereft of for their own ignorance ; and their ^ 
vanity, that in every country, folly becomes the more incurable I 
give the title of wife only to from believing themfelves wife. 

A N E C 

Arable clergyman in a 
• ibouring ftate, grieved 
to lee the doctrine of iftilvCtfal fat- 

u prevailing in his parilh, was . 
dciirous df preventing its progrefs 

by convincing Mr. M the 

acfier of the doctrine, that his 
M m wasunfciiptural and danger- 
to feciety. For this purpole he 

refted the company of Mr. M 

an evening, and being too old to 
tnanage the argument with dexteri- 
rj himfelf, he delired a young clergy- 
man of his acquaintance to attend 
and aiiilr. him. The aged gentleman 
opened the converfation ot the even- 
by infqrming his younger bfo- 
ther in the m'mTfhy, ihat J)e had 
requeftcd the company of Mr. M — 



and himfelf, in order to have th( 
doctrine of unwerjal Jahmtibn fairl 
difcujfed in his prcience, for he 
thought Mr. M might be con- 
vinced of his error ; but he was toe 
old himielf :o manage the debate- 
he therefore delired the young cler- 
gyman to enter upon the argumei 

with Mr. M " Why fir,V repli 

ed the' gentleman with his'ufualac 
drel s,Jf JefusChrift lays, He that fo 
'* IkiKth /hall be faved, and he that 
" believetb not Jhall be damned; bi 

« Mr. M fays, , No one JhaUbt 

" damned -, the difpute therefore'' 
'* wholly between *fef«ur Chri: 

" and Mr. M and I wiih 

u be excufed from an inlerfe 
"ence." . .' 

( i3.5 ) 


Columbian Parnamad. 

Translation of Ossian's beautiful ad- 

drefs tc the Sun. 

(By a young gentlcmafl of Philadelphia. J 

OThou that rolleft o'er my head, 
'Round as my father'* buckler fpread, 
Whence are, G Sun, thy beams fo bright, 
•Whence is thy everlafting light ! 
When they thy awful beauty fpy, .. 
The pale ftars hide- them in the fky ; 
And, eold ahd pale, at* fight of thee, 
The moon finks in the weftern fea. 
•Thou fhew'ft" alone thy beauteous face — 
Who can attend thee in thy race ! 

The oaks of mountains fa*U away ; 
With ^ears the mounts themfelves decay; 
The ocean fhrinks and grows again ; 
The moon her form doth not retain ; 
But thou for ever art the fame, 
Rejoicing in thy courfe of flame. 

Whefitempefts darko'erfpread fhefkics, 
When lightnings flafh, and winds arife, 
Thou fhew'ft from clouds thy beauteous 

And laugheft at the raging fterm. 

No more to Oman art thou bright , 
No more he fees" thy beamy light ; 
Whether thy hair, of yellow dye, 
Floats on the clouds, in th' eaft^rn fky ; 
Or, haft'ning to thy place of reft, 
Thou tremblcft at the gates o' th' weft. 

Perhaps thou for a time doft fhine ; 
Thy years will have an end like mine ; 
In clouds thou.fhalt be fleeping found, , 
Rcgardlefs of the morning's found. 
Rejoice then, in thy youthful years, 
Dark and unlovely age appears. 
'Tis like rlie pale moon's glim'ring light, 
'Which fhinesthro' broken clouds of night, 
When on the hills the mift is fcen, 
The blaft cf north is^on thf plain, 
Thinking that ghofts' p'ale forms are near, 
The lonely traveller fhrinks with fear. 

On Indolence. — AdJreJfcd to our ?nodern 
Fine Gentlemen. 

THE gracious Mafrer of mankind, 
Who knew us vain, and weak, and 

In mercy, tho' in, anger, fcid, 
That man fhou'd earn hrs daiiy bread ; 
Who counteracts the order given, . 
Difputes the high beheft of Heaven. 

Poor Florio, at the ardent age 
When youth fhou'd rufh on Glory's ftage ; 
When Life fhou'd open frefh anct fair, 
And Hope advance with fmiling* air ; 
Of youthful gaiety bereft, 
Had fcarce an unbroach'd pleafure left j 
He found alrtady to his coft, 
The fhining glofs pf life was loft ; 
Atid'Pleafure was fo coy a prude, 
She fled the more the more purfued. 
But Florio laiew the WorfijB, that Sci- 
Get Senfe and Learning at defiance ; f 
1 He thought the wor'd to him was known, 
Whereas he only knew the To-wtt ; 
In- men this blunder ftill you find, 
All think their little fet — Mankind. 

His mornings were not fpent in vice," 
,'Twas lounging, fauntering, eatfng ice : 
Walk up and down from ftreet to ftreet, 
Full fifty times the youth you'd meet ': 
He hated cards, detefted drinking, 

• But ftroll'd to ftiun the toil of thinking ; 
'Tw'as doing nothing wals his curfe, 

"Is "there a vice can plague us worfe ? 
The wretch who digs the mine for breid, 
Or ploughs, that others may be fed, 
Feels ,kfe fatigue than that decreed 
To him who cannot think, or read. 
Not all the firuggle of temptation, 
Not all the furious war of paffion. 
Can quench the fpark of Glory's flame, 
Or blot out Virtue's very name ; 
Like the true tafle for genuine faunter, 
No rival paffions can fupplant her ; 
They rule in ihort and qtick fucctffion, 
But Sloth keeps one long, faft ppffeffion; 
Ambition's reign is quickly clos'd, 
Tli' ufurper Rage is ibon depos'd ; 
Intemperance, where there's no tempta- 
Makes voluntary abdication ; 
Of other tyrants fhort the ftrife, 
But Indolence is king for life. 



Ihc Epicure — A fragment. 

ONE tafte, BfiLLARio's foul poffefs'd, 
The matter paflion of his breaft ; 
Not one of thofe frail, tranfient joys, 
Which, by poffeffion, quickly cloys ; 
This blifs was folid, cdnftaht, true, 
Twas aition, and 'twas paflion too; 
For tho' the buflnefs might be finifh'd, 
The pleafure fcarccly was diminifh'd ; 
Did he ride out, or fit, or walk, 
Still he liv'd o'er again in talk 
This keen, this ever new delight, 
His joy by day, his dream by night. 
Twas eating did his foul allure, 
In fhort, a modifh Epicure; 
Tho' once this word, as I opine* 
Meant not fuch men as live to dine, 
Yet all our modern wits affure us, 
That's all they know of Epicurus : 
They fondly fancy, that repletion 
Was the chief good of that fam'd Grecian. 
To live in gardens full of flowers, 
And talk philofophy in bowers, 
Or, in the covert of a wood, 
To defcant on the fo-vereign good, 
Might be the notion of their founder, 
But they hav% notions vaftly founder ; 
Their bolder ftandards they erect, 
To form a more voluptuous feci ; ' 
Old Epicurus wou'd not own 'em, 
A dinner is their fummum honnm. 
You'll rather find fuch fparks as thefe 
Like Epicurus' deities ; 
Like them they laugh it human cares, 
And with difdain view all affairs. 
Bellario had embrae'd with giee, 
This practical philofophy. 

Advice to the Fair Sex. 

ATTEND, ye fair, while I impart 
The fecret how to plcafe ; 
The rudiments of beauty's art 
Are fhort, and only thefe : 

All flatt'ry learn betimes to fliun, 

Nor once thatlyrcn hear ; 
Know, praiic for virme not your own, 

h fatiic molt fevere. 

1 htt'ry, the Lethe of the foul, 

No fcience leaves b< hind; 
Worfe than the fell Circean bowl, 

It poifons all the mind. 

TU not in gold, bright fparkling {lone, 

Or brighter fparkling eyes, 
Tke value of the fair is known, 

Tor thefe the good defpife 

What though the fpring's Elyfian glow, 
On either cheek were fecn ; 

Cr whiter than the virgin fnow 
Your neck's pellucid fkin ; 

Yet pride or affectation thefe, 
Will more than age deform ; 

And envy, worfe than pale difeafe, 
Shall wither every charjn. 

True wit exifts but with good-nature, 

The parent of politenefs ; 
Let that illumine every feature, 

And lend the eye its brightnefs. 

Virtue is grace and dignity, 
'Tis more than royal blood, 

A gem the world's too poor to buy- 
Would you be fair — be good. 

Translated from the Italian. 

ADJEU, my fair ! this haplefs day 
Tears me from all my joys away, 
Remov'd from Love and thee : 
Who knows, O — caufe of all my pain, 
If thou wilt hear me once complain, 
Or lofe one thought on me! 

Yet, to regain my loft repofe, 

My penfive mind fliall foothe its woes, 

For ever fix'd on thee 
On thee fliall every thought attend ; 
But wilt thou ever condefcend 

To fix one thought on me I 

On diftant fhores my mournful groans 
fcihali afk the melancholy floats, 

Where can my charmer be ? 
From morn to eve my fearch fhall laft ; 
But who can tell if thou wilt call 

One fingle thought on me ! 

In fancied fcenes, the happy fpot, 
Where thou and blifs were once my lot, 

My cheated mind fhall fee ; 
A thoufand thoughts fhall wake my pain; 
But who can tell if thou wilt deign 

To fix one thought on me ! 

• There, fhall I fay, in yonder grove, 

* To all my tender tales of love, 

' Difdainful would flic be : 

♦ Yet foon her gentle hand I prefs'd, 

1 Again l hop'd ; — but can her breaft 
' Retain one thought of me !' 



Where'er thou goeft, in every land, 
What numerous flaves to thy command 

Thy conquering eyes mail fee ! 
Ye Gods! who knows, if, fair and young, 
Thy heart, 'midftfuch a flattering throng, 

Will keep one thought for me I 

Yet think thy lover's only aim 

Was a pure, generous, mutual flame, 

And what his pains muft be ; 
Think what he feels at this farewel ; 
Think, deareft maid; — Ah! who can tell 

If e'er thou'lt think on me ! 

Who deal out praife at random, or con- 
demn [them) 
(Or right, or wrong, 'tis all the lame to 
Though fuch infult me, calmly fliall I fits, 
And grin at folly, as I laugh at wit. 

With juft fo much religion in my heart, 
As will, I truft, fecure my deathlefs part ; 
With, pure contentment ever in my fight, 
That makes the weight of poverty feem 
light; [me why, 

With two fuch friends, ye grave ones, tell 
Tell me, in fober fadnefs, fliall I cry ? 

Lines mm Praife of M I R T H, 

LET others, anxious for a Jailing name, 
Bow down fubmiffive at the gate of 
fame ; 
Immortal wreaths befeech her to entwine, 
And make their future memories divine ; 
What boots the bubble praife that fame 
can give, [ger live ! 

That praife unheard, when they no lon- 
As to myfelf, when I refign my breath, 
And lie extended in the houfe of Death, 
lvalue not what friend (if friend I have) 
With fading flowers may idly drefs my 

grave ; 
Orwho awhile may quote my trifling lays, 
And kindly give fome little fhare of praife : 
So little fond of what the world calls Fame, 
As dies my body, fo I wiih my name. 
Mean while, each briik emotion as I feel, 
I'll pay with Mirth, and trip up Sorrow's 
heel. [birth; 

Sure fome blithe fpirit fmil'd upon my 
For fince I rambled on this fpeck of earth, 
I've lov'd to laugh, tho' Care flood frown- 
ing by, 
And pale Misfortuneroll'dhermeagreeye, 
While ealy Confcience builds her eafy 
Within my bofom, and fits there at reft, 
Why not indulge the fallies of the foul ? 
Why flop the tides of pleafure as they roll ? 
Shall peevifh veterans, of rigid mould, 
Who think all wifdom center'd in the old. 
Shall fuch (though aged merit I revere) 
Blockade my £ancy in its bold career ! 
No : — light of heart, as long as health re- 
mains, [nay veins ; 
And guides her puppet fpirits through 
Thr©' life's thick buftle I will edge my 

And join the laughing chorus of the day : 
Though fliort-liv'd wit fliould ridicule 
my name, [of:*iiarre; 

And flrive to brand me with the mark 
Though fools, who form no judgment of 

their own, 
Whom nature never meant to think alone ; 

To F O R T U N E. 

FORTUNE, — who blames thee not? 
the rich, the poor, 
The man who begs, or who commands 

thy ftore, 
The high, the low, the humble, and the 
great, [wait. 

Who hoard thy treafures — or thy favour^ 
All, all alike thy partial bounty blame — 
Yet all thy votaries partial bounty 
claim. [tur' dfivain, 

Smile once fweet Goddess, fays the rap- 
Oh, let not all my prayers be fpent in 

vain ! 
Give but the lovely Stella to my arms— 
For ftie — ye Powers ! — for flie has solid 

The jolly widower — whom a month ago, 
We faw half-drown'd in floods of real woe; 
Now to recruit his purfe,and chear his life, 
Prays Fortune to bellow a brilliant 

wife ; 
One who in diamonds, and in rubies ftiines, 
And vies in worth with Peru's golden 

The nymph whofe morning toil, whofe 

evening care, 

Spreads for the man of wealth the fubtle 

fnare ; [g racc — 

For him adjufts each look — affumes each 

And calls forthevery charm from Beauty's 

Say — is it happinefs flie has in view ? — 
Or, laughing Fortune, does flie honour 
you ? [long lay 

The Poet too — whofe foft — whofe fing- 
Carols the rifing, or declining day, 
Whofe pleafing drains falute the welcome 

Or penfive numbers mourn her on the wing; 
E're he implores the afiiuance of theNiNE, 
Claims Fortune's fmiles — and worfhips 

at her Ihrine, 
The puff of praife folicits of the Aw, 
'Tis all he afks — the empty breath of 

Fame — 
— The fickle Gnddcfs oft tbe boon denies, 
Derides his wifli — and gives the wind his 
fighs. — 



4ftmple enigmatic tl anfwer to the enigmatical 
JJft of Pu'riots, publifhtd in the Columbian 
Magazine, for December, 1 789. 

ST. George is your faint, I'll make bold 
to fay 
Of z warrior, twofeventh's is W % A ; 

And they are confpicuous who Jhirc ; 
The confonant's G, prepofition is to; 
And xVis the half of the negative no : 
Theft the name of an haro define. 

Amongft Ifrael's tribes, give the left- 
handed place, 
Before half a nation of Gallican race ; 
And with two-thirds of ink write next 
line : 
Ti om the art, at an inn repofe L, 
lilofophical patriot, diftinftly 'twill 
fpell : ' . 

In whom phyficks and politicks join. 


Inachus's daughter, was To the cow; 

And, " of have," the reverfe, h is one 

fixth, I trow ; 

To which add the confonant N. 

With vowel the firft, and three fourths of 

my dame y 
And a third of sir §v?1q chafe, you may 
fpell out a nanie, 
The plural of th' Father of Men. 

Now take a conjunction Tbo without 
C'j-r mafs for to anfwer our plan ; 

Take a Miff in a puff", from my Lady- 
gay's muff, 
Half a linnet will make out the man.' 
The Baptift's the man, and for hen, we 
fay Han, 
For the female bird, changing a letter ; 
Half a cock-]ofo then join'd, in Bofton 
you'll find 
A patriot, and no where a better. 
Good King John, 'twas laid down, the 
claims of his crown, 
A^d the freedom of England confefs'd, 
For the fwect month of May, for M 
I'll take J, 
ir patriot's name I've exprefs'd. 

O D E ro -SPRING. 

HAIL! genial -oddefs, blooming 
left return, O! let mc ftng, 

y languid lavs : 
e not fink in floth fupine, 
While ail creation at thy fhrine 
Its annual tribu'r pays. 

Efcap'd from Winter's freezing pow'r, 
Each bloffom greets thee, and each flower; 

And foremoft of the train 
(By Nature's artlefs hand- maid drefs'd) 
The fnow-drop comes in lilied veil, 

Prophetic of thy reign. 

The lark now {trains hi6 tuneful throat, , 
While every loud and fprightly note 

Calls Echo from her ceil ; 
Be warn'd ye nymphs that liften round, 
A beauteous maid, became a found, 

The maid that lov'd too well. 

The bright-hair* d fun, with warmth di- 
Bid tree and Ihrub, and fwelling vine 

Their infant buds difplay ; 
Again the ftreams refrefh the plains, 
Which winter bound ill icy chains, 

And fpaikhng blefs his ray: 

Life-giving zephyr breathes around, 
And inftant glows the cnamelFd ground 

With Nature's varied hues ; 
Not fo return's our youth decay'd, 
Alas ! nor air, nor fun, nor {bade, 

The fpring of life renews. 

The fun's too quick revolving beam 
Apace diffolves the human dream, 

And brings th' appointed hour ; 
Too late we catch his parting ray, 
And mourn the idly wafted day 

No longer in our pow'r. 

Then happieft he, vrhofe Iengthen'd fight 
Purfues, by Virtue's conftant light, 

A hope beyond the flcies ; 
Where frowning Winter ne'er fhall come. 
But rofy Spring for ever bloom, 

And Suns eternal rife. 

s t v n c. 

C U P I p 

A Slumbering bee by love unfeen, 
Had in a bed of rofes been. 
The God was ftung, the wound was fore^ 
Anguifh made the urchin roar. 
Away he flew with all his might, 
To feek his Mother Venus bright : 
w Mamma, your fon is kill'd," he cries, 
" Kill'd is your fon, your Cupid dies , 
" A little ferpent wounded me, 
" Wings it has, and's call'd a bee. 
" If a bee's fting fo fharp can prove, 
•' How fharp, fays fhe, are wounds »f 
" love! 

Farnajfiad. 1 $<y 

O Nancy wilt thou gang wi me. 


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O Nancy ! when thou'rt far away 
Wilt thou not caft a wilh behind ? 

Say, cauil thou face the parching ray, 
Nor (brink beibie the wintry wind ? 


Pat najjiad* 

O can that foft and gentle milfl 
Xx'ieiuos of hardfhip learn to' bear, 

Nor fad regret each courtly fcene, 
Where thou wert faireft of the fair ! 


O Nancy! canft thou love Co true, 
Thro' perils keen with me to go, 

Or uhen thy fwain tnifiiap may rue, 
To fhare with him the pangs of woe ? 

Say, (hould diieafe or pain befal, 
Wilt thou nfTumethe nurfc's care, 

Nor wiftful thole gay Icenes recaJ, 
Where thou wert faireft of the fair ? 


And when at laft thy love fhall die. 
Wilt thou receive his parting breath ? 

Wilt thou reprefs each ftruggling figh, 
And cheer with fmiles the bed of death ( 

And wilt thou o'er his breathlefs clay 
Strew flowers, anddrop the tender tear I 

Nor then regret thole icenes fo gay, 
Where thou wert faireft of the fair ? 


NYMPHS I hate who, wan and pale, 
Borrow rrt, if nature fail} 
Trifle and blooo&g let her be, 
She's the ^irl admir'd by me ! . 

Svvay'd by envy, fvvay'd by pride, 
Which the gems of beauty hide, 
Fair as Venus tho' fhe be, 
She's not form'd the girl for me ! 

She whole voice and wit can dart 
Tranfpom thrilling thro' the heart, 
Free from pride, from envy free, 
She's the girl admir'd by me ! 

Who wnh negligence of art, 
Perform s the fprightly dancer's part ; 
Young and blooming, blithe, and free, 
Shi's the girl admir'd by me ! 

Nor praciis'd futile, nor borrow'd grace, 
Should l«nd a luflre to her face, 
B)' nature let her p-intcd be, 
She's the girl admir'd by me! 

Jf f.-.lfe fhe ne'er fliall bieak my reft, 
I a tew her from my wounded breaft ; 
•And another fair as fhe, 
'--'■'11 be found the girl for mc. 

Ode to a young Lady on Dreft,. 

SURVEY, my fair, that lucid ftream 
Adown the fmiling valley ftray ; 
Wou'd art attempt or fancy dream 

To regulate its winding way. 
So pleas' d I view thy mining hair 

In loofe difhevell'd ringlet* flow ; 
Not all thy art, not all thy care, 
, Can there one Angle grace beftovv. 
Survey again that verdant hill," 

With native plants enamell'd o'er; 
Say, can the painter's utmoft fkill 

Inftruct one flow'r to pleafe us more ? 
As vain it were, with artful dye, 
. To change the bloom thy cheeks difclofe ; 
And, oh! may Laura, ere flic try, 

With frefh vermillion paint the rofe. 
Hark ! how the woodlark's tuneful throat 

Can every ftudy'd grace excel ; 
Let art conflrain the rambling note, 

And will fhe, Laura, pleafe fo "• ell '• 
Oh ! ever keep thy native eafe, 

By no pedantic law conf;n'd; 
r or Laura's voice is form d to plenie, 

If Laura's words be not unkind. • 


( J 93 ) 

The Chronigl e. 



T^HE lateft accounts from Europe, in- 
form us, that the National Affem- 
bly, of France, ftill continue the forma- 
tion of their conftitution, in the utmoft 
harmony; that on New-year's-day a de- 
putation of fixty members from that bo- 
dy waited on the King and Queen, with 
refpedful and loyal addreifes ; and that, 
fo late as the l6th of January, the King 
continued to refide at Paris, beloved and 
refpected by all his fubjects. 

Thus it appears that the accounts, of 
the King's flight from Paris, which have 
appeared in 6ur news-papers, were with- 
out foundation. It is ftrange that the 
peopla of America fhould give currency 
or credit to fuch fabrications. Surely the 
very abfurdity of the fuppofed intelligence 
(lamped it with the mark of falfhood. 
Why fhould he fiy from an affectionate 
and loyal people, over whom he reigns 
with honour, and in perfect fafety ? 

The National Affembly, proceeding on 
the firm fcut great principles of moral and 
political wifdom, have admitted the Cor- 
ficans to a participation of all the -rights 
and privileges of free citizens. They al- 
ways difplay a fpii it of moderation and 
juftice. Their refolution to double the 
pay of the army, and to make govern- 
ment refponfible to the public creditors 
for the payment of the national debt, are 
mafterly ftrokes of policy. The patriotic 
donations,- though in a high degree libe- 
ral, are yet inadequate to the grand ob- 
ject of reftoring order to the finances. 
But order will foon fpring from confi- 
dence in the public adminiftration, if it 
proceeds as it has begun, and the im- 
menfe refources of France are called forth 
into operation by her able ftatefmen. 

Paris, January 2. Yeflerday even- 
ing, at fix o'clock, the members deputed 
from the Affembly, prefentcd themfelve* 
before the King-, when the Prefident pro- 
nounced the following addrefs : 

1 The National Affembly comes to of- 
fer to your Majefty that tribute of love 
and refpect which is at all timfs your due; 

— the reftorer of the public liberty ; the 
foveregin, who, under circumftane'es the 
moft difficult, could liftcn to nothing but 
his affection for the royal people, of 
whom he is the Chief, merits all our ho- 
mage ; and we therefore prefent it with 
the moft perfect devotion v 

' The representatives of the nation can 
now prefume to affure your majefty, that 
his paternal folicitudes are approaching to 
an end — This confideration adds to the 
zeal with which they profecute their la- 
bours, and confoles them amidft the ne- 
ceffary delay of their proceedings. 

' They look forward to that happy day, 
when appearing in a body before their 
Prince, the friend of his people, they 
fhall prefent to him a code of laws, cal- 
culated for his happinefs and for that of, 
all Frenchmen ; when with refpectful 
tendernefs they fhall lupplicate a beloved 
fovereign to forget the diforders of a tem- 
peftuous feafon, and to recollect nothing 
but the profperity and contentment which 
he fhall have imparted to the faireft king-^ 
dom of Europe ; and when your Majefty 
fhall difcover, from experience, that on 
the throne, as in the more obfeure ranks 
of life, an obedience to the movements 
of a gen-rous mir.d forms the fource of 
every real pleafure. 

« His Majefty will then be convinced 
of the loyalty of his fubjects. He will 
find that they not only deteft, but know 
alfo how to fupprefs, all licentious tu- 
mults ; that at the moment when their 
proceedings gave caufe to the late alarms, 
they had no other end in view than to 
ftrengthen the legitimate authority, and 
for that virtuous monarch by whom they 
are to be adminiftered !' . 

' Gentlemen, 

« I am greatly fcnfible of thefe new 
teftimonies of affc&ion which you prefent 
me in the name of the National Affemhly: 
I have no wifli but for the happinefs of 
my fubjects; and I entertain the fame 
hope with you that the year which is now 
about to commence will be, to all France, 
an epoch of happinefs and profperity/ 

The deputation then repaired to the 


IntelU fence. 

apartment of her rrujefty, and prcfeuted 
the following 

ADDRE S to the QUEEN. 

• Madam, 

* The- tribute of rofpect which the Re- 
prefentatives of the nation now come to 
offer, is no more a vain ceremonial. — 
You equally partake of the glory, and of 
the difquiet of a fovereign, whofe virtues 
are equally revered in both hemifpheres. 
You watch without ceafing over the hap- 
f iutfs of a prince, who is ever worthy the 
■flection of all Frenchmen. Every citi- 
zen knows with what tcnd»rnefs you rear 
thofe amiable children*, for whom we 
leel fo ftrong an iotertft ; and it is in the 
name of frenchmen, impreffed with loy- 
alty and fenfibility, that with the moft 
rel'pectful devotion, we prefer) t our ho- 


* Gentlemen, 

* 1 hear with infinite fenfibility the 
language of the prefent deputation, andl 
pray you to affure the members of the 
National Affembly of this feHtiment,* 

* The Dauphin, -with the young Princefs 
huffier, food at this time at the fide of her 
WiijeDy . 


The Emperor's health is bad, and his 
political fituation ftill worfe. for tho 1 
he has been fuccefsful againft the Turks, 
in the laft campaign ; yet it is probable 
that neceffity will make him endeavour 
to bring about a peace, with a view to 
carry his arms againft his late belgic fub- 
je <?iS", who have embraced a very favour- 
able juncture to afftrt their freedom. The 
Emperor, by the revolt of tfce Nether- 
lands, has loll a nett revenue of 20 milli- 
ons of florins, annually. 

He is alfo likely to be engaged in a war 
with P ulfia and Poland, who are about 
to form an alliance offenfive and defen- 
five. The fucctl's of Jofeph and the Em- 
prefsof Ruffia, againft the Ottoman Porte, 
has alarmed their neighbours ; and rouftd 
them to curb their ambition, and pre- 
f.rve the balance of power in Europe. 

A noble cnthufiafm, in the caufc of li- 
berty, actuated the Flemilh patriots, in 
their glorious conttfl with the Imperial 
force*. They regarded i lie numerous ti- 
tle! and armorial bearings of Tofeph !!. 
with contempt ; and the number*, rV dif- 
cipline, and the arms of his troops, with- 
out fear. They did not long decline, but 
courted a conflict. German mercenarit s, 
under the conduct of venal commanders, 
gave a looR- to the havock of ws", icfli- 

gatcd by the hope of plunder and the 
third of blood. The enormities that en- 
fiied inflamed a high fcrtfe of honour, 
and fpirit of juftice, into 'unconquerably 
and irrcfiftible revenge. At Tournhout, 
a,t Ghent, at Bruffds, the Flemifh pea- 
faiits and ctiz<.ns ruihed fearlefs into the 
very throat of war, fprung on the cannon 
pointed to their hearts, turned them a- 
gainft the enemies, and boldly converted 
the engines of flavery into inurumencs of 
freedom. Thus, for the confolation of 
humanity, we find the higheft fpirit and 
moft determined courage where we would 
wifh to find tbena : — not on the fide of 
tyranny, and the fervice of the fordid and 
'lavage paflions, but in the inter efts, and 
under the ftandard, of juftice. 

As defpots, in the g'orious conduct of 
the Flemifh patriots, have a confpicuous 
inftancc of the por/er of combination o- 
ver a reverence of eftablifhed govern- 
ments, fo military chiefs are thereby 
taught, that the parade of difciphne, and 
all the pomp and apparatus of war, are of 
little avail when they are encountered by 
fuperior numbers and equal courage. In 
the tumult and confufion of a fpirited at- 
tack all the formalities of the adjutant and 
drill-fergeant are forgotten ; undifciplin- 
ed troops, united and impelled by fomp 
ftrong and common paffidn, make as vi- 
gorous an onfet as veteran armies. 

The celebrated Henry Vandcrnoot, the 
leader of the patriots, is at once the Wafh- 
ington and the Franklin of the Nether- 
lands, he unites a high fpirit of liberty 
and juftice with a natural fagacity, a phi- 
lofophieal gehins, and a learned and libe- 
ral - education His merit has rendered 
him confpicuous, and raifed him to the 
proudsft eminence on which any mortal 
can be placed— the office f Dictator, con^. 
fared in times of trouble, by the confi- 
dence of his countrymen. 

Should the Emperor die, he will be 
fucceeded by Peter Leopold, grand duke 
of Tufcany. It is difficult to fay what 
change fuch art event might produce in 
the affairs of Europe. This man is of an 
eafy, mild, and unafpiring difpofition, 
and will not, in all likelihood, feck for a 
further ftcquifition of territory. His Ita- 
lian fubjects have enjoyed happinefs, un- 
der his lovereignty, which gives the G?r- 
»»-no favourable hopes of him, fhould he 
fncceed to the Imperial crown. Though 
the Flemings have thus far acquired their 
freedom, and are now eftabliflung a re- 
publican government ; yet the coming of 
Leopold to the throne would be the beft 
fecurty for the enjoyment of thcrir lib*. 



ties — He would either permit them to re- 
tain their new government, or he would 
make them happy under a mild monar- 
chial one. 


The affairs of Poland are at prefent in 
a cri.ical fituation. The fpirit of liberty, 
has been diffufed among the peafants of 
that country, and cannot be otherwife al- 
layed, than by a complete eftablilhmcnt 
of their rights. A Diet for that purpofe, 
however, affembled at Warfaw, in De- 
cember laft, and were ftill fitting when' 
our laft accounts came away. The out- 
lines of a reformed conftitutiort had been 
reported by a committee, of which the 
King of Pruffia had declared himfelf the 
Proteilor and Guarantee, 

The prefent fituation of his neighbours,- 
together with a great military force, gives 
the King of Pruffia no fmall degree of in- 
fluence, in the north of Europe. His ar- 
my confifts of above 300,000 men ; and 
Poland has 60,000. should the propofed 
alliance take place between thefe two 
powers, Jofeph and Katharine muft give 
up every idea of driving the Turks out of 
Europe. It is not the intereft of Pruffia 
to let thofe powers become too formi- 
dable. It is highly probable that Pruffia 
will alfo refill any attempt of the Emper- 
or to regain the Netherlands , 


The preparations making by the Turks 
for another campaign were great beyond 
example. They will go near to ruin the 
Turkifh empire, as well as the Imperial 
Courts, who muft employ an army to re- 
fill them. Three hundred and ten thou- 
fand men are in the prefent pay of the 
Grand Signior. 

The Turkifh fleet on the Black Sea. is 
returned into port, very much damaged 
by tempeftuous weather, and with the 
lofs of two thoufand failors ; a lofs which 
the Turks find very difficult to repair. 

The Sultan has lent all his plate to the 
mint, and the great officers of ftate have 
followed his example ; by thefe means, it 
is faid, an immediate fupply of 33 mil- 
lions of dollars, was procured. 

The Sultan has ftrictly forbid all his 
fubjects the ufe of gold and filver for or- 
nament or luxury.; and iffued his orders, 
that all the males in his dominions, from 
the age of 16 to 60 do hold themfeives in 
readinefs to march, if they are fummoji- 
ed, for the defence of their country and 

Should the feafon continue as open as 
the prefent appearances indicate, both ar- 
mies will cake the field very early. The 
firft obje<ft of the Turks is the re-capture 
of Oczakow. 

A very heavy fnow has -jntirdy pre- 
vented ill communications between Tran- 
fylvania and Wallachia. 

Thirty baggage waggons belonging to 
the Auftrians, have been buried in it. 

Were preparing vigoroufly for war,- 
and great, indeed, muft be the effiifion of 
human blood, in the approaching cam- 
paign, if a peace fhouid not be concluded 
between the contending parties. 

Progress of Liberty* 

The generous flame fpreads rapidly — - 
France, the Netherlands, and Poland have 
felt its divine influence, and are in a fair 
way of eftabliihing their freedom, on the 
ruins of tyranny and opprefiion. A few 
reflected rays have alfo, in forae meafurc, 
enlightened the long benighted regions 
of Spain and the Pope's dominions — At 
Madrid the Inquifition has thundered 
forth its anathemas, againft the friends of 
the revolution in France, and has prolii- 
bited the importation or perufal of any 
pamphlets or other publications giving an 
account of the French revolution. — Bat 
notwithftanding the greateft vigilance of 
the police, ipiritcd pamphlets are lpread 
among the people. The Court is become 
fo jealous of ftrangers, that an order has 
been iffued, enjoining all, who cannot 
give fubftantial reafons for their tempo- 
rary refidence in Madrid, to depart with- 
in fifteen days, under a penalty of fifty 
ducats. How wretched, how unenviable 
is that arbitrary power which is accom- 
panied with fuch continual jealoufies and 
apprehenfions ! and how mull the votarit* 
of freedom exult in the pleafing profpe& 

which opens upon them. Arbitrary 

power decays faft, and the rights of man- 
kind are, at length, in a fair way of be- 
ing refcued from beneath the footftocls of 
monarchs and their minions. 

Though the carnage of our fpecics, is* 
the north of Europe, has been fuch as t«- 
make humanity fhudder, it has, never- 
thelefs, been favourable to liberty, Tlie- 
friends of freedom, as wall in France^ cs 
in the Nethcrlands.would have found a 
powerful opponent in the Emperor, were 
it not that his ambition had involved lnn» 
in a war with the Turks. 


The Englifli prints give us little intel- 
ligence relative to the affairs of their own 
country. They arc generally filled with 
accounts of their neighbours, o» the con- 
tinent of Enroue, which are often mif- 
ftated, contradictory, andabfurd. Late 
private accounts from that country inform 
us, that the bufmefs of the flave-trade, 
the fettlement of the conftitution of Ca 


Flanders Feed Oats 15 a 1 7 New , 

Old 16 to 18 
lrifh ditto 14 a 15-6, fine 16 a 
1 7 per quarter. 
St. JOHN's, (Antigua) 
January 12. By a St. Chiftopher's pa- 
per of the 22d ult. we learn, that at Su- 
rinam, the fmall-pox lately raged with 
l'uch dreadful violence, that within the 
fpace of two months upwards of 2500 pe- 

nada, the alteration and amendment of rifhed of that diforder. 

the tobacco-b.ll, a plan for liquidating R H O D E - I SL A N D. 

the whole of the unfunded debt, a bill in Newport, March 1 7. Alas fort 

fevour of the Roman Catholics, and the 
further profecution of Hafting-Zstrial, were 
expected to come before parliament at 
their next meeting. We learn farther, 
that, I y an order of his Majefty in Coun- 
cil, the export of wheat, wheat-flour, rye, 
ryc-mcal, barley, barley-meal, malt, bread, 
bifcuit, oats, oat-mcal and beans, is pro- 
hibited from every part in Great-Britain 
until further orders ; and the import al- 
lowed, likewife until further orders, into 
England, Wales, and Berwick upon 
Tweed, at the low dutle? ; which are, on 
Wheat - - 6d. per quarter 
Wheat-Flour - 2d. per 1 1 albs. 
Rye - - 3d. per quarter 

Barley - - 2d. per quarter 
Oats - - ditto. 

The following were the market-prices 
of grain, &c. in London, the 4th of Ja- 
iruary laft : 

Englifh Red Wheat 
White do. 
River do. 

Do. Poland 
White Peas 

49 a 53 fine 54-6 

50 a 54 fine 55-6 
45 a 49 fine jo a 52 


23 a 25 fine 26 

19 a 20 old 

20 a 22 old 
»7 a 29 

Do. for boiling 3$ per quarter 

Flour 42 to 44 p. fack of 28olb. nett 

foreign. Eaftvriefland and Dutch Feed 

Oats 15 a 1 7 new ; old Ij-6 a 


Do. do. Brew do. 16-6 a 18-6 ; 

fineft 19 a 23 New 
Co. do. do. do. 18 a 19 ; fineft 
20 a 21 Old 

Rhode- Ifland ! doomed ftill to experience 
the evils attendant on anarchy and mif- 
rule. ' 

The Delegates of this place are jaft 
returned from South-Kingfton, the Con- 
vention having rifen laft evening at 10 
o clock, without accomplifhing the im- 
portant bufinefs of their appointment. 
The Convention ftands adjourned to the 
2.4th of May, then to meet at Newport — 
which favourite meafure was carried by a 
majority of one. — Every objection railed 
againft the general government was clear- 
ly obviated ; but anti-federalifm, obftina- 
cy and ignorance, were triumphant. A 
committee was early appointed to draft 
and report a bill of rights, and amend- 
ments to the conftitution : the former, I 
am told, is nearly a copy of the Virginia 
bill — the latter are faid to have been col- 
lected chiefly from amendments propofe 1 
by other ftates. Where any thing new 
has been introduced, ftupidity is the cha- 
racteriftic feature. The old game, oi 
handing thefe to the people, is once more 
to be played ; and yet no mode is pointed 
out whereby their fentiments are to be 
collected. An adjournment till after our 
election is intended to ferve the purpofes 
of party, and obtain a rc-eIeet.ion of the 
powers that be, or others of fimilar cha- 

It is "much to he lamented, that an 
exemption from foreign impoft and ton- 
nage was ever afked for or granted. The 
firft indulgence afforded our anti-feds an 
opportunity to dilpole of their fall pro- 
duce, and they muft be made to feel, be- 
fore they can be brought to a fenfe of duty- 


BENNINGTON, (Vermont) 

Ftbruary 22. Nothing has yet tranf- 
p'ued from our commiffioncrs for fettling 
the boundary line between this Rate and 
New- York, or from our delegates to Con- 


grefs : there remains fcarcely a doubt, 
however, that if the boundary line is fet- 
tled to th« acceptance of our coiv.miflion- 
ers, our acceffion to the federal union wiii 
be a matter eafily acoomplifhtd, on :h* 
nioft honourblc urnu for Vermont. 



The fituatioH of this rifing Hate, its 
natural ftrength, and encreafing popula- 
tion, the fpirit and determination of itt 
citizens, fo evidently demonftrated by the 
important exertions of the Green-moun- 
tain corps, &c. in the late war, are too 
ftriking and important advantages not to 
demand the immediate attention of Con- 
grefs, and cannot fail to attract the en- 
lightened penetration of a Wafhington, 
the inftant local difficulties are removed. 
N E \V - Y O R K. 

March 23. On Saturday laft arrived in 
this city, Thomas Jejferfon, Efq. Secretary 
of State for the United .States of America. 

By authentic information we learn, 
that, about the firft of February, a fmall 
party of Indians, belonging to the ban- 
ditti of Cherokees who have been driven 
from their own tribes, and refide north- 
weft of the Ohio, furprized, near the 
Sciota, a boat going down the Ohio, kil- 
led four perfons, and took the reft pri- 

This information was given to the com-, 
irtanding officer at Fort-Hanner, by fome 
friendly Wiandots, who met in the woods 
thefaid banditti ofCherokeeswithtwopri- 
foners. The "Wiandots further informed, 
that remnants of the Shawanefe and the 
faid Cherokees feem determined on mif- 
chief the enfuing feafon. 

The legiflature of this ftate have paffed 
an act for laying out a road to Onoch- 
quaga, or near it, for which we have 
allowed 1500I. It is to begin at the road 
3eading from Minifink to Efopu?, in the 
moft convenient place, and to extend 
i?orth-wefterly to the Delaware, and from 
thence to Onochqua^a, &c. and will in- 
terfect the roads that lead to Cheningo, 
Unidilla, Mohawk river, and Albany. 

Extract of a letUr from Schenaclady, 
March 1 6. 

w From frefh accounts we learn, that 
the Englifn are conftantly employed in 
adding to the ftrength of their forts and 
polls on the north weftern frontier, keep 
a very watchful eye over all vifitants, and 
feem extremely jealous left any of the 
United States people mould be obfervant 
of their proceedings. Several of the old A- 
merican refugees are faid to be refident in 
thofe pofts, who are moftly very poor, 
and depend wholly upon the royal ra- 


Richmond, Marth 11. On Saturday, 
Sunday, and Monday laft, the wind blew 
a mere guft the chief part of the time, 
curing which, it is faid, many barns have 

U:n. Asyl. Vol. IV. INo. 3. 



been unroofed, and the greater part of 
the fences around the neighbouring plan- 
tations are laid even with the ground ; 
fince which a heavy fnow has fallen, and 
the weather ftill continues extremely fc- 

COLUMBIA (S. C.) January ȣ. 

The legiflature has laid a tax of eight 
fliillings and nine pence per centum, ad 
valorem, on tends, and two fliillings and 
eleven pence on all Haves, free negroes, 
mulatto e3 and muuizos, the fame fum on 
carriage wheels, eight fliillings and nine 
pence on every icol value of lands, lots 
and buildings, alfo, on every look value 
of ftock in trade, excepting all clergymen, 
merchants, fchool-mafters and mifirefivs. 

The Honourable John Baptift Afh, 
Timothy Bloodworth, Hugh Williani- 
fon, John Steele, and John Sevier, Efqrs. 
are elected members of the Houfe of Rc- 
prefentatives of the United States, for the 
ftate of North-Carolina. 

His Britannic Majefty has appointed 
Thomas M'Donough, Efq. his Conful in 
Maflachufetts, Rhode-Ifland, Connecti- 
cut, and New-Hampfhire, and John Ha- 
milton, Efq. his Conful in Virginia. 

Nineteen fail of fquare rigged vcffels 
(that is mips and brigs) were launched 
in thi6 port in 1789, of which the whole 
were fouthern live oak, and fouthern ce- 
dar frames, equal to any in the world. — 
The number of new vefle's already en- 
gaged for the prefent year, are nearly as 
many as the whole of what was built laft 

On Monday the 15th inft. an examina- 
tion of the Candidates for the Degree of 
Bachelor in Medicine was held in the 
Hall of the Univerfkv, in the prefence of 
his Excellency the President of the Com- 
monwealth, the Council and Anembly, 
and the Truftees of the inftitution, to- 
gether with a numerous and refpecfable 
concourfe of literary characters — -'when 
the following gentlemen appeared <aj«can- 
didatcs (having been previoully esaapjntd 
in private) viz. 

John Baldwin, of New- York. 

George Cabell, of Virginia. 

Theophilus Elmer, of New-Jerfey. 

Plunket F. Glcntworth, Philadelphia. 

William B.DufDeld, of Philadelphia. 

Matthew Henderfon, Lancafter coun- 
ty, Pennfy'vania. 

Jonathan Kearfly, Cumberland, do. do. 

John Laws, SuiTex, do. Delaware. 

John Wallace, Dauphin, do. Pcnnfyl- 

C c 



The Candidates were examined on Na- 
tural Philosophy, by the Rev. John Ew- 
ing, D. D. Provoft of the Univerfity. — 
On Anatomy, by William Shippen, M. 
D. Profeffor of Anatomy, Surgery, and 
Midwifery. — On Chemillry, by James 
Hutchinfon, M. B. Profeffor of Chcmif- 
try and Materia Medica. — And on the 
Theory and Practice of Phyfic, by Adam 
Knhn, M. D. Profeffor of the Theory 
and Practice of Phytic. 

The readinefsand accuracy which thecan 
didatcs displayed in their anfwers, on the 
Several fubje'ts of the examination, gave 
general Satisfaction, and reflected honour 
upon the Institution. 

Wednefday night, the 24th inft. about 
II Dcl*ck, a fire was difcovered in the 
countingthoufe of the Cotton Factory, at 
the upper end of Market-Street, in this 
city, which Suddenly Spread through the 
whole of the building, and entirely con- 
fumed the Same, together with the new 
materials there, about 20 pieces of unfi- 
nished goods, and principal part of the 
machinery. Owing to the vigilance of the 
citizens, the dwelling-houle adjoining 
was preScrved, with part of the machine- 
ry and the account hooks. — Fortunately, 
a large quantity offiaiShed and unfinished 
goods were removed from the factory 
a few days previous to the difafter. The 
lofs is computed at icool. cxcluiive of the 


New-York. In the city of New-Tori, 
Mr. Francis Wainwright to Mifs Maria 

Pennsylvania. In Philadelphia •, Ro- 
bert Patton, Efq. to Mifs Eridges. 

Maryland. In Baltimore, Captain 
Jonathan Davenport to MiSs Peggy Du- 
chart ; Captain John Barry to Mrs. Dif- 
fenderfer ; Captain Benjamin Bradhurft 
to Mils Delilah Young. In Baltimore 
County, Robert Turnbull, Efq. (of Pe- 
tdufburgh, Virginia) to Mrs. Sarah Bu- 
djiiBii. At Fairhill, William Dorfey, 
i Jt6fB£Sttorney at law, to MiSs Nancy 
Brooks. At Chejlcr Toion, Mr Andrew 
Van Bibber, (of Baltimore) to MiSs Sal- 
ly Foreman. 

Virginia. In Albemarle County, Tho- 
rn:.-. Randolph, jun. ESq. to Alifs PatSey 
Jcfferfotl. jeffe Tee, jun. to Mi's Polly 
JHardaway of Dinividdu County. Captain 
John M'Clenaclun, of Alexandria, to 
Mrs. Ann Jenifer of Fairfax County. 

Georcia. At Savannah, Peter H. Mnr- 
rel, Efq. to MiSs Nancy Valieau. 


New-Hampshire. At Lydelartugb, 
Mrs, Ellingwood, conSort of Mr. Samuel 
Ellingwood. At Exeter, Mr. Thomas 
Hayley, aged SOI. 

Connecticut, At Somen, of a con- 
sumption, MiSi Bethiah KingSbury, of 
Franklin, aged 18. It is remarkable, that 
three brothers and one filler of this young 
lady have died, of the fame diSeaSc, with- 
in the laft fix years ; and that upwards of 
40 of her father's relations have died of 
it, in 38 years — -They were all Sober in- 
duftrious people, and led a country life. 

New- York. In the capital, Mrs. 
Hicks, relict of Whitehead Hicks, Efq. The 
honourable Anthony Hoffman, Efq. mem- 
ber of the Senate, and one of the Judges, 
of that State. Two Mifs VifSchers, 
daughters of Col. John VifSchers, of 
Green- Bujb, drowned on a fleighing-party 
by the ice giving way. 

Nsw-Jersey. At Neiv-Brunfiv'ck, 
Mr. Ogden, aged 85 ; Mr. Thomas Tal- 
mage, aged 68 ; Mr. James Brown, aged 
67; and Mr. David Nevins. At Prineefs- 
Anne, Somerfet County, Dr. Francis Che- 

Pennsvi vania. In Philadelphia, Mrs. 
Hannah Hiltzhtimer, confort of Jaceb 
Hiitzheimer, Efq ; Mr. John Hart ; Dr. 
Abraham Chovet, an eminent anatomilt, 
and an extraordinary man, in the 86th 
year of his age. In Yorh County, Col. Da- 
vid M'Clellen. At Penns--jalley, Major 
General Potter. 

Delaware. Near Ncivcajlle, Mr. 
Thomas Moore, aged 67 ; Capt. M. 
Morton, aged 61. Near Dover, Mr. 
James Caldwell. 

Maryland. At Baltimore, Mrs, Ma- 
ry Cox, relict of Capt. Janus Co:;, who 
was killed at the battle of Germantown ; 
Mrs. Sarah Selman. In Talbot County, 
the Rev. John Gordon, D. D. aged 77. 
In Hartford Coun.x, Benjamin B. Norris, 
ESq. At Elkton, Baruch William*, Efq. 
and his conSort Mrs. Rachel Williams. 

Virginia. At Dumfries, the hoh. 
William Gray Son, Efq. Senator in Con- 
grels from the State of Virginia. In Ca- 
roline County, Dr. George Tod, aged 80. 
In Hartford Sevnty, Mrs. Elizabeth Fitz- 
hugh, aged 61. In Orange County, Capt. 
John Lee, aged 82. In Northumberland 
County, Mr. William Thomas, agvd 78. 
In King Georgt County, Mr. Ivcndale, aged 
$j ; Capt. Samuel Oidham, aged 91. In 
Ndfo:i County, (Kentuckey) Air. John 
Purvia£<&, formerly of Baltimore. 

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Columbian Magazine, 

For A P II I L, 1790, 




On Elocution and Gefture, 203 

Letters to, and from, the King of 

Sweden, 305 

Account of the American medical fo- 

ciety, 206 

Conftitution of ditto, 207 

Letter from Dr. Franklin to Mifs 
Hubbard, on the death of his bro- 
ther, 208 
Thoughts upon Female Education, 209 
Geographical defcription of Bache- 
lor's Ifland, 213 
Oration in praile of rum, 3IJ 
General obfervations on fafhion, in 
drefs; with remarks on certain fe» 
male ornaments, 21 7 
Reflexions on Education, 219 
Marcus and Monimia, 223 
Extraordinary inftance of maternal 

cruelty, 225 

Anecdote, 226 

A defence of duelling, 227 

Influence of utfiity on the moral fenfe 

of beauty ) 228 

Hiftory of Mr. Wilfort, 231 

Pride and Vanity characterized, 1$$ 

Of Quick-lime, as a manure, 235 

Character of young Manly, 238 

Enquiry into the caufe, why quadru- 
peda fwim naturally, while man is 
deftitute of that faculty, 239 

New method of feeding filk-worms, 24a 
On the punifhment and reformation 




of criminals, 243 

Precautions to be ufed by thofe who 
are about to undertake a lea-voyage, 
(By JJr. Fiauklin.) 245 


Original transition of the Battle of 
CuchulIiH, from Ollian, 249 

Good nature the chief fource of con- 
nubial happinefs, 

Charms of rational conycrfation, 

On affected fenfibility, 

The calm, 


Ode inferibed to Mifs C . 

On hearing a Lady lament the fhort 
lived pleafure of youth, and quick 
decay of beauty, ibid. 

On fome Snow, melting on a Lady's 
bofom, ibid. 

The Bacchanalian, ibid. 

An Epitaph, ibid. 

A new hunting fong ffet to muftc } ) 

A Song, 





The Chronicle. 
Foreign intelligence, 257 
Domeftic intelligence, ibid. 
Death and burial of Dr. Franklin, 261 
Marriages and deaths, 262 
Prices current and course a/Ex- 
change, 263 
Meteorological Observations. 264 

Embellifhed with two Engravings, illuftrating the firft Elements of 
Gesture, in School-elocution; And a Favourite Piece of Music. 

Tr ryT ^ r .y.' r. - *- '- - 'r~ru™ 








IN the ftory of Marcus and Monimia we have taken the liberty to 
omit a few lines, and to fupprefs the hiftorical reference. At the 
fame time, we believe the ftrictures contained in them have been juft- 
ly merited ; but as the vice alluded to is not known in this country ; as it 
is in a fair way of becoming extindt, in every part of the world ; and, a- 
bove all, as we wi(h to avoid every thing, which might be conllrued in- 
to a cenfure of any particular religious feet or denomination, we have 
thought the omifTions not improper. Thele reafons, we doubt not, will 
be fufficiently fathfactory to the author. 

The continuation of the EJfay on mitfic — conclufion of the natural hif- 
tory of the Capra Ibex and Capra Rupicapra — together with iome other 
communications, which came to hand too late in the month, for the pre- 
fent number, fhall appear in our next. 

Alas ! poor Brutus ! he might have faved himfelf the trouble of 
fnarling, where he can do no more. Had he written dispaflionately we 
fhould, perhaps, have given him the information he demands. Our judg- 
ment was not " hafty," nor fhall we deviate from it to become fublervient 
to the views of any political parry or their minions. Widely different 
are the objects of this work. Why will Brutus prefs the matter ? Are 
not the news-papers open . ? 

To Juvents we would fuggeft the advice of the poet, n Keep proba- 
bility in view". 

The Epithalamium, by a Jerfey correfpondent, is received, and will be 
attended to in courfe. 

The month of April, by W. N. would fuit better for January. 

April Day, by Eumenes, we are obliged to decline publifhing ; both on 
account of the borrowed plumes with which it is decorated, and of the per- 
foual allufions which it evidently contains. The original parts of this po- 
em are not without merit, which makes us regret the more, that the au- 
thor fhould condefcend to interlard it with fragments of Britifli poetry. 

We have frequently to lament the perverfion of good talents to unwor- 
thy purpofes — This is particularly the cafe in the indelicate poem entitled 
J peeper — The fame obfervation will apply to the author of Courtjbip. 
We fhall never contaminate this work, with performances calculated to 
fufiufe the cheek of Modefty with a blufh, however conipicuou; the abilities 
of the writers may be. 

-4^<^4k>4**4> 4* <>*$>*<£»<>- 

Communications, not noticed, are under confideration. 

gT Utility being our firft object, every communication refpeeling the 
agriculture, the manufactures, and commerce, of the United States, 
lhall meet with a grateful reception. 

Erratum in our laft, Page 170 for " Count SheiTin" read Count Theft,,. 




T H E 



Columbian Magazine, 

For APRIL, 1790. 

Description and ufe of the Annexed Plates. 

(Chiefly from Walker's Elements of Gefture.) 

ORATORY has ever been 
held in high eftimation, in 
free governments. It has been 
juftly confidered as the palladium of 
liberty ; the fcourge of tyranny ; . 
and, when employed in the caufe 
of virtue and true religion, their 
belt lupport. Elocution is fo gene- 
rally taught, in the different lemi- 
naries of learning, in the United 
States, that arguments, to fhew its 
utility and importance, are not ne- 

It is well known that the vari- 
ous rules- laid down for reprefenting 
the different paflions and emotions 
of the mind, by proper action and 
gefture, are too complex and diffi- 
cult, for the tender capacities of 
boys, at an early age, when they 
are taught the firll principles of elo- 
cution. That boys, however, fliould 
(land motionlefs, while pronouncing 
the molt impaflioned and fpirited 
language, is extremely abfurd and 
unnatural — An awkward ftiffnefs is 
by all means to be guarded againft; 
and impropriety of action is ex- 
tremely offenfive and difgufting. 

Hence it is neceflary that fnch a 
general fyftem of action be adopt- 
ed, as fhall be eafily underftood and 
executed ; which, though not ex- 
preffive of any particular portion, 
fhall not be inconfiftent with the 
reprelentationofanypaflion ; which 
(hall always keep the body in a 
graceful pofture, and fhall vary its 
portions, in ajuft and eafy man- 
ner, at proper intervals. 

The difficulty of defcribing ac- 
tion, by words, renders it necefTa- 
ry that instruction, on this lubjecl:, 
fhould be conveyed by the eye. For 
this purpofe the attitudes defcribed 
are reprefentcd by the annexed 
plates, which, we hope will great- 
ly facilitate the reader's concep- 

The firft plate reprefents the at- 
titude in which a boy fhould always 
place himfelf when he begins to 
ipeak. He fliould reft the whole 
weight of his body on the right leg ; 
the other juft touching the ground, 
at the diftance at which it would 
naturally fall, if lifted up to Ihew 
that the bcdy does r:tt bearupop it. 

204 Elements 

The knees fhould be llrait and 
braced, and die body, though per- 
fectly flraight, not perpendicular, 
inclining as far to the right, as a 
firm polition on the right leg will 
permit. The right arm mult then 
be held out with the palm open, the 
fingers llrait and clofe, the thumb 
almoll as diftant from them as it 
will go ; and the flat of the hand 
neither horizontal ilor vertical, but 
exactly between both. The por- 
tion of the arm, perhaps, will be 
bell defcribed, by luppoling an ob- 
long hollow Iquare formed by the 
mealiire of four arms, as in plate the 
firjt, where the arm, in its true 
polition, forms the diagonal of filch 
an imaginary figure. So that, if 
lines were drawn at right angles 
from the moulder, extending down- 
wards, forwards, and lideways, the 
arm would form an angle of forty- 
five degrees every way. 

Wlien the pupil has pronounced 
one fentence, in the polition thus 
defcribed, the hand, as if lifelefs, 
mull drop down on the lide, the ve- 
ry moment the lall accented word 
is pronounced ; and the body, with- 
out altering the place of the feet, 
poizes itfelf on the left leg, while 
the left hand rail'es itfelf, into ex- 
actly the fame pofition as the right 
WaS before, and continues in this 
pofition till the end of the next 
ientence, when it drops down on 
the lide as if dead ; and the body, 
poizing itlelf on the right leg, as be- 
fore, continues with the right arm 
extended, till the end of the fuc- 
ceediug fentence ; and lb on from 
l iglit to left, am! from left to right, 
olrematclv, till the lpeech is end- 

Great care mull be taken, that 
tlfft pupil end one fentence com- 
pletely, without hurrying onto ano- 
ther. He mull let the arm drop to 
'.he (idc, and continue, for a moment, 
in that poTfcure, in which he con- 

of Gefture. 

eluded, before he poizes his body 
on the other leg, and raifes the o- 
ther arm into the diagonal pofition, 
before defcribed ; both which Ihould 
be done, before he begins to pro- 
nounce the next fentence. Care 
mull alio be taken, in Ihifting the 
body from one leg to another, that 
the feet do not alter their diftance. 
In altering the pofition of the body, 
the feet will, neceirarily, alter their 
pofition a little, but this change 
mull be made by turning the toes 
in a fomewhat different direction, 
without fullering them to fhift their 
ground. The heels, in this tranfi- 
tion, change their place, but not 
the toes. The toes may be consi- 
dered as pivots, on which the body 
turns from fide to fide. 

If the pupil's knees are not well 
formed, or incline inwards, he mult 
be taught to keep his legs at as great 
a diitance as pollible, and to incline 
his body fo much to that lide, on 
which the arm is extended, as to 
oblige him to reft the oppofite leg 
upon the toe ; and this will, in a 
great meafure, hide the defect of 
his make. In the fame manner, if 
the arm be too long, or the elbow 
incline inwards, it will be proper 
to make him turn the palm of his 
hand downwards, fo as to make it 
perfectly horizontal. This will in- 
fallibly incline the elbow outwards, 
and prevent the word pofition the 
arm can poffibly fall into, which is, 
that of inclining the elbow to the 
body. This polition of the hand, 
fo neceirarily keeps the elbow out, 
that it would not be improper to 
make the pupil fometimes practife 
it, though he may have no defect 
in his make, as an occafional altera- 
tion, of the former pofition to this, 
may often be neceflary, both for 
the fake of juftnefs and variety. 
Thefe two lalt poiitions of the legs 
and arms are defcribed in plate fc- 

Letters to, and from, the King of Sweden 20c 

Further rules, for proper and illuftrated by engravings, in a fu- 
graceful gefture, fhall be given, and ture number of this work. 

Translated for the Universal Asylum, and Columbian 


Extracts from the correfpondence of the prefent 
King of S w e d e n, when a young man, with th* 
fuperintendents* of his education. 

(Continued from page i"]i.) 
Count Schejfer to his Royal High- he enjoyed it as a wife and gener- 


WITH grief I muft inform 
you that our dear friend — 
has loft that law-fuit on which de- 
pended his whole fortune. He is 
ruined, yet he does not complain ! 
Is this from infenfibility, or from a 
fuperior ftrength of mind ? Let me 
know your opinion. 

His Royal Highnefs' Anfwer. 

I feel deeply for our unfortu- 
nate friend. To refolve your quef- 
tion requires a more intimate know- 
ledge dt" his character, than what I 
can pretend to. Neverthelefslhave 
no doubt that his equanimity arifes, 
not from a ftoic indifference, but 
from that magnanimity, which is the 
gift of fublime reafon and elevated 
virtue. He cannot then think him- 
felf poor, while he poifefTes that he- 
roifm which is above all the trea- 
lures of this world. 

Count Schejfer to his Royal High- 
My dear Prince, 
I Perfectly agree with you. 
Our friend never valued riches ; yet 
lie afpired to an honourable inde- 
pendence. By cftimable means he 
acquired a coniiderable eftate ; and 

ous man. Knowing all this, 1 can- 
not alcribe his refignation to want 
of fenfibility. On the other hand, 
I am perluaded from many obferva- 
tions, that our friend places true 
felicity in things which all tUe 
wealth upon earth cannot purchafe 
— to wit, in efteem from thofe 
■whom he efteems ; in a peaceful 
confeience; and in tender affection 
to his friends. 

I know, my prince, that your fa- 
vourite occupation is the contem- 
plation of thole great objects, which 
make the duties of kings, and the 
happinefs of nations ; and I fhall of- 
ten difcourfe with you on thefe. 
Yet I beg leave now and then to 
draw your attention to events 
which, though not of general con- 
cern, ferve to improve yonr know- 
ledge of mankind : a fcience fo em- 
inently ufeful to kings. 

Anfioer from his Royal Highnefs. 
YOUR information is pleating. 
Our friend is not without folid con- 
lolation. .Efteem, friendship, and 
a good confeience are the riches, 
which blind fortune can neither 
give nor take away. A great repu- 
tation is one of the principal blef- 
lings of this life, when it is acquir- 

* Befides thefe noblemen he had tutors, in the various departments of fcience, who 
Srtre his more immediate inftruclers. 


ed by an Iwnourable conduct. A 
good confcience is ftiil more valua- 
ble — It is a firm fupport in all the 
ftorms of this mortal life : it is a 
power fomewhat divine, that makes 
us independent of the world. But 
the lofs of this treafure is wretched- 
nefs indeed : an evil confcience im- 
bitters every enjoyment ; it haunts 
the wicked man through every 
fplendid fcene ; it purlues him to 
the very pinnacle of glory, and on 
the throne, pierces his heart with 

Friend/hip is a facred gift from 

The Confutation, Sec. 

heaven. It is the bond of human 
focieties, the fource of pureft plea- 
fures, the fweetner of human life. 
Our friend has imparted and will 
receive the joys of friendfhip: his 
friends have, with a noble emulation, 
given him the molt honourable and 
conferring proofs of attachment. 

Pardon, Sir, my trefpafs on your 
patience. The impulfe of my heart 
cauled this excursion of my pen. 
This time you certainly will not 
chide me for (hort letters. 

Yours faithfully. 
(To be continued.) 

For the Universal Asylum, and Columbian Magazine. 
An account of the American Medical Society* 

£N the year 1773 a number of 
ftudents, who had aflembled in 
the city of Philadelphia, from differ- 
ent parts of the Continent, to hear 
the Lectures of the Medical Profef- 
fors, thought that they might derive 
fome advantage from affociating 
themfelves, in order to difcuis va- 
rious queftions in the healing art, 
and to communicate to each other 
their observations on different fub- 
je&s. Such aflbciations had been 
found highly beneficial to the ftu- 
dents of medicine in Europe, and it 
was thought might be (till mote fo 
in a country, thedifeafes and reme- 
dies of which had not been £ully ex- 
plored. Thefe ideas gave 1 ile to 
the American Medical Society, 
which now ranks amongft its mem- 
bers many of the molt refpectable 
medical characters on this conti- 

The objeel: of this Society is the 
promotion of medical fcience in gen- 
eral, by collecting materials for ac- 
curate hiitories of difeafes as they 
appear in this, country, by record- 

ing even anomalous cafes, which 
may have a tendency to throw light 
upon the nature of a particular di- 
feafe, or upon fome part of the ani- 
mal economy, by pointing out the 
effecls and ufes of new remedies or 
of thofe which have been already 
in ufe, by explaining the nature of 
various procefles of the animal e- 
conomy, and in fhort by recording 
and preierving whatever may have 
a tendency to give more accurate 
ideas of the nature of difeafes 
and of the means of removing 

The eflays which have from 
time to time been read before the 
fociety, have amounted to a confi- 
derable number. As it was thought 
that the publication of fome of them 
would extend the benefits of the fo- 
ciety beyond its more immediate 
members, a committee was appoint- 
ed to feledt fuch efTays as might ap- 
pear worthy of public notice. The 
Constitution is now publiflied in or- 
der to fhew the nature of the Soci- 
ety, and in fome meafure to ferve 

Ithe Coriftitution, &c. 

as an introduction to fubfequent pub- 

Constitution of the American 
Medical Society. 

Art. i. The Society fhall be call- 
ed the American Medical Society. 

2. It fhall confift of Senior and 
Junior members. 

3. The officers fhall be a Prefi- 
dent, a Vice Prefident, a Trealurer 
and a Secretary, to be chofen by 
ballot on the ift Monday in No- 
vember annually. There Avail alfo 
be a Perpetual Secretary. The 
Prefident, Trealurer and Perpetual 
Secretary (hall be elected from a- 
mongft the Senior members ; the 
Vice Prefident and Annual Secreta- 
ry from amongft the Juniors. 

4. The Prefident, or, in his ab- 
fence, the Vice Prefident, or eldeft 
Junior member prefent, fliall regu- 
late the bufinefs of the meetings, and, 
where the voices are equal, he {hall 
give the calling vote. 

The Trealurer fhall cdtlect the 
contributions and fines due from the 
members, and at the clofe of every 
feffion fliall render an exact account 
of his receipts and difburfements. 
He fliall be a relident in the 

The perpetual Secretary fliall 
perform the office of Librarian, and 
fhall preferve the feal, and all com- 
munications made to the Society. 
He fhall be a refident in the city. 

The Annual Secretary fliall keep 
exact minutes of the transactions of 
the Society, fhall collect ballots, not- 
ify the election or rejection of can- 
didates, and introduce them, when 
elected, to the Prefident. 

' 5. The election of every candi- 
date fhall be by ballot. All, candi- 
dates mult have been propofed at 
leaft one week before they can be 
balloted for, and for their admiffioii 
the concurrence of two thirds of the 


members prefent fliall be neceffa- 
ry. No candidate for Junior mem- 
berfliip fhall be propofed except 
from the ift of November to the 1 ft 
of January following in clufive. Any 
member who divulges the propofal 
or rejection of a candidate fhall be 

6. Candidates for Senior mem- 
berfhip mult be perfons diflinguifhed 
for medical knowledge. Thole who 
have been two years Junior mem- 
bers, and fuch Junior members, as 
fliall during that time graduate in 
medicine, fliall become Senior mem- 
bers without any further election. 

7. Candidates for Junior meni- 
berihip fhall read and defend before 
the Society a differtation on fome 
philofophicalfubject connected with 

8. Every Junior member on his 
admiflion fliall lign this Conftitution 
in teitimony of his confent to be 
governed thereby. He fhall re- 
ceive a certificate of his memberfhip 
figned by the Prefident and fealed 
with the feal of the Society. He 
fliall pay into the hands of the Trea- 
lurer, annually, the fum of two dol- 

9. A majority of the Junior mem- 
bers refiding in the city, together 
with the feniors then prefent fliall 
conflitute a quorum competent to 
the transaction of all bufinefs. 

10. At every ftated meeting, 
when no candidates offer, one or 
more medical cafes or difTertations 
fliall be read by Junior members in 
rotation, the fubject of which fhall 
be at the choice of the reader, who 
fliall anfwer to the free and candid 
examination of the members, any 
of whom may join with him in fup- 
port of his fentiments. 

11. A correct copy of every dif- 
ferration or cafe read before the So- 
ciety fhall be delivered to the Secre- 
tary, within two weeks after being 

A Letter from Dr. Franklin, Sec. 


13, The Society (hall meet on 
the ift Monday in November annu- 
ally, a notification of which fhall be 
made by the Secretary in the pub- 
lic papers. Meetings fhall after- 
wards be held weekly until the fe- 
cond monday in February follow- 

13. In order to the partial or 
total repeal or amendment of this 
Conftitution, a propofai to that pur- 
pofe muft be given to the Prefident 
in writing, be read by him to the 
Society, and entered upon the mi- 
nutes two weeks hefore it (hall be 
taken up for confederation ; and for 

the adoption thereof the canfent of 
two thirds of the members prefent, 
fhall be requifite. 

The prefent officers of the Society are, 
William Shippen. M. D. Prefi- 
William B. Dufneld. A. M. 

Henry Stuber. M. B. Treafur- 

er and perpetual Secretary. 
John Baldwin. A. M. Annual Se- 

Publijhed by order of the Society. 
Henry Stuber, Sec'ry. 

A Letter from Dr. Franklin, on the death of his 
Brother, Mr. John Franklin, to Mifs Hubbard.* 


I CONDOLE with you, we 
have lolt a molt dear and valu- 
able relation, but it is the will of 
God and Nature, that thefe mortal 
bodies be laid afide, when the foul 
is to enter into real life ; 'tis rather 
. an embrio Hate, a preparation for 
living; a man is not completely 
born until he be dead: Why then 
fhould we grieve that a new child 
is born among the immortals ? A 
new member added to their happy 
fociety ? We are ipirits. That bo- 
dies fhould be lent us, while they 
can afford us pleafure, afliit us in 
acquiring knowledge, or doing good 
to our fellow creatures, is a kind and 
benevolent acl of God — when they 
become unfit for thefe purpofes, and 
afford us pain inftead of pleafure — 
inltead of an aid, become an incum- 
brance, and anfwer none of the in- 
tentions for which they were given, 
it is equally kind and benevolent 

E lp hi A, February 2 2d, I 756. 

that a way is provided by which 
we may get 1 id of them. Death is 
that way. We ourfelves prudently 
choofe a partial death. In fome 
cafes a mangled painful limb, which 
cannot be reftored, we willingly 
cut off. He who plucks out a tooth 
parts with it freely, fince the pain 
goes with it ; and he that quits the 
whole body, parts at once with all 
pain?, and poflibilities of pains and 
difeal'es it was liable to, or capable 
of making him fufter. 

Our friend and we are invited a- 
broad on a party of pleafure — that 
is to latt for ever — His chair was 
firft ready, and he is gone before 
us — we could not all conveniently 
{tart together, and why fhould you 
and I be grieved at this, fince we 
are foon to follow, and we *know 
where to find him. 


B. F. 

• ft is worthy of remark that this letter was publifhed, in the Federal Gawtte, on 
the evcnJDgof the Dw&or's d«ath. 

Thoughts upon Female Education, 


modated to the prefent ft ate of Society, Manners, and 
Government, in the United States of America. Addref- 
fed to the Vijitors of the Young Ladies Academy in Phi- 
ladelphia, 2%thjuly, 1787, at the clofe of the quar- 
terly examination, by Benjamin Rush, M. D. Pub- 
lifbed at the requefi of the Vijitors, by Mr. Andrew- 
Brown, Principal offaid Academy ; and nozv revijed 
by the Author. 

D ED I C A T I N. 



SO ME of the opinions contained in the following pages are fo contrary 
to general prejudice and fajhion, that I could not prefume to offer them to 
the publick, without foliating for them, the patronage of a rejpeclable and 
popular female 7iame. 

Permit vie therefore Madam to commit this little work to your protection, 
and at the fame time to ajfure you, of the gnat refpeCl and ejleem, with 
•which I have the honour to fubferibe my f elf, 

Tour moft obedient. 
Humble fervant, 



I HAVE yielded with diffidence to 
the folicitations of the Principal 
of the Academy, in undertaking to 
exprefs my regard for the profpe- 
-rityefthis Seminary of Learning, 
by fubmitting to your candour, a few 
Thoughts upon Female Education. 

The firft remark that I (hall make 
upon this fubject, is, that female e- 
ducation mould be accommodated to 
the ftate of fociety, manners, and 
government of the country, in 
which it is conducted. 

This remark leads me at once to 
add, that the education of young la- 
die?, in this country, mould be con- 
ducted upon principles very differ- 
ent from what it is in Great- Bri- 
tain, and in fome refpects different 
from what it was when we were 
part of a monarchical empire. 

There are leveral circumftances 

Uni. Asyl. Vol. IV. No. 4. 

in the fituation, employments, and 
duties of women, in America, which 
require a peculiar mode of educa- 

I. The early marriages of our 
women, by contracting the tune a' 
lowed for education, render i 
cefTary to contract its plan, ai 
confine it chiefly to the more ui 
branches of literature. 

II. The ftate of property, in t 
merica, renders it neceffary forth-, 
greateft part of our citizens to em 
ploy themfelves, in different occu 
pations, for the advancement t 
their fortunes. This cannot be don* 
without the affiftance of the female 
members of the community. They 
muft be the tlewards, and guardi- 
dians of their hufbands' property. 
That education, therefore, will be 
molt proper for our women, which 

E e 

thoughts upon Female Education. 


teaches them to difcharge the duties 
of thofe offices with the moft fuc- 
«.els and reputation. 

III. From the numerous avocati- 
ons to which a profeifional life ex- 
pofes gentlemen in America from 
their families, a principal fliare of 
the initruclion of children naturally 
devolves upon the women. It be- 
comes us therefore to prepare them 
by a fuitable education, for the dif- 
charge of this moft important duty 
of mothers. 

IV. The equal {hare that every 
citizen has in the liberty, and the 
pufiible mare he may have in the 
government, of our country, make 
it neceflary that our ladies ihould be 
qualified to a certain degree by a 
peculiar and fuitable education, to 
concur in inftructing their Ions in 
the principles of liberty and govern- 

V. In Great- Britain the bufmefs 
©f fervants is a regular occupation ; 
but in America this humble ftation 
is ufuaqly filled by flaves, or by per- 
fons wr\o are reduced to unexpect- 
ed indigbnee ; — hence the fervants, 
in this country, in the former cafe, 
pofTeues Ijefs fidelity, and in the lat- 
ter, lefs Knowledge and fubordina- 
tion, than are required from them. 
And hence, our ladies are obliged 

- attend more to the private af- 
s of their families, than ladies 
.;eraliy do, of the fame rank in 
reat- Britain. " They are good 
ervants (faid an American lady of 
diftinguiihed merit* in a letter to a 
favourite daughter) who will do 
well with good looking after." This 
circumftance Ihould have great in- 
fluence upon the nature and extent 
of female education in America. 

The branches of literature moft 
eflential for a young lady, in this 
country, appear to be, 

I. A knowledge of the Englifh 
language. She Ihould not only read, 
but fpeak and fpell it correctly. The 
ufual mode of teaching Englffh fyn- 
tax by means of rules committed to 
memory, appears to be as abfurd 
as to teach a child to walk, by in- 
ftructing it in the names and pow- 
ers of the mufcles which move the 
lower extreineties. The ear mould 
he the avenue through which all 
knowledge in fyntax Ihould firft be 
conveyed to the mind. Familiar 
converfations are alone proper for 
this purpofe. By this agreeable and 
rational mode of teaching grammar 
we follow the analogy of inftrudtion, 
in other branches of literature. 
Who ever attempted to demon- 
ftrate the ufes of the different coats 
and humours of the eye, to perfons 
who were unacquainted with the 
phenomena of light \ Or who ever 
thought of explaining the laws of ve- 
getation, to perfons who were 
Itrangers to the figure of plants \ 

II. Pleafure and intereft confpire 
to make the writing of a fair and 
legible hand, a neceflary branch of 
female education. For this purpofe 
{he mould be taught not only to 
{hape every letter properly, .but to 
pay the ftrieteft regard to points 
and capitals.^ 

I once heard of a man who pro- 
felTed to dilcover the temper and dif- 
pofition of perfons by looking at their 
hand-writing. Without enquiring 
into the probability of this ftory ; 
I fhall only remark, that there is 
one thing in which all mankind a- 
gree upon this fubject, and that is, 

* Mrs. GfcJEMX. 

f i he prefent mode of writing among perfons of tafta is to ufe a capital letter on- 
ly for the mil word of a fentenca, for names of perfons, places and months, and 
lor the firft word of every line in poetry. The words fhould be fo fhaped that a 
ftreight line may be drawn between two lints, without touching the extremities of 
the words in cither of them. 

Thoughts upon Female Education. 


in confidering writing that is blot- 
ted, crooked, or illegible, as a 
mark of vulgar education. I know 
of few things more rude or illiberal, 
than to obtrude a letter upon a per- 
ion of rank or bufinefs, which can- 
not be eafily read. Peculiar care 
mould be taken to avoid every kind 
of ambiguity and affectation in 
writing names. I have now a letter 
in my pofTeffion upon bufinefs, from 
a gentleman of a liberal profeflion 
in a neighbouring ftate, which I 
am unable to anfwer, becaufe I can- 
not difcover the name which is iub- 
fcribed to it. For obvious reafons 
I would recommend the writing of 
the firft or chriftian name at full 
length, where it does not con lift of 
more than two fyllables. Abbrevia- 
tions of all kinds in letter- writing, 
which always denote either haite 
or careleflnefs, fliould likewiie be 
avoided. I have only to add under 
this head, that the Italian and in- 
verted hands which are read with 
difficulty, are by no means accom- 
modated to the active ftate of 
bufinefs in America, or to the fim- 
plicity of the citizens of a repub- 

II T. Some knowledge of figures 
and book-keeping ^is abfolutely ne- 
cefTary to qualify a young lady for 
the duties which await her in this 
country. There are certain occu- 
pations in which fhe may affift her 
hufband with this knowledge ; and 
fhould flie furvive him, and agreea- 
bly to the cuftom of our country be 
the executrix of his will, fhe can- 
not fail of deriving immenfe advan- 
tages from it. 

IV. An acquaintance with geo- 
graphy and fome inftruction in chro- 
nology will enable a young lady to 
read hiftory, biography, and tra- 
vels, with advantage ; and thereby 
qualify her not only for a general 
intercourl'e with the world, but, to 

be an agreeable companion for a 
fenfible man. To the fe branches of 
knowledge may be added, in fome 
inftances, a general acquaintance 
with the firft principles ofchemi- 
ftry, and natural philofophy, par-. 
ticularly with fuch parts of them as* 
are applicable to domeftick and cu- 
linary purpofes. 

V. Vocal mufick fliould never be 
neglected, in the education of a 
young ladv, in this country. Be- 
fides preparing her to join in that 
part of publick worfhip which «ott- 
fifts in pfalmody, it will enable v 
to foothe the cares of domeftick !i 
The diftrefs and veyation of a huf- 
band — the noife ofanurfery, and, 
even, the forrows that will fome- 
times intrude into her own bofom, 
may all be relieved by a fon<r t 
where round and fentiinent unite 
to act upon the mind. I hope it 
will not be thought foreign to this 
part of our fubject to introduce a 
fact here, which has been fiiggeft- 
ed to me by my profeflion, and that 
is, that the exercife of the organs 
of the breaft, by finging, contri- 
butes very much to defend them 
from thole difeafes to which our 
climate, and other caufes, have of 
late expofed them. — Our German 
fellow- citizens are feldom afflidted 
with conliimptions, nor have I ever 
known but one inftance of fpitting 
of blood among them. This, I be- 
lieve, is in part occafiontd by the 
ftrength which their lungs acquire, 
by exercifing them frequently in 
vocal mufic, for this conftitutes an 
efTential branch of their education. 
The mufick-mafterofour academy* 
has furnifhed me with an obierva- 
tion ftill more in favour of this opi- 
nion. He informed me that, he 
had known feveral inftances of per- 
fons who were ftrongly ditpofed to 
the confumption, who were re- 
ftored to health, by the mode- 

* Mr. A DC ATE. 


Thoughts upon Female Education. 

rate exercife of their lun 2? in Ting- 

VI. Dancing is by no means 
an improper branch of education 
for an American lady. It promotes 

4icakb, and renders the figure and 
noi ions of the body eafy and agree- 
able. I anticipate the time when 
the refourcesof converfation flia.ll be 
fo far multiplied, that the amule- 
ment of dancing, lhall be wholly con- 
fined to children. But in our prefent 
ftate of fociety and knowledge, I 
conceive it to be an agreeable liibfti- 
V. - for the ignoble pie a lures of 
•.finking, and gaming, in our affera- 
blies of grown people. 

VII. The attention of our young 
ladies fliould be directed, as foon as 
they are prepared for it, to the 
reading of hiftory — travels — poe- 
try — and moral e flays. Thefe ftu- 
dies are accommodated, in a pecu- 
liar manner, to the prefent ftate of 
fociety in America, and when a re- 
lifh is excited for them, in early 
life, they fubdue that palTion for 
reading novels, which fo generally 
prevails among the fair lex. 1 can- 
not difmifs this fpecies of writing 

***and reading without obferving, that 
the fubjects of novels are by no 
means accommodated to our prefent 
manners. They hold up life, it is 
true, but it is not as yet life, in 
America. Our paffions have not as 
yet *' overftepped the modefty of 
" nature," nor are they " torn to 
" tatters," to ufe the expreftions of 
the poet, by extravagant love, jea- 
loufy, ambition, or revenge. As 
yet the intrigues of a Britifh novel, 
are as foreign to our manners, as 
the refinements of Aliatic vice. Let 
it not be faid, that the tales of dif- 
trefs, which fill modern novels, 
have a tendency to (often the fe- 
male heart into acts of humanity. 

The fact is the reverfe of this. The 
abortive fympathy which is excited 
by the recital of imaginary diftrefs, 
blunts the heart to that which is re- 
al ; and, hence, we fometimes fee 
inftances of young ladies, who weep 
away a whole forenoon over the cri- 
minal forrowsof a hititiousCharlotte 
or Werter, turning with difdain at 
two o'clock from the light of a beg- 
gar, who folicits in feeble accents 
or ligns, a fmall portion only, of 
the crumbs which fall from their fa- 
thers' tables. 

VIII. There have been many 
controverfies upon the fubject of 
publick and private education. The 
principal objection to the former, 
has always been derived from its 
mifchievous influence upon the mo- 
rals and manners of young people. 
The folly and vice of every fcholar, 
it has been faid, are difTem mated ; 
fo that in a little while, each fcho- 
lar polTefles the follies and vices of 
the whole. But is there no reme- 
dy for thefe evils ? Yes there is — 
The principles and precepts of chrif- 
tianity are a fovereign antidote to 
thera. Let, therefore, 311 the 
branches of education which have 
been mentioned, be connected with 
regular inftruction in the Chriftian 
religion. For this purpofe the prin- 
ciples of the different feet s of chrif- 
tians fhould be taught and explain- 
ed, and our pupils fhould early be 
furnimed with fome of the moft fim- 
ple arguments in favour of the truth 
of chriflianity*. A portion of the 
bible (of late improperly banifhed 
from our fchools) fhould be read by 
them every day, and fuch queftions 
fhould be afked, after reading it, as 
are calculated to imprint upon their 
minds the interefting ftor'fes con- 
tained in it. 

RoufTeau has afTerted that the 

Baron Haller's letters to his daughter on the truths of the chriftian religion, and 
Dr. Beatie's " evidences of the chriftian religion briefly and plainly ftated" are ex- 
cellent little tracts, and well adapted for this purpofe. 

reographical Defcription of Bachelor's Ifland. 213 

great iecret of education confifts in 
•* wafting the time of children pro- 
fitably." There is fome truth in 
this obfervation. I believe that we 
often impair their health, and weak- 
en their capacities, by impofingftu- 
dies upon them, which are not pro- 
portioned to their years. But this 
objection does not apply to religion 
inftructicn. There are certain fim- 
ple propefitions in the chriftian relU 
gion, that are fuited in a peculiar 
manner, to the infant ftate of rea- 
fon and moral fenfibility. A clergy- 
man of long experience in the in- 
itruetion of youth* informed me, 
that he always found chidren acqui- 
red religious knowledge more eafily 
than knowledge upon other fubjects i 
and that young girls acquired this 
kind of knowledge more readily 
than boys. The female breaft is the 
natural foil of chriflianity ; and 
while our women are taught to be- 
lieve its do&rines, and obey its pre- 
cepts, the wit of Voltaire, and the 
ftile of Bolingbroke, will never be 
able to deftroy its influence upon 
our citizens. 

I cannot help remarking in this 
place, that chriftianity exerts the 

moft friendly influence upon fcience, 
as well as upon the morals and man- 
ners of mankind. Whether this be 
occafioned by the unity of truth, 
and the mutual alliftance which 
truths upon different fubjects afford 
each other, or whether the facu^ 
ties of the mind be fharpened and 
corrected by embracing the truths 
of revelation, and thereby prepared 
to investigate and perceive truths 
upon other fubjects, I will not de- 
termine, but it is certain that the 
greateit difcoveries in fcience have 
been made by chriftian philofophers, 
and that there is th^ moft know- 
ledge in thofe countries where there 
is the moft chriftianity f. By know- 
ledge I mean truth only ; and by 
truth I mean the perception of 
things as they appear to the divine 
mind. If this remark be well found- 
ed, then thofe philofophers who re- 
ject chriftianity, and thole ehriftians, 
whether parents or fchool- matters, 
who neglect the religious inftruc- 
tion of their children and pupils, 
rejefi and neglefi the moft effec- 
tual means of promoting knowledge 
in our country. 

(To be concluded in our next.) 

Geographical Description of BACHELOR'S 


BACHELOR'S Ifland is fituated 
on the burning lands of the 
deferts of Folly, where even the 
favage inhabitants of the foreft 

feldom venture to tread. It is 
bounded on the Eaft, by the re- 
gions of Affectation, Vanity, and 
Deceit ; on the North, by the ter- 

* The Rev. Dr. Nicholas Collin, minifter of the Swedifh church in Wicocoe. 

f This is true in a peculiar manner in the fcience of medicine, A young Scotch 
phyfician of enterprizing talents, who conceived a high idea of the ftate of medicine 
in the eaft'ern countries, fpent two years in enquiries after medical knowledge in Con- 
ftantinople, and Grand Cairo. On his return to Britain he confelfed to an American 
phyfician whom he met at Naples, that after all his refearches and travels, he " had 
difcovcred nothing except a fingle fad relative to the plague, that he thought worth 
remembering or communicating." The fcience of medicine in China, according to 
the accounts of De Hale, is in as imperfed a ftate as among the bidians of North A- 

2 14 Geographical Defcription of Bachelor's Ifland. 

ritories of Fear and Cowardice ; on 
the South, by the burning zone of 
ren/orfe, difeafe, and death; and, 
on the Weft, by the dead lake of 
oblivion. Hence it is eafily to be 
fuppofed, that the air of this ifland 
#fultry, enervating, and peftifer- 
ous ; expoled to perpetual icenes of 
ftorm, hurricane, and tempeft; 
and its climate, like the minds of 
its inhabitants, is never fettled for 
an hour. The fpring of Bachelor's 
Ifland totally differs from that of 
any other I have hitherto read of, 
as that is here the reafon of flie raoft 
pernicious heat, and in which the 
generality of its inhabitants are pof- 
lefTed with a kind of madnefs, the 
moft deftructive to themfelves, the 
moft injurious to every civilized 
country, and the moft fubverfive 
of unguarded innocence. Thofe, 
who weather out the fpring, and 
live to fee the fummer, though 
they lofe a great degree of their 
madnefs, yet, in that feafon, they 
become artful, hypocritical, and 
treacherous. Their winter is truly 
defpicable indeed, fince, among all 
nations upon earth, you cannot ex- 
prefs your contempt of a man more 
pointedly, than by calling him an 
old bachelor — a thing that lives 
only for itfelf — a thing that has no 
facial harmony in its foul — a thing 
that cares for nobody, and whom 
nobody regards — a thing that de- 
lights in fens and morafTes, but 
hates the generous warmth of the 
noon day fun. Though the natives 
of this miferable ifland make thofe 
of the ifle of matrimony, the con- 
flant object of their ridicule, yet 
there have been numberlefs in- 
ftances of their Healing from their 
own ifland, into that oi matrimony, 
where they have prevailed on 
fome good-natured eafy creamres, 
to become their nurfes and reftor- 
ers, after their conftitutions had 

been nearly ruined in their former 
miferable abodes ; for, in the ifle 
of matrimony, though clouds now 
and then gather over it, yet they 
ferve only to render the remainder 
of the day more brilliant and chear- 
ful. In Bachelor's Ifland, love is 
a thing much talked of, but totally 
unknown to them; and they are 
hated and defpifed, robbed and 
plundered, by the objects of their 
miferable embraces. If cards are 
the ufual diverfions of the people 
on the ifland of matrimony, they 
are confidered only as an innocent 
amufement ; but, on Bachelor's 
Ifland, they are productive of the 
moft fhocking vices, fuch as the 
groffeft fcenes of drunkennefs and 
debauchery, the total ruin of for- 
tune and reputation, and even 
murder itfelf is fometimes the con- 
fequence. How many have quit- 
ted this ifland, and fled to that they 
fo much defpifed, in order to repair 
their ruined fortunes by feeking a 
rich and amiable partner ? Bache- 
lor's Ifle is a mere defert, incapable 
of producing any thing but nettles, 
thorns, and briers : here are no 
bleating lambs to pleafe the eye of 
innocence ; here no doves cherifh 
their young, nor does the ufeful 
fawn bound over their barren 
plains ; but wolves, tygers, and 
crocodiles, are here feen in abund- 
ance. Here are neither wife nor 
children to weep over the afhes of 
the deceafed; but owls hoot, ra- 
vens croak, and the reptiles of the 
earth crawl over their graves. In 
fhort, of all animals that ever na- 
ture produced, an old bachelor muft 
be the moft contemptible ; he lives 
a ufeleis being on the earth, dies 
without having anfwered the end 
of his creation, in oppolition to the 
mandate of his great maker, and is 
at laft conilgned to endlefs obliv- 

An Oration in Praife of Rum, 


For the Universal Asylum, and Columbian Magazine. 

An Oration in Praise of RUM, delivered at a Com- 
mencement held in the Univerfity of Pennfylvania 
on the 10th of July, 1789, by Mr. George Bayn- 

HUMANITY and juftice con- 
fpire, to lead us to take the 
part of the perfecuted and opprefTed. 
Under the influence of thefe princi- 
ples, I come forward this day, to 
defend a much injured character — 
Many and formidable have been 
its enemies. Secret calumnies, and 
publick Icandal, private afTociatiom, 
and publick teltimonies, ridicule and 
fatire, poetry and prole, para- 
graphs and pamphlets, dreams and 
dialogues, and even prints them- 
f'elves, have all been employed to 
dellroy it! The character I allude 
to, is that univerfal friend to man- 
kind — Rum. 

It is no fmall mortification to me 
that I am not able to trace the in- 
vention of this noble liquor to its au- 
thor ; nor am I able to mention the 
country in which the ivorm and the 
jlill, were firft difcovered. Grati- 
tude mull here, therefore, be filent. 
Some people have, with more ill 
nature than wit, afcribed the in- 
vention of Rum to the devil. 
Thefe people tell us, that his fatan- 
ick majelly having invented gun- 
powder and paper money, was at 
a lofs to know how to introduce 
them into general uie, till he fet 
up a diftillery and made Rum» 
which f'erved as a vehicle for the 
other two articles, and hence, they 
fay, they have travelled hand in 
hand together, in all countries. I 
mail not (top to determine whether 
this account of the origin of Rum 
be true or falfe, but mall leave the 
enquiry to be fettled by that great 
friend to gunpowder, the late King 

of Pruffia, and by the advocates for 
paper money, in the ftate of 

The ufe of Rum is not only very 
ancient, but univerfal. It is the 
Arrack of China, the Gin of Hol- 
land, the Brandy of France, and 
the JVbiJky of Scotland, Ireland, 
and the United States. 

I mail now mention a few of the 
excellent qualities, and ufes, of this 
univerfal liquor. 

I. Rum is an antidote to care ; 
and every body knows how much 
of this is the portion of every 
human creature. No fooner does 
this cordial thrillthrough the blood, 
than poverty lefes all its evils, and 
the dun and the fheriff ceafe to be 
terrible. Rum is moreover the 
opiate of domeftick trouble. In 
vain does a hufband abufe his wife, 
or a wife wafte the property of 
her hufband, in a country where 
Rum is to be had at a moderate 
price. This invaluable liquor, like 
the water of Lethe, canfes them 
both to forget injuries of every 
kind, and while they are under 
its influence (provided they take 
enough to put them to fleep) they 
live in harmony with each other. 

II. Rum is the fuel of courage : 
of this the Britifh army exhibited 
many proofs during the late war; 
it being a conftant practice with 
the Britifh Generals always to give 
their foldiers a dram, juft belore 
they led them on to battle. To this 
liquor, therefore, are we to afcribe 
the many gallant exploits, that 
were performed by the Britifii 

An Oration in Praife of Rum. 


army in America; fuch as the burn- 
ing of Charleftown, New-London, 
and Norfolk; and, above all, the 
bravery with which they extir- 
pated old men and women, and 
even minifters of the gofpel, when 
they were detected in adminifter- 
ing fupport to the late unnatural 

tl If you wifh to inherit 
" Pray wafh your throat 

The throat in this inftance is al. 
ways to be wafhed with raw Rum. 
Its great utility, in preferving the 
planters from the effects of the 
damp and unwholefome air of the 
morning, has given it the medical 
name of an Antikogmatick. 
The quantity taken every morning, 
is in an exact proportion to the 
thicknefs of the fog, and the damp- 
neis of the atmolphere. The de- 
grees of each of thefe are meafured 
by the report of a negro flave, who 
has been expofed to them in the 
morning. But the time we hope 
is not very diftant, when thefe fogs 
will be meafured with much more 
accuracy, by an inftrument to be 
called aFoGGROMETER, and which 
is to be graduated by gills, half- 
pints, and quarts. A more minute 
account of this inftrument fhall be 
given, as loon as the law for pro- 
tecting and rewarding difcoveries 
is palled by the United States. 

IV. Again; Rum is are publican 
liquor. This character I know has 
been given to beer and cyder ; 
but I deny the propriety of the 
epithet : thefe expenfive liquors 
can be afforded only by the rich 
and luxurious, and of courfe are 
never drank in mixed, or truly 
republican, companies. Rum, like 
death, is an univerfal leveller. It 
brings the nobleman and the porter 
together in the fame cellar, in 
London ; and it leads the merchant, 
the lawyer, the doctor and the 

III. Another excellence peculiar 
to Rum, is its fpecific virtues (as 
we are told) in preventing inter- 
mitting fevers. Without it, it has 
been laid, it would have been im- 
poffible to have fettled or cultivated 
the fouthern dates. Hence the 
adage of the planters in South- 

your father's land?, 
before your hands." 

beggar, to meet upon equal terms, in 
taverns and tippling- houfes. While 
Rum, therefore, continues to be 
the drink of Americans, it will be 
for ever unecefTary for the Con- 
grefs, to exercife the power which 
has been given to them, of protec- 
ting each ftate in the enjoyment 
of its republican form of govern- 

V. Let me not forget to men- 
tion, in this place, the influence of 
Rum in government. It is this 
which unties the tongue, the hands, 
and the feet, of the country poli- 
tician. It is this which inipires 
him with eloquence, and furnifhes 
him with all his ideas of the horrors 
of ariflocratical, and kingly power. 
It is this noble liquor which pulls 
down old governments — and which 
oppofes the eftablifhment of new 
ones, when they run counter to 
the inclinations of the people. It is 
true, the federal government was 
eftablifhed by means of beer and 
cyder, without the aid of Rum : 
but it is equally true, that this go- 
vernment could not be fet in mo- 
tion without it. Witnefs the re- 
duction of the duty upon rum and 
molafTes, by the Congrels of the 
United States. Our wife rulers 
knew too well its manifold uies, 
to leffen its confumption, by an ex- 
travagant tax. 

We have been told by f'ome 
phyficians, that Rum produces a 
great number of difeafes, fuch as 

General obfervations on fa fh ion, Sec. 217 

dropfies — palfies — epilepfies — apo- 
plexies — madnefs, and the like. 

I grant this to be the cafe where 
Rum is drank, diluted with water, 
in Grog, toddy, and punch. But 
raw Rum, never produces this 
terrible group of diforders, efpeciul- 
ly when it is taken in a fufficient 
quantity. No man ever complained 

" Drink deep or tafte not the diftiller's fpring, 
u A little fpirit is a dangerous thing : 
u Shallow draughts produce difeafe and pain ; 
" But drinking deep dilpels them both again. 

of palfy — epilepfy — dropfy — apo- 
plexy or madnefs, who drank his 
two quarts of Rum in a day ; or 
if he did, his complaints were of 
very fhort continuance. The words 
of the poet therefore, with a little 
alteration, apply to my fubject, with 
as much propriety as they do to the 
treafures of knowledge. ■ - 

We are told further, that Rum 
is an improper drink in harveft, 
and that molafTes and water — vine- 
gar and water — milk and water, 
and {mail beer, {hould be given to 
reapers, inftead of it. May the 
advocates for thefe colicky liquors, 
never know the pleafures of drink- 
ing any thing elfe ! — For my part 
I pity them, and hope that the in- 
habitants of the United States, will 
always have good fenie enough, to 
prefer the rojy face of Rum, to the 
pale, and Jquallid looks, which are 
imparted to the countenance, by 
the vapid liquors which have been 

mentioned. Hail ! — gicat, — 

ancient, and univerfal cordial i 

Thou art the liquor of life : thou 

art the opiate of care — the com- 
pofer of family troubles ! The fuel 
of courage ! — The antidote to 
fevers ! — The enemy of ariftocratic 
pride — and the life and foul of re- 
publican forms of government ! 

In fpite of the ravings and decla- 
mations of cynics and madmen, 
may thy influence be perpetual, in 
the United States! — Whether a 
fhort or lorag life await our country, 
may fhe never want the bleffings of 
Rum ! If fhe is deftined for long 
life, may Rum be the milk of 
her old age, — but if a premature 
death awaits her, — may fhe ! — O ! 
may fhe expire in an Ocean of 

General observat ions on fa (h ion, in drefs ; tvith 
particular remarks on certain female ornaments. 

Mr. Editor, 

WE find that drefs has been, 
at all times, and in every 
country, one of the principal objects 
of female puriuit, and has been al- 
moft as much attended to by the 
greater part of the male fex — We 
And, too, that there has been no 
want of Monitors, who have ex- 
patiated on the follies of fafhion, 
and endeavoured to etfeci a refor- 
Umi. Asyl. VqI.W. No, 4. 

mation, by curbing its excehes and 
abfurdities — It has been preached 
at from the pulpit, ridiculed on the 
ftage, and moralized on in periodi- 
cal writings, which feemed to at- 
tack it as an evil of the molt alarm- 
ing nature, and to exercife all the 
flrength of argument and wit for 
its deftruction. Whether the zeal 
of iuch reformers may not have 
¥ f 

2i8 General obfervations on fa fh ion, Sec. 

carried them too far, and whether 
drefs, and an attention to fafhions, 
is not proper, and even necerTary, 
in many iitnations, will not, I ap- 
prehend, admit of much doubt in 
the pre lent age ; and therefore, in 
my obfervations on the lubject, I 
by no means intend to difcounte- 
nance an obfervance of drefs, which 
I think, with Lord Chefterfield, 
ought to be rather above, than be- 
low, the fphere of life in which a 
per Ion is placed. Befides the pur- 
pofes of decency and convenience, 
to which drefs is fubfervient, I 
think it ought to be attended to, 
confidered merely as an ornament ; 
and as an affiftant to that defire, 
which every perfon ought to pof- 
fefs, to appear pleafing and agree- 
able, in the eyes of others ; lam, 
therefore, not fo much of a cynic 
as to condemn a young and beauti- 
ful woman for fetting off her charms, 

by the aid of a becoming, and even 
fafhionable drefs, or a young fellow 

for endeavouring to pufh himfelf in 

the world, by an attention to his 

external appearance — All that I 

blame them for is, that by a pre- 

pofterous choice, and a mifapplica- 

tion of ornaments, they defeat all 

thefe laudable intentions, and, in- 

ftead of encrealing their perfonal 

attractions, contrive to difgrace 

and deltroy them, by violating e- 

very rule of fymmetry and pro- 
portion. Amongft the numerous 

inventions, to which fafhion and 

folly have given birth, the dreffes 

which your correfpondent X. Y. 

{in the Afylum for March) has re- 
marked on, hold a diftinguifhed 

place ; but if they are diftrefhng to 

him, a married man, whole curi- 

ofity mult be in fame meafure re- 

preired, what mud they be to us, who 

have the fire of youth to prompt 

us, when we gaze at a handfome 

woman, and wilh to difcover, at 

leait, the outlines of that harmony 

and proportion of fhape, which the 
author of nature has bleft her with? 
—Your correfpondent has obferv- 
ed, th3t Addifon left no particular 
dimenfions for the modefty-piece, and 
it is to be lamented that he did 
not — In my opinion, the neck and 
bofom of a lady ought not to be fo 
far concealed, as to deftroy all its 
natural appearance} and even if 
motives of delicacy only had given 
birth to thefe monftrous craws, 
they would not have met with my 
approbation ; but I am apprehen- 
five that fafhion alone is to be 
blamed, or approved, on this oc- 
cafion. In our family pictures we 
find, that our great-grandmothers 
and aunts, are drawn in fuch a 
manner as to difplay, in fome mea- 
fure, thofe beauties which are pe- 
culiar to the fair fex ; but if a lady, 
in full drefs, was now to fit for her 
likenefs, however the painter might 
be able to come at her face, we 
fhould be indebted folely to his in- 
vention for her .neck, bsfom, and 
•waift — The tafte of the gentle- 
men, I prefume, is very different 

in this refpeel Some may be 

fond of fuch beauties as Smollet, in 
Peregrine Pickle, defcribes Emilia 
to have been, whofe bofom jujl be- 
trayed her fix while others pre- 
fer the embonpoint, and would be 
more highly gratified by the abun- 
dant charms of the German fair — 
Hut alas! we have now no oppor- 
tunity of chnofing when all diftinc- 
on is loft in fuch a mountainous pro- 
tuberance, as could be more dif- 
agreeable only by being real. The 
fair fex are more fufceptible of ten- 
der emotions than we are ; and we 
read that their gentle bofoms are 
agitated with fympathy, at a tale of 
diltrefs, whether real or fictitious — 
It may be fo, but we are. atprefent, 
deprived of the please of witnei- 
fing Inch pleafing emotions — For my 
own part, having lived a good deal 

Reflections on Education, 

m the country, I am fond of what 
is called Romping, and, from ex- 
perience, have thought myfelf a 
pretty good hand at it ; but, at 
prefent, I am entirely thrown out, 
and kept at a molt awful diltance, 
for fear of demolifhing the ladies* 
breaft-works, breaking their hoops, 
or throwing off their craped-cufh- 

But the greateft grievance is yet 
to come— —Being now nearly the 
age of thirty, I have been thinking 
of entering into the marriage ftate, 
and have been endeavouring to 
find a lady vvhofe peri'on, &c. I 
mould like — But I may look to 
eternity, and not make fuch a dif- 
covery as I wiih for — I fee the 
fame monftrous drefs on them all, 
and, of courfe, am unable to judge 
of the fhape and proportion of any 
of them — They feem anxious to im- 
itate the deformed lady, defcribed 
by Roderick Random, who was led 
to pity the exuberance in front, as 
tending to deftroy her equilibrium, 
till his fears were relieved by ob- 
ferving a fuhable protuberance be- 
hind. I have thoughts of confultintj 
a lawyer, whether the marriage 
could not be difiblved, upon the 


hufband's finding the lady efTential- 
ly different, in her form, from 
what file had appeared to be — 
That ladies, and gentlemen too, 
fhould put off after marriage, thofe 
endearing qualifications which firft. 
recommended them to each other, 
is too common to be wondered at. 
But that they fhould diicard a fhape, 
a bofom, or any other part of their 
perfons, is rather more alarming, 
to one who purpofes adventuring in 
that way. 

I would afk your readers, whe- 
ther they wifh their fhapes to be 
fuch as the drefTes now in fafliiou 
make them appear to be, in pre- 
ference to the charms, the exquifite 
harmony, and proportion, which 
nature has given them ? If they 
confult the tafte of the gentlemen, 
they will certainly fay, No. — For 
they may be affured that, in our 
eyes, a country girl, with the or- 
nament of her own hair, and a 
jacket and petticoat for her drefs, 
will have infinitely more charms 
than the fineft lady, difguifed in 
the modern inventions of Wind- 
Craws, Craped-Cujhious, Bifoops, 
and Cork- Rumps. 

Maryland. MENTOR. 

For the Universal Asylum, mid Columbian Magazine. 


MAN is eminently diftingnifh- 
ed among the inhabitants 
of this globe. He derives this dif- 
tinetion from the ftructure and af- 
pect of his body, and flill more 
from the powers and affections of 
his mind. 

The mind, indeed, feems to have 
but few ideas, at firft, and even to 
be indebted for thefe to external 
objects. But the noble and exten- 

five powers with which it is en- 
dued, difcover themfelves by de- 
grees, and render it highly fufcep- 
tible of improvement. This im- 
provement is cloiely connected 
with the perfection and happinefs 
of mankind. If the mind be darken- 
ed by error, and corrupted by vice, 
we fliall be miferable as well as 
mean ; if it be enlightened bv 
knowledge, and formed to virtue. 

220 Refledions on Education, 

we fliall more eafily fupport the thofe feeds of knowledge, which 

natural evils of life, and we fliall 
open to our! elves the trueft and 
largtit fources of happinefs. 

Hence it appears, that, of all 
the objects which attract our atten- 
tion, none are fo interesting as the 
mind itfelf; and hence it is that 
they who have the charge of youth 
ought, in a particular manner, to 
ftudy the nature of the human mind. 
They mould trace it in all its dif- 
ferent appearances, and obferve it 
with a ltill more curious and atten- 
tive eye, in the firft and moft in- 
corrupt feafon of life. They mould 
attend to its gradual openings, afhft 
in its exertion^, and Supply it with 
proper materials of knowledge. 
Beginning with the natural objects 
with which a child is furrounded, 
they mould teach him how to dis- 
cover their more obvious and ul'e- 
ful qualities ; then they mould point 
out the changes made upon them 
by human indultry, and the pur- 
pofes for which fuch changes are 
made. Difcoveries of this kind, 
and explanations as children ad- 
vance in age, and as objects prefent 
themfelves to their notice, will ex- 
cite their curiofity, and instruct as 
well as employ their minds. This 
will be a proper foundation for the 
arts and fciences. The acquisition 
of knowledge mould be made, as 
much as poflible, the fruit of their 
own inquiries, and of the uncon- 
strained exertion of their mental 
powers. Thus they will learn to 
exercife their own understanding 
in the purluit of knowledge, rather 
than implicitly truSt, upon all oc- 
cafions, to the opinions of parents 
and teachers. Thefe are furely 
entitled to the higheft refpecl, as 
well as obedience, from children ; 
but they mould take the molt effec- 
tual meafures to fecure this refpect; 
they mould take the fimpleft and 
moft probable methods of cherifhing 

feem, more or lefs, to be lodged 
in the minds of children, and re- 
quire only proper culture to rear 
them. Far from forwarding chil- 
dren in a precipitate manner, by 
loading their memories with unex- 
plained words, or requiring from 
them ta(ks above their comprehen- 
Con, or of little utility in life, 
they fliould keep pace with their 
riling genius, by adapting their in- 
structions to their confined ideas, 
and refpective capacities, by ex- 
plaining every thing till fully under- 
Stood, and by teaching thole things 
with greater care, which are after- 
wards to be of moft utility to 

Education like wife being known 
to have a powerful influence, in 
forming the tempers and characters 
of men, parents and teachers fliould 
endeavour, as foon as children are 
capable of comprehending the Social 
tyes, to cherifh, with the greateft 
vigilance, that love of mankind, 
which is fo vifible in their tender 
minds ;to Strengthen that i'en^e of 
right and wrong, which is fo deeply 
implanted in them ; and to prevent 
thofe falfe aflbciations of ideas fo 
destructive of human happinef*, and 
which, unexperienced as they are, 
and deluded by appearances, they 
are fo apt to form. Above all, they 
fliould ftudy to infpire them with 
Sentiments of duty and gratitude to 
the Supreme Being, confidered as 
their parent, benefactor, and judge; 
and to inculcate by prudent dilci- 
pline all thofe principles which have 
a tendency to make them happy in 
themfelves, and ufeful to others. 
While thus employed in cultivating 
the mind, the body is by no means 
to be neglected. The influence of 
the latter over the former, is as 
great as its union with it is furprif- 
ing. The body, when ibftened by 
indolence, or raittaken tendeniefs, 

mfeebles the 
rigour, and i 

Reflexions on Education. 221 

mind, relaxes its tend it in the firft exertions of its 


it for every 
great or difficult undertaking ; 
when pampered or weakened by 
luxury, or the gratification of ir- 
regular appetites, it fubjects the 
mind to wants not its own, and ex- 
cites thofe paflioBs which are the 
enemies of happinefs and of life ; 
but when nourifhed by temperance, 
and hardened by exercife, it en- 
ables the foul to exert her na- 
tive ftrength, inlpires cheerfulnefs, 
kindles up the benevolent affec- 
tions, fets virtue in the moil amia- 
ble light, and fiiews it to be the 
truelt happinefs of man. 

If we coofider the fimplicity of 
children, and iludy, carefully, to 
prefer ve them from prejudice, we 
fhall find them open to the belt im- 
prefiions, and delighted with e- 
very ftep they advance, in the 
road to knowledge and virtue. 
This renders parents and tutors in- 
■excufable, if they fufFer the noxious 
weeds of folly and vice to fpring up 
in a foil fo valuable, and fo capable 
of improvement. Weak and flex- 
ible, while deftitute of experience, 
children are ready to adopt the 
fentimetits, and copy the manners, 
of thofe with whom they converfe, 
or of thofe on whom they depend. 
This propenfity to imitation, to- 
gether with the contagion of ex- 
by hurrying them in- 
and follies of others, 
to all the inconve- 
niencies of error, in judgment and 
in practice. At the fame time, 
this very propenfity, if properly 
directed, will a<t like a powerful 
engine in favour of virtue. 

From thefe reflections it appears, 
that there is no occupation on earth 
more ufeful to mankind, nor more 
delightful in itfelf, than to improve 
the mind of man ; and what more 
probable means of fucceeding in fo 
noble an attempt, than to fuperin- 

to the 


faculties, and preferve it, through 
the critical feafon of youth, in that 
goodly ftate in which its happinefs 
coniifts ? 

Hiftory, that mirror of human 
life, exhibits to our view the for- 
tune of mankind ever varying, in 
proportion to their care or negli- 
gence in the training of youth. 
Where this was attended to, and 
properly conducted, we fee, that 
not only individuals, but even fo- 
cieties, were virtuous and happy. 
Where this was neglected, or the 
method of conducting it miftaken, 
we fee like wife, that they plunged 
themielves into vice ; and felt, at 
length, its direful and unavoidable 

It is much to be regretted that 
during the earliefl period of child- 
hood, that is, for the firft five 
years, when the mind is difpofed 
to receive the ftrongeft impreffions, 
it is frequently, and molt unhap- 
pily, perverted. Nor is this all : 
To complete the misfortune, it is 
often intruded, in the fucceeding 
period of life, to perfons, who, 
having never had proper oppor- 
tunities of in provement, are too 
often ftrangers to that enlargement 
of fentiment, and that delicacy of 
language, which arife from a more 
cultivated mind, and a better ac- 
quaintance with mankind. For 
thofe of fuperior education, re- 
garding the inftruction of youth as 
a field in which little wealth or re- 
putation is to be acquired, choofe 
to employ their talents where 
greater advantages may be expec- 

Nor will this appear furpriflng, 
when we confider the unfavourable 
circumitances in which the teachers 
of youth are placed, and the dif- 
ficulties with which they have to 
ftruggle. The former owing to 
the inattention of mankind, the 

2^2 2 

latter to the acquired depravity of 
children. Neglected in their ten- 
der years hy their parents, who 
are their natural guardians ; cor- 
rupted by fervants, to whofe care 
they are committed; and led aitray 
by the example of thofe with whom 
they are allowed to converie ; it is 

Marcus and Monhnia. 

a difficult talk to rectify falfe ideas 
in the minds of children ; to teach 
them to fet bounds to paffions 
which they have been allowed to 
indulge ; and to fhake off habits to 
which they have been fo long ac- 

For the Universal Asylum, <vid Columbian Magazine* 
MARCUS and M O N I M I A. 

(A flory founded on fatts.) 

M ON I MIA was nobly born : 
her grand-father was near- 
ly related to the Houfe of Bourbon; 
and her father Prelident of the Par- 
liament of Nifmes. The former, in 
his dying moments, tenacious of his 
hereditary distinctions, delivered 
to his fon, to be ever remembered, 
thefe his lafl words — "Itranfmitto 
" you, my fon, the honour and 
" dignity of my family, as I receiv- 
" ed them, pure and unfullied, guard 
" them whiift you live ; and, in 
t( your dying moments, as you have 
" received, fo tranfmit them to 
'* your pofterity." The bequeft 
was lodged in the heart of his fuc- 
ceiTur, and the folemn mandate, 
like the Perfian memeqto t was daily 

Proud, haughty, and imperious, 
towards his inferiors, and not to- 
lerating equals, he reigned the defpot 
of his little circle. Nobiliiy was 
the true, the only virtue ; and to 
be born beneath it, was an heredi- 
tary ftaio, a crime of fo deep a 
dye, as to be vifited from the fa- 
ther upon the children. One fon, 
highly diftinguilhed in the annals of 
military fame, and the charming 
Monimia, were the fruits of a mar- 
riage with the Countels de ■ ■« - , 

whofe life remains recorded, and 
her virtues bltffed, not by the un- 
meaning tongues of monks, in pur- 
chafed mattes, nor of artful elo- 
quence, wound up, like mechanifm, 
by an annual ftipend ; nor are they 
delineated on the pedeftal of the ftate - 
ly monument : — the laborious poor, 
the deferted orphan, helplefs age, 
and afflicted widows, remain the 
heralds of her virtues; and whiift 
eacli fobs" the fimple tale, how in- 
duftry was encouraged, how afflic- 
tion foothed, and how age fupport- 
ed, the heart Ihews the recorded 
letters, and bleeds at the frelh re- 
cital. Monimia, the beautiful 

Monimia, was fuch ; and now, like 
the full-buding rote, diffusing its 
fragrant odours, • lovely and charra- 
(t ing to the eye," appears the 
pride, the admiration of all. — Nor 
lefs fo was Marcus. Gifted by na- 
ture with the moft valuable endow- 
ments, which were embelliflied by 
an excellent education, he feemed 
formed but for Monimia. Like her 
he ftudied virtue, and like herf he 
was efteemed the model of it. The 
father of Marcus was an old foldier; 
who,wornoutwiththe fatigues of du- 
ty, had retired to his little villa, there 
to dedicate the fhort remainder of 

Marcus and Monimia* 


his days to humanity and religion. 
The Croix de St. Louis was his on- 
ly acquired honour, a (canty penfion 
his only fubfiftance. Marcus was 
his only child, his pride, his fup- 
port ; and whom peace had now re- 
llored to the arms of his aged fa- 
ther. Difcharged from military 
glory, he now indulged his natural 
propenfity, in that fcene where the 
charming t Monimia was fo highly 
diftinsuifhed. Oft had he here vi- 
ed with her in the virtuous exploit, 
and oft had he anticipated the plea- 
fure of doing good. In love, each 
of them, with virtue, they could 
not but be enamoured of its agents ; 
and oft had the expreffive eye, in 
its filent glances, told what the mo- 
deft: tongue was as yet afraid to ut- 
ter. Already had the village-tale 
anticipated the nuptial vow, and 
already had each little infant learn- 
ed to Hip the names of Marcus and 
Monimia. — But the haughty Prefi- 
dent had far other views ; his ti- 
tles, his honours, and the dignity 
of his family, were his chief, his 
only care. To fupport thefe, let 
nature no longer be regarded, let 
parental affection ceafe, and let an 
amiable, a virtuous child, be aban- 
doned aud deferted — Whilfl pride, 
however, forbad him to leave her 
in a ftation inferior to her birth, his 
meannefs would not permit him to 
abate aught of his own dignity, to 
add to hers — A neighbouring con- 
vent conveniently offered itfeif, to 
reconcile thefe jarring interefts ; and 
the world was thus to be deprived of 
one of its greateft. ornaments. The 
convent was of the order of St. Fran - 
cis ; — fad, gloomy, rigid, and auf- 
tere " Melancholy marked it for 
its own.".— Far different from tbefe 
were the principles inftilled into the 
mind of Monimia ; fhe had been 
taught to regard religion but as the 
fource of happinefs and contentment;, 
that morality included the chief of 

its laws ; and that the world was 
the place deftined, by her Maker, 
for the exercife of it ; that to re- 
tire, and avoid the trials of life, 
was a fpecies offukide, that mark- 
ed the coward afraid of the trifling 
ills the world could inflict. " This 
(cried fhe) has many objects, fcat- 
tered here and there, to employ the 
religious votary ; and I am fure the 
fmall mite which I beftow on cha- 
rity, gains more favour with heaven 
than a thoufand reiterated ftripes, 
or years of faffing ; and that the 
future punifhment ©f a crime, 'tis 
not the felf-inflicted ftripe which 
can mitigate, but the attribute of 
mercy to acquit." 

Whillt fuch were the fentiments 
of Monimia, no wonder fhe en- 
deaveured to avoid her impending 
doom ; but her father remained in- 
flexible. He begged, he admonifh- 
ed, he reafoned, he urged, and 
commanded. Monimia, knowing 
his diipofition, and the dreadful con- 
fequence, fhould hehavethe fmalleft 
fuipicion of her attachment to Mar- 
cus, reluctantly complied ; and the 
day, the fatal day, the burial of 

Monimia, was fixed. And now 

the effects which timid bafhfulnefs 
had hitherto withheld, were no 
longer concealed ; Marcus and Mo- 
nimia now mutually exchanged their 
long-withholden tale. Much had he 
to fay : a thoufand chimeras; a 
thoufand romantic projects filled his 
labouring breaft : the more he wifh- 
ed to tell them, the lefs was he a- 
ble ; and the moment of utterance 
was that of feparation. " Fail not, 
fays Monimia, fail not, as you re- 
gard my affection and efteem, to be 
prefent at the ceremony. From 
the moment in which I appear in 
all the pride and ornaments of the 
world, to that of my interment, I 
entreat, I conjure you to grant me 
this my laft requeft." Marcus fwore 
to obey, and afterwards, like a 


Marcus and Monimia. 

true Petrarch, to follow the exam- 
ple of his Laura. Monimia, hav- 
ing obtained her requeft, tore her- 
felfaway. — Marcus remained mo- 
tionlefs ; till his weary eyes, no lon- 
ger able to purfue the object of their 
delight, diil'olved in tears. " Mi- 
ferable, unhappy wretch ! (exclaim- 
ed he) thou art now deprived of 
the lole bleffing the world had to 
beftow upon thee ! Yes, there are 
mortals predeftined to be unhappy ; 
and I am one of thole wretched 

victims, whofe lot is mifery. 

Your father, fay you, Monimia, 
was it he who inftigated you to 

take the religious vow ? — 

Who compelled you to commit 
this act of fuicide ? Unnatural 
wretch ! — Surely he deferves not 

fuch a name. He is not worthy 

to be called a father, who can fa- 
crifice his child to avarice and pride ; 
nor is it religion to trke a vow, 

which God and Nature forbid 

O happy country ! where an here- 
ditary obligation binds the father to 
provide for his child ; and where 
no unworthy paflions prompt him 

to break the natural tye. O 

Monimia ! whither art thou going ? 
Within thofe walls * 

Surely a threefold punifhment awaits 
him, who aflumes to be the minif- 
ter of God, to tempt one to rebel 

againft him ! O Galen ! Galen ! 

even thy virtue, when in a defart, 
iecluded from the eye of the world, 
could not refill the temptation of 
vice : hadll thou been engaged in 
the active fcenes of life, thy mind, 
taken up and employed in the ex- 
ercil'e of virtue, its predominant 
paflion, had never thought of vice' ; 
but in folitude, whilft the former 
was inactive, the latter crept in, 
and ufurpeJ its dominion. ■ O 

Monimia ! ftay, for heaven's fake." 
— The curfew tolled its folemn knell. 
Marcus darted, as one awak- 
ened from a frightful dream ; he 
ftood fixed and motionlefs, 'till 
recollecting Monimia's laft requeft, 
he hurried to the fatal fpot. Scarce 
had he arrived, ere Monimia en- 
tered the chapel, accompanied by 
a numerous convoy of relations, and 
bedecked in all the elegance and 
fplendor which art and nature could 
beftow. The nligieux of fjie order 
were arranged on each fide of the 
altar ; who, as foon as Monimia en- 
tered the chapel, began their pious 
hymn ; and, in melodious drains* 
lung the folly and mifery of the 
world, and the happinefs and tran- 
quility of the life of the religious. 
On the right of the altar was the 
bifhop of the province, to whom the 
head of the order, the hymn being 
finished, prefentedMonimia. The firft 

queftion was then demanded 

" Doit thou thoroughly defpife and 
hate the folly and vanity of the 
world, and canft thou dedicate the 
remainder of thy life to God and 
religion ?" — Monimia, having an- 
fwered in the affirmative, was con- 
ducted from the chapel into the 
convent, to be ftript of all her pom- 
pous ornaments, and to prepare to 

make the laft, the fatal vow. 

The little bell gave the tinkling fig- 
nal ; and in an initant re-entered 
the abbefs, with the reft of the or- 
der, bearing the coffin of Monimia, 
and chanting her folemn dirge. 
Monimia followed, now dreffed in 
the habit of a rehgieufe : her beau- 
teous locks cut oft, and a veil con- 
cealing her charming countenance. 
— Once more Ihe was conducted to 
the bifhop, in the midft of the whole 
order, and her numerous relations, 
to make the laft, the binding vow. 

A folemn lilence now enfued. 

Monimia looking round, efpi- 

ed her Marcus, his eyes fixed upon 

Maternal Cruelty. 22c 

her, and petrified to the fpot The reverend prelate, indignant as 

I accept him (lhe cried) for my 
Hufband, and here make my Co- 
lemn vow to be eternally his." — 

he was, was obliged to ratify it, 
when thus made, and to join the 
hands of Marcus and Monhnla. 


THE Countefs of Macclesfield 
had one child, whom, re- 
gardlefs of fhame, fhe voluntarily 
avowed to be the offspring of adul- 
tery, and gave away to a poor wo- 
man, with a fmall fum of money, to 
educate as her own fon. At the 
death of the nurfe an accident dif- 
clofed to him the fecret of his birth, 
yet his mother peremptorily denied 
him the fmalleft portion of her large 
pofTelfions, and even prevented his 
father's making any proviiion for 
him, by artfully fuggefting that he 
was dead. She afterwards endeav- 
oured to have him kidnaped, and 
fent to the Weft- Indies, and the 
failure of this attempt only added 
new flings to her refentment : Yet 
Savage (the name of her unhappy 
fon) flattered himfelf, that could he 
obtain one interview, he fhould 
find an advocate in natural affc£lion y 
that muft foften her obduracy. An 
opportunity foon preiented, and 
one evening, when he knew fhe 
was alone, he contrived to gain ad- 
mittance into her room ; on enter- 
ing, he immediately threw himfelf 
at her feet, and in language po- 
etically defcriptive, painted bis mi- 
fery, and intreated her pity. She 
received him with fhrieks and ab- 
horrence, declared he had formed 
a delign againfl her life, and had 
him turned from her houfe with 
ignominy. A difpute having arifen 
in a tavern, in which one of his 
friends was infulted, Savage, who 
excelled in the art of fencing, in- 
ftantly drew in defence of his 
Uni. Asyl. VoL IV. No. 4. 

friend (who would otherwife have 
been overpowered by numbers) 
and killed his opponent. He was 
taken into cuftody ; and as foon as 
the rumour reached his mother's 
ears, fhe ufed all her influence to 
procure his condemnation ; and at 
the moment when he ftood in moft 
need of the kindnefs and partiality 
of a fond mother, the countefs ap. 
peared at the bar, and anxious to 
prejudice the court and jury againft 
him, and to fix his conviction, fhe 
related, with the moft unheard of 
barbarity, the circumftance of his 
pretended attempt to afTaflinate her, 
in her own houfe. Disappointed, 
however, in the defign of depriv- 
ing him of life, fhe determined, at 
leaft, to render that life a ftate of 
wretchednefs : And accordingly fhe 
afterwards hid the pleafure to re- 
fift every overture, made by the 
humanity of individuals for his re- 
lief, and finally fuffered him, in the 
prime of life, to die of want, in 
the gloomy manfions of a prifon, 
while flie was in the enjoyment of 
every luxury of life. It will pro- 
bably be fuppofed, by thofe who 
are unacquainted with the character 
of Savage, that fome intellectual 
or perfonal defect, in this unhappy 
youth, inlpired or confirmed the 
unnatural prejudice. On the con- 
trary, he was a man of the moft 
fublime genius and infinuating ad- 
drefs, with all the graces of peri'on, 
and charms of converfation. Dur- 
ing the indigent period of his child* 
hood, he had received the advan- 



too much feeling to inquire into 
the merits of thofe who folicited 
his charity. After beftowing his 
laft fhilling upon others, he has 
often remained, for days, unfhel- 
tered and unfed, and reduced to 
the laft extremity of life. 

The cruelty of a mother was, 
perhaps, rendered more infupport- 
able to Savage from his having a 
fine imagination, and a heart fuf- 
ceptible, in the higheft degree, of 
the moft tender fenfations that can 
arife in the human breaft. The 
following lines, addrefTed to the 
unrelenting woman who gave him 
birth, are feelingly expreffive of 
his diftrefTed fituatioH. 

tages of a publick fchool. From 
the time he became acquainted 
with his real birth, he applied him- 
felf to the cultivation of his genius, 
and the improvement of his talents. 
lie was one of th-e firft poets of his 
time, and acquired the patronage 
of moft of the literati ; yet he pro- 
fited but little from thefe advan- 
tages. Unformed by the virtuous 
precepts of parental care, and un- 
fixed by any profeflion, he became 
diflipated and extravagant ; but 
fuch was the extreme generofity of 
his heart, that the pittances he oc- 
cafionally received, were moftly 
expended upon the real or pretend- 
ed objects of diitrefs ; for he had 

Hopelefs, abandon'd, aimlefs and opprefs'd, 
Loll to delight, and every way diftrefs'd; 
Crofs his cold bed in wild diforder thrown, 
Thus iigh'd Alexis, friendiefs and alone : 
Why do I breathe, what joy can being give ! 
Since fhe who gave me life forgets I live ! 
Feels not thefe wint'ry blalls, nor heeds my fmart, 
But fhuts me from the fhelter of her heart. 
Saw me expos'd to want, to fhame, to fcorn, 
To ills, that make it mis'ry to be born ; 
Caft me regardlefs on the world's bleak wild, 
And bade me be a wretch, while yet a child. 
Where can he hope for pity, peace, or reft, 
Who moves no foftnefs in a mother's breaft 1 
Cuftom, law, reafon, all my caufe forfake, 
And nature fleeps to keep my woes awake ; 
Even flie who bore me blafts me with her hate, 
And meant my fortune, makes herleif my fate. 

Let the fortunate youth, who is the unfortunate Savage, 
blelt in the endearing carefTes of 

fond and indulgent parents, be 
grateful to divine Providence for 
the happinefs he enjoys, and give, 
at le oA ", a figh to the memory of 

And may 
no American mother, ever diveft 
herfelf, like his, of thofe feelings 
which nature has implanted in the 
bofoms of all, for the beft and 
nobleft purpofes. 


ON an alarm of fire, a perfon be with great compofure) for I 

at an inn was informed that never have any thing to do with 

lii> houfe was in flames: " you fam'tiy- affairs. 
had better inform my wife (laid 

The Influence of Utility. 

magnificence of wealth and great- 
nefs j and in this confiits the fole 
advantage of thefe Lift. They 
more effectually gratify that love 
of distinction fo natural to man. 
To one who was to live alone in a 
defolate ifland it might be a matter 
of doubt, perhaps, whether a 
palace, or a collection of fuch fmall 
conveniencies as are commonly con- 
contained in a tweezer-cafe, would 
contribute molt to his happinefs and 
enjoyment. If he is to live in fo- 
ciety, indeed, there can be no 
companion, becaufe in this, as 
in all other cafes, we constantly 
pay more regard to the fentiments 
of the Spectator, than to thofe of 
the perfon principally concerned, 
and confider rather how his fitua- 
tion will appear to other people, 
than how it will appear to himlelf. 
If we examine, however, why the 
Spectator diftinguiihes with fuch ad- 
miration the condition of the rich 
and the great, we (hall find that it is 
not i'o much upon account of the fu- 
perior eafe or pleafure which they 
are fuppofed to enjoy, as of the 
numberlefs artificial and elegant con- 
. trivances for promoting this eafe or 
pleafure. He does not even ima- 
gine that they are really happier 
than other people : but he imagines 
that they poifefs more means of hap- 
pinefs. And it is the ingenious and 
artful adjuitment of thole means to 
the end for which they were in- 
tended, that is the principal Source 
of his admiration. i5ut in the lan- 
guor of dileafe, and the wearinefs 
of old age, the pleafures of the vain 
and empty distinctions of greatnefs 
difappear. To one, in this ikua- 
tion, they are no longer capable of 
recommending thofe toilfome pur- 
fuits in which they had formerly en- 
gaged him. In his heart he curfes 
ambition, and vainly regrets the 
eafe and the indolence of youih, 
pleafures which are fled for ever, 


and which he hasfoolifhly facrificed 
for what, when he has got it, can 
afford him no real fatisfaction. In 
this mii'erable afpect does greatnefs 
- appear to every man when reduced 
either by fpleen or difeafe to ob- 
ferve with attention his own fitua- 
tion, and to confider what it is that 
is really wanting to his happinefs. 
Power and riches appear then to 
be, what they are, enormous and 
operole machines, contrived to pro- 
duce a few trifling conveniencies 
to the body, confiiting of Springs 
the moft nice and delicate, which 
muSt be kept in order with the moSt 
anxious attention, and which, in 
fpite of all our care, are ready every 
moment to burSt into pieces, and 
to crufh in their ruins their unfor- 
tunate poffefTor. They are im- 
menfe Sabrics, which it requires 
the labour of a life to raife, which 
threaten every moment to over- 
whelm the perfon that dwells in 
them, and which while they Stand, 
though they may fave him from 
Some fmaller inconveniences, can 
protect him from none of the fe- 
verer inclemencies of the feaibn. 
They keep off the fummer Shower, 
not the winter Storm, but leave 
him always as much, and fome- 
times more expofed than before, 
to anxiety, to fear, and to i'orrow ; 
to difeafes, to danger, and to death. 
Uut though this Splenetic philolb- 
phy, which in time of ficknefs or 
low Spirits is familiar to every 
man, thus entirely depreciates thofe 
great objects of human defire, 
when in better health and in better 
humour, we never fail to regard 
them under a more agreeable af- 
pect. Our imagination, which in 
pain and i'orrow SeerAs to be con- 
fined and cooped up within our 
own perfons, in times of eafe and 
profperity expands itfelf to every 
thing around us. We are then 
charmed with the beauty of that 


accommodation which reigns in the 
palaces and economy of the great; 
and admire how every thing is a- 
dapted to promote their eafe, to 
prevent their wants, to gratify 
their wifhes, and to amufe and en- 
tertain their moft frivolous defires. 
If we confider the real fatisfaclion 
which all thefe things are capable 
of affording, by itfelf, and feparated 
from the beauty of th;.t arrange- 
ment which is fitted to promote it, 
it will always appear in the higheft 
degree contemptible and trifling. 
But we rarely view it in this ab- 
stract and philofophical light. We 
naturally confound it in our imagi- 
nation with the order, the regular 
and harmonious movement of the 
fyftem, the machine or economy 
by means of which it is produced. 
The pleafures of wealth and great- 
nefs, when confidered in this com- 
plex v*iew, ftrike the imagination 
as fomething grand and beautiful 
and noble, of which the attainment 
is well worth all the toil and anxie- 
ty which we are fo apt to bellow 
upon it. 

And it is well that nature impofes 
upon us in this manner. It is this 
deception which roufes and keeps 
in continual motion the induftry of 
mankind. It is this which firft 
prompted them to cultivate the 
ground, to build houfes, to found 
cities and commonwealths, and 
to invent and improve all the fci- 
ences and arts, which ennoble 
and embellifh human life ; which 
have entirely changed the whole 
face of the globe, have turned the 
rude forefts of nature into agreeable 
and fertile plains, and made the 
tracklefs and barren ocean a new 
fund of fubfiftence, and the great 
high road of communication to the 
different nations of the earth. The 
earth by thefe labours of mankind 
has been obliged to redouble her 
natural fertility, and to maintain a 

The Influence of Utility. 

greater multitude of inhabitants. It 
is to no purpofe, that the proud and 
unfeeling landlord views his exten- 
five fields, and without a thought 
for the wants of his brethren, in 
imagination, confumes himielf the 
whole harveft that grows upon 
them. The homely and vulgar 
proverb, that the eye is larger than 
the belly, never was more fully 
verified than with regard to him. 
The capacity of his ftomach bears 
no proportion to the immenfity of 
his defires, and will receive no more 
than that of the meaneft peafant. 
The reft he is obliged to diltribute 
among thofe, who prepare, in the 
niceft manner, that little which he 
himfelf makes ufe of, among thofe, 
who fit up the palace in which this 
little is to be confumed, among 
thofe who provide and keep in 
order all the different baubles and 
trinkets, which are employed in 
the economy of greatnefs ; all of 
whom thus derive from his luxury 
and caprice, that fhare of the n»- 
cefTaries of life, which they would 
in vain have expected from his hu- 
manity or his juftice. The produce 
of the foil maintains at all times 
nearly that number of inhabitants, 
which it is capable of maintaining. 
The rich only felect from the heap 
what is moil precious and agree- 
able. They confurr.e little more 
than the poor, and in fpite of their 
natural felfifhnefs and rapacity, 
though they mean only their own 
conveniency, though the fole end 
which they propofe from the la- 
bours of all the thoufands whom 
they employ, be the gratification o| 
their own vain and infatiable de- 
fires, they divide with the poor the 
produce of all their improvements. 
They are led by an invifible hand 
to make nearly the fame diitribu- 
tion of the neceffaries of life, which 
would have been made, had the 
earth been divided into equal por- 

231 The Hiftory of 

tions among all its inhabitants, and 
thus without intending it, without 
knowing it, advance the interefts 
of fociety, and afford means to 
the multiplication of the fpecies. 
When providence divided the earth 
among a few lordly matters, it 
neither forgot nor abandoned thofe 
who feemed to have been left out 
in the partition. Thefe laft too 
enjoy their {hare of all that it pro- 
duces. In what constitutes the 

Mr. Wilfort. 

real happinefs of human life, they 
are in no refpect inferior to thofe 
who would feem fo much above 
them. In eafe of body and peace 
of mind, all the different ranks of 
life are nearly upon a level, and 
the beggar, who funs himfelf by 
the fide of the highway, pufferies 
that fecurity which kings are fight- 
ing for. 

(To be continued.) 


HISTORY of M r. W I L F O R T. 

(a true narrative.) 

R. Wilfort was born in 
London in the year 1 736 ; 
his father, a wealthy merchant, 
died when he was about a year old, 
and his mother furvived but a few 
months. His nearefl relation be- 
came his guardian, and carried the 
orphan with him, he knows not 
upon what account, to Jamaica, 
where he died when Wilfort was 
about fifteen years of age. Left 
to himfelf, wild and uneducated, 
he ran into fome extravagancies, 
which difgufting the few friends he 
had on the ifland, they caft him off, 
and he embarked for England ; the 
fliip in which he failed was taken 
by an Algerine corfair, and he was 
fold to llavery. The miferies he 
endured for above two years from 
a cruel mafter, tempted him to 
turn Mahometan, to procure his 
liberty; and, by the favour of the 
Englifh conful, he got leave to re- 
turn to his native country. 

Poor, friendlefs, and ignorant, 
he arrived in London, and fet a- 
bout inquiring for fome of thofe 
perfons whom he had occafionally 
heard his guardian mention as his 
relations ; but they, with one con- 
fent,- declaimed any knowledge of 

him, denied his identity, and 
threatened to puniih him as an im- 
poftor, if he purfued his claim ; de- 
claring they had the ftrongeft 
proofs, that the perfon he pretend-, 
ed to be, had been dead^ above 
three years. 

Driven almoft to defpair by 
the inhumanity of his relations, and 
finking under the immediate pref- 
fure of want, he entered as a com- 
mon faiior on board a fliip bound 
for America, without even inquir- 
ing the particular port fhe was def- 
ined to. During the voyage, his 
ignorance in navigation became the 
fport of his brutal companions, and 
occafioned his receiving the moft 
cruel treatment from his captain. 
As they drew near the Ifthmus of 
Panama, a violent ftorm arofe ; all 
hands were employed, and the un- 
fortunate Wilfort, by fome unlucky, 
though well-meant manoeuvre, had 
nearly overfet the fliip. His error 
was quickly perceived by one of bis 
companions, who felled him with 
a blow to the deck, from which he 
was almoft inftantly wafhed off by 
an immenle wave. All recollection 
forfook him from that moment, till 
he found himfelf lying upon the 

fea-fhore, almoft expiring 
hunger and fatigue. 

Miferable as he then was, that 
love of life which Providence has 
wifely implanted in all his creatures, 
prompted him to crawl as far as 
he was able, in fearch of food. 
Tiie ftrand was ftrewed with fhell- 
fifli and a variety of lea-fowls' eggs ; 
he ate and recovered his ftreng'h. 
The firit reflection he made upon his 
melancholy fituation afforded him a 
kind of gloomy joy at being releafed 
from the fociety of men, whom he 
could not help confidering as the 
moll cruel and ferocious of animals : 
and for fome days he wandered a- 
bout the fliore without wilhing ever 
to behold a human being. He at 
length, however, grew weary of 
his dreary folitude, and found him- 
felf impelled, by a fecret impulle, 
to travel further into the country, 
in fearch of what be had fo lately 
wifhed to avoid, the converfe of 
his fellow-creatures. 

In about fifteen days after, 
palling through immenfe woods, 
whole trees afforded him the only 
food he had by day, or Ihelter from 
the night, he arrived near the bot- 
tom of thofe famous mountains cal- 
led the Cordeliers, and in that fpot 
firft found the mark of human foot- 
fteps, by perceiving fome degree 
of cultivation in one particular fpot. 
As he r.dvanced with curious eyes 
and trembling pace, he beheld a 
hut formed of turf, covered with 
eglantine and ivy, and furrounded 
by a fmall enclofure, in which 
were planted magnolias, dates, a- 
nanas, the wild pear, and the peach, 
and numberlefs others of the beau- 
ties and bounties of nature. But 
what the more delighted his enrap- 
tured gaze, was the venerable 
figure of a man far advanced in 
life, whofe filver beard reached al- 
moit to his knees, yet was his front 
unwrinkled, and his brow ferene, 

The Hiftory of Mr. JVilfort 



nor did his body bear the marks of 
decrepitude; light was his ftep, 
and affable his mien, as he afcend- 
ed from a cryftal fpring, where he 
had been to flake his moderate 
thirft. At the fight of filth a mifer- 
able, fqualid figure as Wilfort, tie 
venerable Kador flatted fome paces 
back, and feemed as if efcaping from 
the view. The young man inftant- 
ly exclaimed, " O my father ! if 
your heart does not belie the hu- 
manity and benevolence of your ex- 
preffive countenance, deign to call 
your eyes upon the molt forlorn 
and wretched being they have ever 
beheld, who has been purfued by ill 
fortune from his birth, and muft pe- 
rilli in this vaft delart, unlefs your 
charity reprieve his fate." 

The voice of mifery is ever elo- 
quent ; the hermit was affected at 
the found ; he turned towards the 
child of Calamity, and his eyes 
overflowed with companion, while 
he prefTed him to his bofom in fi- 
lence. Wilfort attempted to apolo- 
gize for having given the hermit 
concern, but his words were choak- 
ed by his fighs, and his utterance be- 
came unintelligible : " My fon 
(laid Kador) both your mind and 
body feem to want repofe ; come 
into my hut, and there you fhall re- 
ceive both food and reft." 

The calm which Wilfort felt in 
his mind, from knowing that he 
flept in fafety, wrought a vifible 
change in his appearance, even by 
the following day, when he recount- 
ed to the hermit all the misfor- 
tunes of his life. When he had 
finifhed his narrative, Kador repli- 
ed, " I, like you, have felt for- 
row ; my youth was a prey to in- 
quietude; like you, I complained 
of my fate, and exclaimed againfl 
the cruelty of men. 

Fool that 1 was ! I attributed the 
misfortunes which my weaknefs 
and diflipation brought upon myfelf, 

Pride and Canity characterized. 

to the inhumanity of others ; I did 
not then know that the fource of 
my (brrow was imaginary, and that 
real evil can only Tpring from the 
indulgence of our tumultuous paf- 
fions, which neceffarily degenerate 
into vice. Adverfity, if we receive 
it calmly, inftead of an arrow, he- 
comes a fliield ; the fame earth 
which produces the poifon where- 
with the Indian warrior tips his 
arrow, brings forth alio the anti- 
dote to repel its malignant influ- 

O my fon ! let ns be virtuous, 
cherifli our brethren, love our Crea- 
tor, adore his laws, and we (hall 
be happy. The enjoyments of the 
mind are fuperior to thofe of the 


fenfes, nor can bodily ills alone 
make us completely wretched. — 
Thus preached the fenfible hermit 
of the valley : his words funk deep 
into the wanderer's mind, and peace 
and virtue now firft filled his 

Wilfort pafTed fome ye^.rs in un- 
interrupted tranquillity with his vir- 
tuous hoft. At length the hand of 
time weighed down the aged Ka- 
dor; he fell like autumn fruit, 
without a winter's ftorm. The 
grateful Wilfort with tears con- 
ligned his body to its kindred earth, 
and hoped to meet his fpirit in the 

(To be/ioncluded m our next.) 

PRIDE and VANITY Characterized. 

THESE feem to be fo nearly 
allied, that it requires more 
than ordinary difcernment to mark 
the line which divides them. Yet 
an acute obferver can perceive 
effential differences between them : 
and though they may fometimes a- 
rife from the fame principle, yet 
the effects they produce are ex- 
tremely various and diftinel. 

A vain mm is ftudions to catch 
applaufe, by a forward difplay of 
prelum ed excellencies which he ar- 
rogates, either wholly or perhaps to 
«i degree, without juft title to fup- 
port his claim : a proud man, on 
the other hand, challenges reipect 
from a confcioufnefs of latent merit, 
without even deigning to difcover 
the grounds of his pretenfions to e- 
very one from whom he exaels the 
tribute. The proud man therefore 
is generally diliant and referved j 
the vain man is familiar and com- 
municative. The proud man is the 
beft friend ; the vain man iv the beft 
companion. The proud man has 

Uni. Asyl. Vol. IV. Nc. 4. 

the moft good nature ; the vain man 
has the mofl good humour. 

It is fufficient for the vain man 
that he is admired by the prefent 
circle which furrounds him ; he 
weighs the importance of his admir- 
ers by the fcale of felf-love ; and if 
they condefcend to extol him, he 
blindly confers excellence on them. 
But the proud man often views the 
circle about him with fullen con- 
tempt, and "difdains to receive ap- 
plaufe but from thofe who deferve 
it themfelves. It is not the tribute, 
but the tributary which gratifies the 
delicacy of his ambition. 

To this difference of temperature 
it is, that the former is generally 
pleafed in all companies ; jtfhereas 
the latter finds fatisfaction but in 
few. — The one is fatisfied with his 
own imaginary perfection, and de- 
lighted with every one who rates, 
or appears to rate his merit, accord- 
ing to his own eftimate ; the other, 
though confeious of diftinguilhed 
worth, is nevertheless fenfible of 
H h 

Pride and Vanity characterized. 


his defects, and difgufted with the 
indilcriminate zeal of vulgar eulo- 
ojum. Hence perhaps it is owing, 
that the vain man has generally the 
more lively imagination ; the proud 
man the more folid judgment. When 
the mind is imprelled with an opi- 
nion of its own perfection, imagi- 
nation takes its full play, and may 
be indulged to the utmolt extent of 
wantonnefs ; but when we become 
fenfible of our own defects, thofe 
lively fallies are reftrained by our 
continued efforts towards more folid 
improvement ; and however we 
may take pride in being fuperior to 
others, yet it is fufficient to fupprefs 
our vanity, that we are inferior to 
©urielves; that is, to our own ideas 
of excellence. Therefore the vain 
man has molt power to amule ; the 
proud man the beft talents to inflruct, 
But, as thoufands court amufement, 
for one who folicits inftruction, the 
former is bell calculated to prolpcr 
in the world, while the latter has 
the belt title to its encouragement. 
The one entertains by exerting his 
whole itrength to prepoifefs you 
with an opinion of his excellence ; 
while the other keeps you at a dif- 
tance, by concealing his talents till 
he is convinced that your judgment 
is worthy of regard. 

The vain man may be faid to 
covet renown; the proud man to 
leek reputation. Tc be diftinguifti- 
ed, is the ambition of the former; 
to deferve diltinction, is the pride 
of tie hitter. The one, lo that he 
gains the end in view, is frequently 
not over nice in the means of ob- 
taining it: but it is not fufficient 
lor the other to reach the propofed 
ultimate, unlefs he can attain it by 
means which are honourable and 
jultifiable in his own opinion. A 
vain man is often betra)ed into a 
Uttleueis of fpirit, ma\ lometimes 
led into mural turpitude from an 
eager defire of being thought im- 

portant ; while the proud man of- 
ten feems deficient in worldly fa- 
gacity, and a proper attention to in- 
tereft, from a real magnanimity of 
foul. Thus an imbecility of intel- 
lects in the one, often corrupts the 
virtues of the heart ; while, in the 
other, a greatnefs of mind is often 
miitaken for a defect of underitand- 
ing. But however the real fuperi- 
ority refts on the fide of the latter, 
it will, from the wrong apprehen- 
fions of the multitude, be generally 
attributed to the former. Light 
and ornamental qualifications are 
more univerfally engaging, than 
deep and folid endowments : every 
man is captivated with what is a- 
greeable, but few can difcern what 
is juft. 

Add to this, that occafions of 
fhewing the lefTer accomplilhments 
continually occur, whereas an op- 
portunity of difplayihg thofe fupe- 
rior qualities feldom offers. Thus 
it often happens, that the proud man 
lives in oblcurity, with a degree of 
latent merit, which might illuflrate 
an exalted fration ; while the vain 
man is brought forward in the 
world, and often made ridiculous 
by his promotion. Could the ex- 
tremes of the two characters be 
happily blended together, they might 
form a difpofition at once agreeable 
and refpeciable . if the one was 
lels forward, and the other more 
affable, both might become engag- 

Vanity, which endeavours to be 
agreeable to all, is feldom warmly 
attached to any. Pride, which is 
morofe to the multitude, embraces 
the few with cordial affection. Such 
is the condition of human nature, 
that exterior grace with internal 
worth are rarely united in the lame 
perlon. The cue is to be learned 
in the world, which isnotthe fenii- 
r.ary of virtue; the other is to be 
acquired in the clofet, which is not 

Of £>uick-Ume , Sec . 

the fchool of politenefs. As men 
grow familiar with the world, for 
the moft part they (well with vani- 
ty, and become tainted with folly 
and fallacy ; they impofe upon them- 
ielves, and deceive others. In pro- 

2 35 

portion as they are abftra&ed from 
it, they too often increafe their 
pride, bin generally improve their 
imderilanding and integrity. 


Of OUICK-LIME as a manure. 
(Continued from page 169. J 

IF the lime-ftone lofes much of 
its weight in calcination, and 
the lime-fhells are extremely light ; 
— if the (hells require a very large 
proportion of water to flake them 
fully ; — if it is long before they be- 
gin to fall ; — if the lime-ftone is apt 
to run (or be vitrified) in the ope- 
ration of burning; — if it falls en- 
tirely wh --11 it gets a fuffkient quan- 
tity of water after it has been pro- 
perly calcinated ; — if it fwells very 
much in flaking, and if the lime is 
light, fine to the touch, and of a 
pure white ; we may be fatisfied that 
it is extremely good, and may ule 
it in preference to any other lime 
that is inferior to it in any of thefe 

Such as may difcover a new quar- 
ry of lime-ftone, and who wifli to 

afcertain with certainty its real va- 
lue, before they put themfelves to 
any expence about it, will do well 
to employ the following accurate, 
and ealy analyfis. 

As all calcareous matters are ca- 
pable of being diflblved in acids — 
and as no other earthy matter, can be 
diflblved in them — it follows, that, 
if a fufficient quantity of the acid is 
poured upon any body that contains 
calcareous matter, this matter will 
be quickly diflblved, while the o- 
thers are left behind ; and the pro- 
portions of eaeh may be accurately 

To try the exacl: value of every 
kind of lime-ftone, or ot her calcare- 
ous matter — take a quantity of aqua- 
fortis*, or lpirit of faltf; and hav- 
ing prepared them (as in the notes) 

* Nitrous acid. f Muriatic acid. 

Notes. All the mineral acids effervefce and unite with calcareous earths. — But, at 
the vitrolic acid (fpirit, or oil of vitriol) does not dijfulvt the calcareous matter, but 
forms a new concrete, that ftill retains its folid itatc, it is not fit for this experi- 

And, as it fometimes happens, that a little vitriolic acid is mixed with either the 
nitrous or muriatic acids — it becomes neceflary to be certain that this is not the cafe, 
before it is employed in this experiment. 

The eafieft way of trying if thefe acids are free from the vitriolic is, to put a little 
chalk into them before you employ them. — If the acid is pure, the chalk will diiTolve 
very readily — but, if not, fome part of the chalk will fall to the bottom, in the form 

of a pure white fediment. When this is the cafe, add i'mall bits of chalk, by 

little and little, till no more of that white fediment appears — after which the acid 
may be kept for ufe, as fulheiently pure. 

If the nitrous acid is fo ftrong as to have a flight browr. or reddifh appearance, it 
ought to be diluted with water till it affumes a greenifh lock — As, it, is bought in U\<c 
fhops fur the ufc of dyers, <xc. it is ufually weak enough* 

23 6 

Of ^itick-, 

put them into a glafs or earthen vef- 
fel — add to that, by little and little, 
a known quantity of the matter you 
mean to examine, which had been 
previoufly dried, and reduced to 
powder. — After each addition, fuf- 
fer the violent eftervefcence, or e- 
bullition, that will enfue, to abate 
before more is added. — When the 
whole of the powder is put to the 
acid, and the elFervefcence entirely 
fublided, ftir it about leveral times 
with a piece of tobacco-pipe, and 
allow it to remain for fohie time, 
that the acid may a6t. upon every 
particle of the matter, and tho- 
roughly difTolve it. And, to be cer- 
tain that there has not been too lit- 
tle iicid, put a few drops of frefh 
acid to the folution, which will ex- 
cite a frefh eftervefcence, if the 
whole is not fully diii'olved. — When 
bo change is produced by this addi- 
tion, it is a certain proof that the 
whole is already diflblved. 

Take then a piece of fiitring pa- 
per, thoroughly dried, the weight 
or which is alio known — fold it pro- 
perly, and put it in a glafs funnel — 
pour the whole of the lolution, with 
the matter that may have fubfided, 
into the funnel, and allow it to nitre 
through the paper flovdy. — When 
the fluid part has thus drained off, 
fill up thenjtre again with pure wa- 
ter, to wafh off the whole of the fa- 
line parts from the rejiduum, or mat- 
ter that remains undilfblved. — Add 
water in this manner till it comes off 
without any inline tafte — fuffer it 

then to drop off entirely dry it 

thoroughly — and weigh the paper 
with its contents. — The difference 
between which, and what the pow- 
der and paper were at the begin- 
ning, is the whole weight of the 

lime j Sec. 

calcareous matter ; fo that its pro- 
portion to the whole mafs is per- 
fectly afcertained. 

In this manner, I have examin- 
ed a great many different kinds of 
lime-ftone, and have found them 
vary in all degrees of purity, from 
fuch as were entirely foluble in a- 
cids, as lugar or fait is in water, to 
othersthat contained only onetwelfth 
of their weight of foluble matter, and 
eleven twelfths of land.— The ordina- 
ry kinds of lime-ftone contain from 
one third to two thirds of their weight 
of fand. — Hard chalk is ufually a 
pure calcareous earth foluble in a- 
cids : — And fome forts of lime-ftone 
may be met with that are equally 
pure ; but thefe are rare. 

We know little certain about the 
mode in which lime operates, ex- 
cepting that it acls merely in curi- 
fequence of its being mixed with 
the foil in fubftance. If a heap of 
lime fhall have lain ever fo long upon 
one fpot, and be afterwards carried 
clean away from it, fo that none of 
the particles of the lime remain to 
be mixed with the foil — that fpot 
will not be richer, or carry more 
luxuriant crops, than the places a- 
round it — which, every one knows, 
is not the cafe with regard to dung. 

Again — if lime be fpread upon 
thefurface of the foil, and allowed to 
remain there without being plough- 
ed in, its effects will fcarcely be 
perceived for leveral years, rill it 
has had time gradually to fink thro' 
the fward and mix with the foil ; 
after which its effecls begin to be 
perceived — although much lefs fen- 
libly, than if the fame quantity 
lime had been intimately mixec 
with the foil, by means of the 
plough and harrow. 

If the muriatic add if fo ilrong as to have a bright yellow colour — or emits fume 
when the bottle is opened — it ought to be diluted, by adding water till it afiumes al- 
moft a coiourlefs tranl'parsncy, with a very faint tinge of yellow. 

When they arc thus prepared, either of thefe acids may be uied indifcriminately fo 
this experiment, as they arc equally proper.. 

I am no ftranger to the improve- 
ments that have been made, by 
means of lime without the plough ; 
but this is no exception to what I 
have laid. — The effects are flow, 
though certain. Thole who in- 
habit countries that admit of the 
plough, are often adviled to lay 
lime upon the grafs, and are made 
to believe, that their palture will be 
initantly mended by it, nearly in 
the fame perceptible manner as if 
it had been dunged. This I myi'elf 
have tried, and have feen it tried 
by others — but always found that 
the grafs, for the firft year, was 
rather hurt than benefited by it ; nor 
was it l*o much improved in fuc- 
ceeding years as if the fame quanti- 
ty of lime had been applied and in- 
timately mixed with the foil. 

In this mode of applying lime, there- 
fore, it is long before it yields a pro* 
per return, and is not to be recom- 
mended to a poor man, unleis where 
neceflity obliges him to practiie 

If, then, lime a£fcs upon the foil 
more efficaciously in confequence of 
being intimately mixed with it, we 
may naturally conclude, that it will 
produce a more fenhble effect when 
it is reduced to exceeding fmall par- 
ticles, than when it is applied to the 
foil in larger lumps, as thefe do 
not admit of being fo intimately 
mixed with the particles of the 

But no method has ever yet been 
difcovered for reducing calcare- 
ous matter to fuch fmall compo- 
nent parts, or of fpreading it fo e- 
venly over, or of mixing it fo inti- 
mately with the foil, as by calcina- 
tion. Accordingly it is found, that 
lime will produce a very fenhble ef- 
fect upon the foil when applied in 
infinitely fmaller quantities, than 
any other calcareous matter what- 

Confidered in this view, it can 

Of Qiikk-lime , Sec. 237 

never be expected that lime-ftone, 
reduced to powder by any kind of 
mechanical triture, will produce 
fuch a fenlible effect upon the foil, 
as the fame quantity of calcareous 
matter, in the ftate of time, if pro- 
perly applied ; becauie it is mipuffi- 
ble, by mechanical means, ever to 
reduce it to fuck a fine powder as it 
naturally falls into after calcina- 

Much, however, depends upon 
the mode of applying the lime to the 
foil after calcination. If it is fpread 
as foon as it is flaked, while yet in 
a powdery ftate, a very fmall quan- 
tity maybe nude to cover the whole 
furface of the ground, and to touch 
an exceeding great number of par- 
ticles of earth. But, if it is buffer- 
ed to lie for fome time after flaking, 
and to get fo much moifture as to 
make it run into clods, or cake into 
large lumps, it can never be again 
divided into fuch fmall parts ; and 
therefore a much greater quantity 
is neceffary to produce the fame ef- 
fect, than if it had been applied in 
its powdery itate. 

But if the foil is afterwards to be 
continued long in tillage — as thefe 
clods are annually broken fmaller 
by the action of the plough and 
harrows, the lime mult continue to 
exert its influence a-new upon the 
foil for a great courfe of years — it 
will produce an effect near fimilar 
to that which would be experienced 
by annually ftrewing a fmall quan- 
tity of powdered lime over the fur- 
face of the foil. But, as the price 
of the lime mult, in the firft cafe, 
be paid by the- farmer altogether 
at the beginning, which only comes 
to be fucceflively demanded, in the 
other cafe — this deferves to be at- 
tended to, as it may become a 
confederation of fome importance 
where lime is dear, and money 
not very plenty. 

(To be continued.) 


Character of young Manly. 

A Character — Addressed to every Gentleman 
zv ho has a Son ; and to every Son zuho zuipes to be 
a Gentleman. * 

YOUNG Manly, after hav- 
ing patted through a publick 
fchool with applaufe, was lent to 
the Univerlity at the age of eigh- 
teen. He applied with great dili- 
gence to claflical and mathematical 
ftudies, until he reached his twenti- 
eth year, when his father thought 
it was neceirary for him to lay a 
folid foundation of domeltick know- 
ledge, before the fuperftructure of 
foreign travel was erected. This 
domeftick knowledge confifted in 
an inveltigation of the principles of 
the conititution, the fyftem of laws, 
and the adminiltration of juftice : 
it comprized a general inquiry in- 
to the feveral branches of com- 
merce and manufactures, the date of 
agriculture, learning, and the arts. 
The defects or errors on thefe in- 
terefting topics were remedied by 
conversions with intelligent per- 
fons ; and the vague fyftems of 
theory were rectified by observa- 
tions on the actual ftate of things. 
To diverfify thefe purfuits, Manly 
made the regular tour of his own 
country, with the double intention 
of furveying natural and artificial 
curiofities, and of converting with 
thole who were eminent for man- 
ners, attainments, or genius. On, 
vifiting foreign countries, he did 
not' tffflWjfflP Blk-tariofity amidft a 
friVffloaf.ififi p&pWftg m pfhi 
objects. As hd'tafbeVriioh^riaV 
bituated to the acquirement or {x(^~ 
ful knowledge, his refearches were 
directed to that alone. He poiTef- 
fed the belt means of procuring 
fatisfactory and genuine informa- 
tion, as he converted in the French, 
Italian, and German languages, 
with elegance and fluency. Such 
was the iuccefs with which he ia- 

crificed to the graces, that the 
ladies were charmed with the po- 
litenefs of his manners; and fuch 
was the highly cultivated ftate of 
his mind, that foreigners in general 
gained conliderably by the inter- 
change of ideas. His heart was 
happily fecured againft the feduc- 
tions of illicit amours, by an early 
attachment to a lady, whofe tem- 
per and turn of mind were congenial 
with his own. Their abfence was 
alleviated by a regular correfpond- 
ence. His delire to contribute to 
her entertainment and information 
made every object doubly intereft- 
ing, and gave the keenelt edge to 
his curiofity. He furveyed the bed 
fpecimens of ancient and modern 
art with a degree of rapture which 
bordered on enthufiafm. His tafte 
was not the offspring of affectation, 
but the gift of nature, improved by 
experience. Harmony of colours, 
fymmetry of part^, and -the name of 
a great mafter, were in his eftima- 
tion, merely excellencies of the 
fecond clafs. Sculpture and paint- 
ing had no charms for him, exclu- 
llve of the force and beauty of their 
effects. Rome and Florence were 
the principal places of his reiidence, 
becaufe in them the fine arts had 
depolited their molt valuable trea- 
fures. At the expiration of three 
years, he returned to his native 
country, and was united to the 
miltrels of his affections. His man- 
ners were refined, but not formal; 
his drefs was falhionable, but not 
foppilh : his deportment eal'y, but 
not finical. His conititution was 
invigorated by exercife ; and his 
fortune unimpaired by extrava- 
gance. Scepticifm had not under- 
mined, nor bigotry contracted, his 

Enquiry why Brutes 

religious principles. His prejudices 
were worn away by an enlarged 
intercourfe with mankind. His 
philanthropy was ardent, and his 
patriotiim not lefs fpiiited than ra- 
tional. Manly, in fhort, was a 

fivim naturally, Sec. 239 

citizen of the world, who had care- 
fully weighed the merits of all cul- 
tivated nations, and made his na- 
tive country the place of his refi- 
dence, becaufe her excellencies 
preponderated in the lcale. 


En q,u 1 r y into the Cause why irrational Anima ls fwim 
naturally, while Man is deprived of that Fac u lt y . 

THE ancients would undoubt- 
edly have made a furer and 
more rapid progrefs in the ftudy of 
philolbphy, had they applied them- 
felves to examine nature, rather 
than to form conjectures concern- 
ing her operations ; but they wifh- 
ed to teach others before they them- 
felves had acquired fufficient know- 
ledge by experience. From this pre- 
cipitation have proceeded all thole 
ridiculous opinions, words deftitute 
of fenfe, explanations which ex- 
plain nothing, and, in fhort, all 
thole confuied fyftems of which 
they compofed their philofophical 
theory. Thefe productions of the 
imagination, however, for many 
centuries formed the bafis of their 
knowledge, and excited the admi- 
ration of the vulgar ; who conceiv- 
ed fo religious a refpect for them, 
as was more likely to ohfeure than 
to enlighten their underftanding. 
Hence the minds of mankind be- 
came filled with fuch a number of 
errors. It was not an enterprife of 
little moment to diflipate thole 
clouds of darknefs which veiled 
truth from the eye. We may 
therefore confider as conquerors 
thole who firlt dared to pafs the 
barrier ; to brave prejudice, and 
fubjeel to a more rigorous examina- 
tion opinions concerning the nature 
of things which were conceived to 
be beyond the reach of doubt. Mull 
it not have been almolt temerity, 

to attack the horror of a vacuum, 
antipathies and lympathies, and a 
great many other ridiculous ideas 
of the fame kind, and to eltablifh 
inconteftible truths in their flead ? 
It was not without great difficulty, 
and after obftinate difputes, that 
more enlightened minds were able 
to deftroy the abfurd opinion, that 
corruption gives birth to an infinite 
number of living creatures. It is 
only our being accuftomed daily to 
fee philofophy enrich itfelf with 
new truths by the help of experi- 
ence, that has convinced us with- 
out any difputes, and almolt with- 
out being aftonifhed, that what 
weighs a pound under the Polar 
Circle, does not weigh the fame 
at the Equator. In the lummer 
time we obferve ants tranfportino - 
to their nelts with incredible dili- 
gence, grains of corn, chips of 
wood, and bits of Itraw, and people 
have never hefitated in aligning a 
'reafon for their making this pro- 
vilion. For more than three thou- 
sand years it was ftrongly beiieved 
that this wood and ftraw were for 
the purpole of conftructing a maga- 
zine, and that the corn was to iup- 
plythem with food during theleve- 
rity of winter. Whoever mould have 
denied this in the time of our an- 
ceftors, would have been in danger 
ot incurring the imputation of being 
a fool. It is however certain, that 
ants, as well as all other inle&s, pal* 

240 Enquiry -why Brutes 

the winter in a ftate of profound 
fleep, and that they neither eat 
nor ilir during all that time. This 
a modern philofopher has demon- 
ftrated beyond all doubt. We no 
longer are afraid of /hewing want 
of refpect to fables, which age has 
rendered in fome meafure vener- 
able. It was neceflary for the in- 
tereft of truth, that people mould 
appear who could ftart doubts, and 
who had the courage to do it ; and 
it is to thefe prudent and cautious 
doubts, which were not checked by 
any regard for popular prejudices, 
nor by a tame acquiefcence in the 
decilion of the ancients, that we 
are indebted for our deliverance 
from a great number of errors 
which they had handed down to us. 
Every thing not founded upon ex- 
perience requires to be often exa- 
amined anew. Experience itfelf 
has fometimes need of being veri- 
fied by new experiments, and much 
more fo, opinions fupported by 
probabilities alone. Truth is per- 
haps not far from us, but it never 
goes to meet indolrnce ; it appears 
only to thofe who leek for it, and, 
if we may nle the expreffion, it 
wiflies rbfolutely to be perfecuted. 
The fnbjecl of the following difier- 
tation is among the number of thofe 
which have need of revihon, and 
concerning wkich no iufficient ex- 
planations have been given. The 
different fentiments which pbilofo- 
phers have'dht'ertained on this head, 
ftill leave room for new ones; we 
fhall therefore offer a few observa- 
tions upon this qnclVion, fo often 
propofed, why brutes fwim na- 
turally, while man is deprived of 
that faculty ? 

The moil univcrfal opinion, but 
not the moft philofophical is, that 
brutes not being fr.fceptible of fe.r, 
pi eierve in danger that kind of 1 c- 3- 
Ion which nature has given them, 
and that acting coolly, they eafily 

fwim naturally, Sec. 

find the fureft means of extricating 
themfelves from it, while man, 
confufed, and lofing his judgment, 
is incapable of doing that which 
would fave him. It i«, however, 
true, that brutes are fufceptible of 
fear as well as man, and that we 
often fee them, when in danger, 
purfue a bad plan to avoid it. 
This, therefore, has determined 
philofophefs to feek for the caufes 
of this difference, in nature, and 
not in arbitrary fuppofitions. Some 
have imagined that the difficulty 
which man finds in fwimming ariies 
from the weight of his head. They 
fay, that of all animals man has the 
fulleft head, and that in which 
there are the fewelt vacuites ; con- 
fequently, being the heavieft part, 
it deltroys the equilibrium of his bo- 
dy, and makes him fink ; whereas 
brutes, having the head lighter, en 
account of the great concavities 
found in it, their whole body, when 
in the water, has a more perfect e- 
quiiibrium ; and to this is owing 
that facility, with which we ob- 
lerve them to fwim.* 

Borelli, in his treatife De Motu 
Aniwalium, ought to have given us 
a complete explanation of this phe- 
nomenon, and though he could have 
done it better than any one, he 
has fpoken of it only in a curfory 
manner. He gives his thoughts 
upon this llibjec't in two Ihort chap- 
ters, and in fo concile a manner, 
that he has omitted the folution 
of a great number of difficulties 
which arife when one confiders it 
with attention. As this queftion 
therefore has not yet been treated 
with Iufficient extent, I fnallendea- 
vour in fome meafure to fupply 
that d( h'ciency. 

I am of opinion, that this faculty 
of fwimming* naturally, which is 
granted to brutes, and denied to 
man, strifes, firift, from the differ- 
ent conformation of their bodies ; 

Enquiry why Brutes 

this is the opinion of Borelli himfelf. 
Quadrupeds have this faculty, be- 
caufe their bodies are placed hori- 
zontally, on four legs, and man is 
deprived of it, becaufe his body 
ftands vertically, upon tWo only. 
Secondly, becaufe the natural mo- 
tion of brutes, without any art, 
is fufficient to make them fwim, 
while the fame motion precipitates 
a man to the bottom of the water. 

Let us fuppofe that a man and a 
horfe fall at the fame time into a 
river, but in different places. It 
is well known that every animal 
has two diftincl kinds of motion ; 

[one which is called mechanical, and 
another, which is obedient to the 
will and reflection. When furprif- 
ed by danger, the firft motions of 
the body are the pure effects of the 

When the horfe falls into the 
water, he can move his limbs with 
much facility ; his firft motion, that 
which fear luggefts, is to turn him- 
felf and to place himfelf upright upon 
his four legs, which the liquidity of 
the water permits him to do with 
eafe. In this iiruation, he finds his 
body in its ufual attitude ; he is in 
exact equilibrium, the centre of gra- 
vity being in the middieof his belly, 
and nothing is wanting to him but 
to be fupported in the water. The 
fecond motion, which follows from 
the lame principle of fear, is to 
walk, in order to avoid the danger 
which his fall makes him appre- 
hend ; he walks therefore, as if 
he were upon dry land, in hopes of 
finding the ground which he feeks 
for, and this motion alone is fuffi- 
cient to make him fwim. Thus 
moving bis legs in the fame man- 
ner, whether he fwims or walks, 
he is fupported in the water ; if 
there be any difference, it is tri- 
fling and involuntary, and a me- 
chanical effect anting from the 
denlity of the water, through which 

Uni. Asyl. Vol. TV". No 4. 

fwim naturally. Sec 241 

it is more difficult for him to make 
his way than through air. 

When a man unacquainted with 
the art of fwimming falls into the 
water, he performs, in the fame 
manner as a brute, thole mechani- 
cal motions which are familiar to 
him, and which he employs even 
when befalls upon dry ground ; but 
the cafe is very different ; for that 
which- faves the brute, occafions the 
man to perifh. The firft motion 
which he makes, if he falls upon his 
back, is to turn himfelf on his belly, 
as he does at land ; the fecond, to 
plunge his legs, and to leek the 
ground, and then to ftrefch out his 
hands before him, to lay hold of the 
firft object he can meet with. If 
by chance he finds at the bottom of 
the water any folid body to which 
he can fix himfelf, he has not trained 
any advantage, (ince we fuppofed 
him to be ignorant of thofe regular 
and methodical motions which con- 
ftitute the art of fwimming; even 
though he knows them by theory, 
he can execute them very imper- 
fectly, if he has never practil'cd 
them; and his embarraflment is ftill 
encreafed, by the profpect of fudden 
death, which his being deprived of 
the power of refpiration brings be- 
fore his eyes. Hence proceed all thofe 
irregular motions which precipitate 
him to the bottom, and which are 
quite oppolite to thofe which are 
requifire to fupport him in the wa- 
ter. Thus the firft motions, which 
are . merely mechanical, are fuffi- 
cient to make brutes lwim, on ac- 
count of their conformation, lb 
well adapted for that purpofe. For 
a contrary reafon, the firft me- 
chanical motions which a man 
makes, are the caufe of his deftruc- 

Thefe principles being laid down, 

it remains for me to prove them, 

by (hewing why that action of the 

horfe, which is fufficiei t to make 

I i 

A New Method of Feeding Silk- Worms. 


him walk, is fufficient alfo to en- 
able him to fwim, and why man 
is obliged to ftudy other means. 

The' body of man, like that of all 
quadrupeds, is of a fpecific weight, 
almoir. equal to a like bulk of wa- 
ter ; 1 fay almoft, becaufe animals 
weigh a little more ; but this excefs 
of weight, which is upon their fide, 
is of little importance, and may be 
ealily counterbalanced. Mr. Ro- 
hault, fays, that a man who weighs 
one hundred and thirty-eight 
pounds in air, weighs no more than 
eight ounces in water. Borelli 
goes farther ; he pretends that a 
living animal weighs iefs. Until 
experience fhall decide this differ- 
ence, I fhall not hefitate to take that 
calculation which appears to be the 
leafl favourable to my hypothefis. 

We may therefore confider an 
animal in the water, as a boat a 
little overloaded, and ready to fink, 
did not a flight motion fupport it, 
and prevent it from going to the 
bottom. We know that when a 
horfe walks, he puts two of his legs 
forward at one time, that is to fay, 
one of thofe before, and one of 
thofe behind, but upon oppofite 
fides, which preferves his equili- 
brium. I have already laid that he 
walks in the water, which he can- 
not do, without cleaving that ele- 
ment very itrongly with his legs. 
In this fituation, he is like a boat 
in motion, with the oars placed on 
each fide of the keel, and in a di- 
rection perpendicular to the fur face 
of the water. In fuch a pofition, 
they have not indeed the fame 
power as thofe which we place upon 

the fides of our boats, and which 
have the centre of their force out 
of the water, but they have enough 
to fupport the animal, to keep it 
afloat, and to make it fwim. Quad- 
rupeds, not being deftioed to in- 
habit that element, had no occafion 
but for aflittance fufficient to pre- 
vent them from perifhmg, and to 
enable them to crofs rivers. For 
thefe purpofes, they have every 
thing that is requifite. The four 
legs of an animal which is fwim- 
ming, ferve it then inftead of two 
pair of oars, which acT: one after 
the other. In this point of view, 
one difficulty may be ftarted againft 
my comparifon ; which, is that when 
the oars have been ftrongly prefled 
againft a body of water, which 
ferves as a point of fupport, to 
make the boat advance, we lift the 
oars out of the water, in order to 
plunge them a fecond time, and to 
take a new point of fupport ; but 
the legs of animate, confidered as 
oars, have not the fame advantage, 
as they are all funk in the water, 
and continually acT; in it, from 
which it appears that they are 
obliged to difplace as much of that 
element, when they move them 
forwards, as they do when they 
pufh them backwards, in order to 
make their bodies .".dvance. But 
as thefe two forces are equal, and 
as the one deftroys the other, no 
advantage is gained, and they can 
produce nothing but immobility. 
We however fee that animals 
fwim, and make their way through 
the water very eafily. 

(To be co7icludcd in our next.) 

**-{♦ * **♦{•* **+*** ******** ** 


DOCTOR Lodovico Bellardi, ed, after a number of experi- 
a learned and ingenious bo- ments, a new method of feeding 
Unill of Turin, has lately di ("cover- filk- worms, when they are hatched 

On Public Puni foments. 

before the mulberry-trees have 
produced leaves, or when it hap- 
pens that the froft deftroys the 
tender brandies. This new me- 
thod con lilts in giving the worms 
dried leaves of the niulberry-tree. 
One would think that this dry 
nourishment would not be much re- 
lifhed by thefe infects ; but repeat- 
ed experiments made by our author, 
prove that they prefer it to any 
other, and eat it with the gpcateft 
avidity. The mulberry-leaves muft 
be gathered about the end of autumn, 


before the frolts commence ; in dry 
weather, and at times when the heat 
is gteateft. They muft be dried 
afterwards in the fun, by fpread- 
ing them upon large cloths, and laid 
up in a dry place after they have 
been reduced to powder. When 
it is neceflary to give this powder 
to the worms, it fhould be gently 
moiltened with a little water, and 
a thin coat of it muft be placed a- 
round the young worms, which will 
immediately begin to feed upon 

Extracts and R e ma rrs on the puni foment and re- 
formation of Criminals From a pamphlet juftpubli fo- 

ed, by order of the Society, eftablifljed in Philadelphia, 
for alleviating the miferies of public prifons. 

CONSIDERING the Subject of 
capital punishments in a po- 
litical fenfe, two reafons occur for 
taking away life. Firft, it is intend- 
ed to hold forth an example of ter- 
ror to others ; and fecondly, to 
prevent the fame perfon from re- 
peating a crime which he hath been 
found capable of committing; for 
the law knows no revenge ; and 
the community becomes a fufferer 
by the death of every individual. 
Then, if thefe two ends can be at- 
tained by other means, policy and 
humanity will readily accede to the 

It may very fafely be aSTumed as 
a principle that the profpect of long 
folitary confinement, hard labour, 
and very plain diet, would, to many 
minds, prove more terrible than 
even an execution ; where this is 
the cafe, the operation of example 
Would have its full effect, fo far as 
it tended to deter others from the 
eommiflion of crimes. With ref- 
peet to the criminal, he will be 
prevented from a repetition of the 

crime, during the term of his con- 
finement, which will be extended, 
according to its degree ; and it may 
very reafonably be fuppofed, that 
length of time, and the feve- 
rity of his punifliment, will either 
really reform his difpofition towards 
evil practices;, or will reftrain him 
through principles of fear : thus the 
laws may operate as bleSSings on 
the prifoner, and the country may 
be benefited by the acquifition of an 
ufcful citizen. 

Objections have been made to 
the expence of punifhment by la- 
bour and confinement, and thefe 
have not been without weight with 
many minds; but fubftantial facts 
may be produced, to fhew, that thefe 
fears are not well founded. Ths 
following extracts will prove that, 
even in England, where labour is 
cheaper, and provisions much dear- 
er than in the United States, the 
criminals have not only Supported 
themfelves, but have produced a 
coniiderable balance in favour of 
the prifon. 


Sir Thomas Beevor Bart, after 
giving an account of the origin, 
progrefs, and regulations, of the 
newly-cftablilhed Bridewell, or Pe- 
nitentiary Houfe, at Wymondham, 
in Norfolk, in fundry letters, addref- 
fed to the Secretary of the Bath fo- 
ciety, concludes in the following 
manner : 

The manufactory eftabiifhed here 
at prefent,is that of cutting logwood 
for ihe dyers at Norwich, and beat- 
ing, heckling, and ipiuning hemp. 
In the labour of heckling, a tolera- 
ble workman will earn from eight 
to ten lhdlings a week. The 
women and girls fpin it by a wheel 
i'o contrived as to draw a thread 
with each hand ; by which means, 
two of them can earn at leaft equal 
wages with three women fpinning 
with one hand only. If the build- 
ing (hould be enlarged, and the num- 
ber of prilbners increafe, fome of 
ihem will then be inftrucled in the 
art of weaving the yarn made in 
the houfe. At prefent, both the 
tow and the yarn is fold to the 
different houfes of induitry eftabiifh- 
ed in this country, and at Norwich. 
In the laft return of the governor 
ro the quarter feflions, we had the 
Satisfaction to find, that the money 
arifing from the earnings of the 
prilbners, was one pound eight (hil- 
lings and ten- pence more than dou- 
ble the fum expended for their main- 

This, though it cannot be deem- 
ed more than a fecondary confider- 
ation, is i'urely no trifling one to de- 
rive a profit from the labour of fuch 
peribns as were heretofore loft to, 
or become a burden upon the pub- 
lic; and it Strongly marks the im- 
policy offending thefe unhappy ob- 
jects our of the kingdom. This fum 
indeed was further increafed about 
five guineas, by adding to .it the 
profit from the trade account ; but 
< s to have this become the general 

On Public Puni foments. 

refult, muft depend greatly, per- 
haps chiefly, upon the choice of the 
governor, and fomewhat on the ac- 
tivity of the magistrates, too much 
care cannot be taken in the former, 
efptcially as it will be the probable 
means of exciting the latter. We 
have been i'o fortunate as to meet 
with a governor who relieves us 
from a great part of our attention 
to, and direction of him. 

The filence and peaceable de- 
meanour, the cleanlinefs and indus- 
try, of thofe unhappy perfons who 
are the inhabitants of this houfe, 
are 1 eallv admirable ; and fuch as 
greatly encourage the pleafing ex- 
pectation, that their punifhment 
will have that effect upon their fu- 
ture lives and conduct, which every 
humane benevolent mind muft fin- 
cerely vifli for. And they leave 
me without a doubt, that bridewells, 
vv ith a proper attention paid to them, 
may in future be made feminaries 
of induitry and reformation, inftead 
of receptacles of idlenels and cor- 
ruption. To effect thefe purpofes, 
it will be neceifary to provide the 
prilbners with fuitable and conftant 
work. This in moft counties will 
neceffarily vary, but may be ealily 
obtained, efpecially if, by an allow- 
ance to the governor out of their 
earnings, it be made his 'vitertjl as 
well as his duty to look carefully to 
the performance of it. The allow- 
ance given at this houfe is three pence 
in every fhiiling of the tiett earnings, 
and this is conlidered as a part of 
his falary. 

i muft not omit to inform you, 
that in this folitary confinement, 
and thus employed, it has not yet 
been found neceflary to punilh any 
of the prifoners with irons; and 
that, Since the new erection and 
regulation of this prifon, the ma- 
giitrates in the vicinity, as well as 
the keeper of it, have obferved, 
that in no one «qual period of time 

Precautions to be ufed in a Sea-Voyage. 

been fo few commit- 

2 4:T 

have there 
ments to it. 

In proof of the cleanlinefs, and 
health inefs of this prilbn, no perfon 
who entered it in health has hither- 
to fallen fick in it. I have never 
had any complaint againft any one 
for immorality or prophanenefs. 
The effect of the folitarinefs and 
mechanical regularity of the place 
is fuch, as to render them fo con- 
trite and fubdued, that it not only 
promifes fair for a lading reforma- 
tion in thefe poor unfortunate 
wretches, but, what is a dill better 
and more pleafing confideration, 
that it may prove a preventative of 
crimes in others. For, from an ex- 
amination of the commitments to 
this houie, before and lince the pre- 

Totat Earnings — — — 

Expence in Bread — *- 

Ditto in CLthes and extra Feeding 
Overlooker — — — 

Materials for Work, &c. — 
Total Expence — — 

fent regulation took place, it ap- 
pears, that one-third fewer have 
been confined in it lince the Utter 
period ; and it is fomewhat remark- 
able, that, except in one inftance, 
no prifoner has been a fecond time 
committed to it. 

In confirmation of Sir Thomas 
Beevor's account of the expence of 
the prifoners being defrayed by 
their labour, we meet with the 
following note in Howard, page 
170 : 

A lift of prifoners in the county. 
gaol and bridewell, (in Oxford/hire,) 
from January 23, 1736, to January 
7th, 1787, was publiihed, with an 
account of their earnings, expence 
of maintenance, materials for work, 
&c. which was as follows : 

jf.198 1 II, 







20 © if 

Balance laved to the County — — — . — 

From January 7th, 1787, to January ift, 1738, Balance laved to the 
County £. 113 9 2. 

bring at the end of the year, a cer- 
tificate from the matter with whom 
they work of a good and lober 
character, they fhall be further re- 

Some prifoners, when they are 
difcharged, are completely clothed, 
have a little money in their pockets, 
and a good character given them, 
with a further promife that if they 

Pr eca u tions to be ufed by thofe zvho are about U un- 
dertake a Sea— Voyage. 

D R. I 


WHEN you intend to take a 
long voyage, nothing is 
better than to keep it a fecret, as 
much as poffible, till the moment of 
your departure. Without this you 
will be continually interrupted and 
tormented by vilits from friends 

R A N K L I N.) 

and acquaintances, who not only 
make you lole your valuable time, 
but make you forget a thouland 
things which you wifli to remem- 
ber ; fo that when you are embark- 
ed and fairly at fea, you recollect 
with much unealinefs, affairs which 

246 Precautions to be ufed in a Sea-Voyage. 

you have not terminated, accounts 
that you have not fettled, and a 
number of things which you pro- 
posed to carry with you, and which 
you find the want of every mo- 
ment. Would it not be attended 
with the belt confequences to re- 
form fuch a cuftom, and to fuffer a 
traveller, without deranging him, 
to make his preparations in quiet- 
nefs, to fet apart a few days, when 
thefe are finifhed, to take leave of 
his friends, and to receive their 
good wilhes for his happy return I 

It is not always in one's power 
to choofe a captain, though great 
part of the pleafure and happinefs 
of the paflage depends upon this 
choice, and though one muft for a 
long time be confined to his com- 
pany, and be in fome meafure u»- 
der his command. If he is a fomal 
fenfible man, obliging, and of a gV>od 
difpofition, you will be fo much the 
happier. One fometimes meets 
with people of this defcripfton, but 
they are not common. However, 
if yours be not of this number, if he 
be a good feaman, attentive, care- 
ful and active in the management 
of his veffel, you muft difpenle with 
the reft, for thefe are the moil 
effential qualities. 

Whatever right you may have 
by your agreement with him, to 
the provifions which he has taken 
on board for the ufe of the pafTen- 
gers, it is always proper to have 
iome private ftore, which you 
may make ufe of occalionally. You 
ought, therefore, to provide good 
water, that of the (hip being often 
bad; but you muft put it into bot- 
tles, without which, you cannot 
expect to prefer ve it fweet. You 
ought alfo to carry with you good 
tea, ground coffee, chocolate, wine 
of that fort which you like beft, 
cyder, dried raifins, almonds, fugar, 

* In French \ pain hifcuite. It is made by cutting bread into flttcs, and baking it a 
fecond time; it forms nayft whokfome nourifhment. 

capillaire, citrons, rum, eggs dip- 
ped in oil, portable ibup, bread 
twice baked*. With regard to 
poultry, it is almoft ufelels to car- 
ry any with you, unlefs you relblve 
to undertake the office of feeding 
and fattening them yourfelf. With 
the little care which is taken of 
them on board fhip, they are al- 
moft all fickly, and their flefh is ac 
tough as leather. 

All failors entertain an opinion 
which has undoubtedly originated 
formerly from a want of water, 
and when it has been found necef- 
fary to fpare it, that poultry never 
know when they have drunk enough, 
and that when water is given them 
at difcretion, they generally kill 
themfelves by drinking beyond 
meafure. In confequence of this 
opinion, they give them water only 
once in two days, and even then 
in I'm all quantities ; but as they 
pour this water into troughs, inclin- 
ing to one fide, which occafions it 
to run to the lower part, it thence 
happens, that they are obliged to 
mount one upon the back of another, 
in order to reach it, and there are 
fome, which cannot even dip their 
beaks in it. Thus continually tan- 
talized and tormented by thirft, 
they are unable to digeft their food, 
which is very dry, and they foon 
fall fick and die; lome of them are 
found thus every morning, and are 
thrown into the fea ; whilft thofe 
which are killed for the table are 
fcarcely fit to be eaten. To re- 
medy this inconvenience it will be 
neceflary to divide their troughs in- 
to fmall compartments, in Inch a 
manner, that each of them may be 
capable of containing Water ; but 
this is feklom or never done. On 
this account, fheep and hogs are to' 
be confidered as the beft freih pro- 
vifions tlKit one can have at fea ; 

Precautions to be ufed in a Sea-Voyage. 247 

mutton there being in general very 
good, and pork excellent. 

It may happen that fome of the 
provisions and ftores, which I have 
recommended, may become almoft 
ufelefs, by the care which the cap- 
tain has taken to lay in a proper 
ftock ; but in fuch a cafe, you may 
difpofe of it to relieve the poor paf- 
fengers, who paying lefs for their 
pafTage, are flowed among the 
common failors, and have no right 
to the Captain's provifions, except 
to fuch part of them as is ufed for 
feeding the crew. Thefe paffen- 
gers are fometimes fick, melancholy 
and dejected, and there are often 
women and children among them, 
neither of whom have any oppor- 
tunity, of procuring thole things 
which I have mentioned, and of 
which, perhaps, they have the 
greateft need. By diftributing a- 
rnongft them a part of your fuper- 
flnity, you may be of the greateft 
affiftance to them. You may 
reftore their health, fave their 
lives, and in fhort render them 
happy, which always affords the 
Kveliefl pleafure to a feeling 

The moil difagreeable thing at 
fea, is the cookery, for there is not, 
properly fpeaking, any profefTed 
cook on board. The word failor 
is generally chofen for that purpofe, 
who for the molt part is equally 
dirty and unikilful; hence comes 
the proverb ufed among the Englim 
failors, that Cod fends meat, and 
the Devil Jemh cooks. Thofe, how- 
ever, who have a better opinion 
of Providence, will think other- 
wife : know ing that fea air, and 
the exercife or motion, which they 
receive from the rolling of the fhip, 
have a wonderful effect in whetting 
the appetite, they will fay that 
Providence has given failors bad 
fooks, to prevent them from eat- 

ing too much ; or that knowing they 
would have bad cooks, he has given 
them a good appetite, to prevent 
them from dying with hunger. How- 
ever, if you have no confidence in 
thefe fuccours of Providence, you 
may yourfelf, with a lamp and a 
boiler, by the help of a little fpirits 
of wine, prepare fome food, fuch as 
foup, hafti, &c. A fmall oven made 
of tin plate is not a bad piece of fur- 
niture ; your fervant may roaft in it 
a piece of mutton or pork. If you 
are ever tempted to eat fait beef, 
which is often very good, you will 
find that cyder is the beft liquor to 
quench the thirft generally caufed 
by fait meat or fait filh. Sea-bif- 
cuit which is too hard for the teeth 
of fome people, may be foftened 
by fteeping it ; but bread double- 
baked* is the beft, for being made 
of good loaf bread cut into flices, 
and baked a fecond time, it readily 
imbibes water, becomes foft, and is 
eafily digefted : it consequently 
forms excellent nourifhment, much 
fuperior to that of bifcuit, which 
has not been fermented. 

I muft here obferve, that this 
double baked bread was originally 
the real bifcuit prepared to keep at 
fea ; for the word bifcuit in French, 
fignifies twice baked. f Peafe often 
boil badly, and do not become foft ; 
in fuch a cafe by putting a two 
pound mot into the kettle, the roll- 
ing of the velTel, by means of this 
bullet, will convert the peale into a 
kind of porridge like muftard. 

Having often feen foup when put 
upon the table at fea in broad flat 
diflies, thrown out on every iide by 
the rolling of the velTel, I have 
\\ ifhed that our tin-men would make 
our foup-bafons with divifions or 
compartments, forming fmall plates, 
proper for containing foup for one 
perfon only. By this difpoiition the 
foup in an extraordinary roll, w*u!d 

Pain bifcuitc. 

f It is derived fram Ifr, again, and wit, baked 

248 Method of freeing Apple-trees from Mofs. 

not be thrown out of the plate, and faid ; and with regard to fugar, how 
would not fall into the breafts of much more meritorious would it be, 
thofe who are at table, and fcald to facrafice the momentary pleafure 
them. Having entertained you with which we receive from drinking it 
theft tilings of little importance, per- once or twice a day in our tea, than 
mit me now to conclude with fome to encourage the numberlefs cruel- 
general reflections upon navigation, ties that are continually exercifed 

When navigation is employed in order to procure it to us ? 
only for tranlporting necelTary pro- A celebrated French moralift 

vifions from one country where they faid, that when he confidered the 

abound to another where they are wars which we foment in Africa to 

wanting, when by this it prevents get negroes, the great number who 

famines, which were fo frequent and of courfe perifh in thefe wars, the 

fo fatal before it was invented, and multitude of thofe wretches who 

became fo common, we cannot help die in their paffage by difeafe, bad 

confidering it as one of thofe arts air, and bad provifions, and laftly, 

which contribute mod to the hap- how many perifh by the cruel treat- 

pinefs of mankind. ment they meet with in a ftate of 

But when it is employed to tranf- flavery, when he faw a bit of lugar, 
port things of no utility, or articles he could not help imagining it to be 
merely of luxury, it is then uncer- covered with ("pots of human blood ; 
tain whether the advantages refult- buthad he added to thefe confiderati- 
ing from it are furficient to counter- ons, the wars which we carry on 
balance the misfortunes which it oc- againft one another, to take andre- 
cafions, by expofing the lives of fo take the iflands that produce this corn- 
many individuals upon the vaft o- modity, he would not have feen the 
cean. And when it is ufed to plun- lugar limply fpotted with blood, he 
der veffcls, and tranfport flaves, it would have beheld it entirely tinged 
is evidently only the dreadful means with it. 

of increaling thofe calamities which Thefe wars make the maratime 

afflict human nature. powers of Europe, and the inhabi- 

One is aftonifhed to think on the tants of Paris and London, pay 

number of velTtls and men who are much dearer for their fugar than 

daily expofed in going to bring tea thole of Vienna, though they are 

from China, coffee from Arabia, and almoft three hundred leagues diftant 

fugar and tobacco from America ; from the lea. A pound of fugar, 

all commodities which our anceftors indeed, colls the former not only 

lived very well without. The fu- the price which they give for it, 

gar trade employs nearly a thotifard but alfo what they pay in taxes, 

vclTels, and that of tobacco almoft necelTary to fupport thofe fleets and 

the lame number. With regard to armies which ferve to defend and 

the utility of tobacco little can be protect the countries that produce it. 

. X 4. A .{. A -\ A 4. A A ^ .t, ,3, 4. .J. * .{. .$. A. a * . 

M e t 11 o d of freeing Apple-trees from Mo s s . 

THIS method confifis in daub- 
ing over the trunk and all 
the large branches of the tree, when 
the fau begins to rife, with a Urge 
biufh dipped in whiting made of 

lime, pretty thick; the mofs, and 
all the rotten bark will foou after 
drop off, and be replaced by a new 
bark entirely (inooth. 

( 2 49 ) 


Columbian Parnaffiad, 

To the Editor of the Universal Asylum, and Columbian 

S I R, 

TN the American Mufcum, for June, 1788, there appeared atranflation of the bat- 
-i tie of Cuchullin, a part of the epic poem of FingaL The tranflator, the late Dr. 
Ladd, certainly deferves commendation for what he has done ; but from -an atten- 
tive comparifon with the original it appears, that he has in many inftane'es unhecef- 
farily deviated from it, fo as to lofe much of its force and beauty. The change of 
metre appears alfo to be a defect in Dr. Ladd's tranflation. I have been led to at- 
tempt a verfion of this beautiful paffage of Oman, which might be free from thefe 
faults, and the following is the refult of this attempt. I am aware that an objection 
may be made to the fliort metre which is here ufed; but this is perhaps more favour- 
able to the expreffive concifenefs of Offian thv.n the heroic meafure of ten fylla- 
bles, in ufing which it would be neceflary either to extend a fentiment to two lines, 
or frequently to conclude a fentence in the middle of a line. The one would dlminifh. 
energy ; the other would be unfavourable to harmony. Q. 

A3 from dark Cromla's fhady crown 
A foaming torrent ruihes down. 
Above is heard the thunder's might, 
On half the hill fits dark-brown night, 
The breaches of the ftorm between, 
The forms of fleeting ghofts are feen. 
So fierce, fo vaft, to deeds of death, 
Rufhed Erin's fons acrofs the heath. 

Like Ocean's whale, dreadful to view, 
Whom all his billows loud purfue, 
The chief like itreams his valour pours, 
Rolling his might along the fhores. 

Like winter ftorms that roar around, 
The fons of Lochlin heard the found. 
Dark Swaran flruck his boffy fhield, 
Swift Arno's fon came o'er tke fitld. 

" What murmur rolls along the hill, 
Like gathered flies of evening ftill ? 
Or Erin's fons defcend to blood, 
Or ruftling winds roar in yon wood. 
Such founds fends Gormal to the fkies, 
Before my waves white tops arife. 
Afcend, thou chief of Arno's race, 
The hill, to view the heath's dark face." 
He went, ami trembling, fwift returned. 
His rolling eyes with wildnefs burned. 
His heart beat high againft his bread. 
His words were broken, flow expreft. 

" Rife, fon of waves, he fault'ring cries, 
Thou chief of dark-brown fliields — a- 

rifc — - 
See — the dark mountain dream of war — 
Behold — deep-moving from afar, 
The ftrength of Erin on the heath. 
Advancing like the flame of death, 

Uni. AbYL. Vol, IF. No 4. 

The car — the car of war comes on— 

The car of Sema's noble fon. 

Like waves near rocks behind it bends, 

As fun-ftreaked mift from heath afcends. 

Its fides embofs'd fhed fparkling light, 

As feas fliine round the boat of night. 

The beam of polifhed yew is fhewn, 

The feat is of the fmootheft bone. 

With fpears the fides are flocked for death, 

And heroes' footftool is beneath. 
Before the right fide of the car, 

Is feen the fnorting horfe of war. 

Broad-breafted, ltrong, wide leaping 

Son of the hill of gen'rous breed. 
His hoof loud echoes o'er the plain. 
Above him waves his lofty mane, 
As gently rifing ftreams of fmoke 
Appear on yonder tow'ring rock. 
Bright are his fides as vivid flame. 
Sulin-Sifadda is his name. 

Before the left fide of the car 
Is feen the fnorting beaft of war. 
High-headed, bounding,thin-maned horfe, 
Srong-hoofed, and rapid in the Courfe. 
With furious joy Dufronnal runs 
Among the battle's ftormy fons. 
A thoufand thongs the car confine. 
In wreaths of foam the bridles fliine; 
Thin thongs, which gems effulgent deck, 
Bend o'er each courier's ftately neck. 
Their active vigour never fails, 
They fly like mift o'er ftreamy vales. 
Wilder than fearful deer are they, 
Stronger than eagles on their pVVy. 

K k 



Load as the winter blafts that blow 
'Qdinft Gormal's fides covered with fnow. 

Within the polifh'd car comes on 
CuchuUin, gen'rous Semo's fon. 
The ftjroog armed fon of fwords. To view 
His cheek fhiucs like my poliflied yew. 
Wide rolls the chief's blus eye, below 
The dark arch of his gloomy brow. 
As bending on he wields the fpear, 
.Behind him files like flame kis hair. 
Fly, king of waves, nought el e avails; 
He comes like llorms along the vales." 

" When did I fly," the lung replied, 
v< Though fpe.irs flew thick on every fide. 
When did I fhrink from danger near ? 
Chief of the ittle foul, declare. 
Where the loud florin old Gormal braves, 
When white with foam high rofc the waves, 
*'iie ftorm of clouds withitand did I. 
Shall Swaran from a hero fly ? 
Though mighty Fingal's feif were here* 
JVfy foul before him Ihould not fear. 
Arife to bittle on the plain. 
Pour round me like the echoing main. 
Round my bright fleel, my thoufands, 

ftand 5 
Strong as the rocks of Lochlin's land, 
That joy when clouds the Ikies deform, 
Andftrctch their dark woods to the ftorm. 

Like llorms that autumn dark attend, 
Ai-d from twe echoing hills defcend, 
Thus towards each fwift move on, 
Fierce Lochlin's king and Semo's fon ! 
As from high rocks two {breams of rain 
Meet, mix, and roar upon the plain ; 
Loud, rough, and dark in battle join 
Erin's bold fons and Lochlin's line. 
Brave chiefs with blows each other greet, 
And men with men in battle meet; 
Steel on fteel clanging ftrikes the ear, 
And helmets cleft on high appear. 
And fwift to (laughter through the fky 
The iron headed arrows fly. 
Spears fall like ftreams of glorious light, 
Which gild the ftormy face of night. 
As troubled founds afcend the fky, 
V. hen ocean rolls its waves jon high ; 
As heaven's laft peal founds from afar, 
Such is the dreadful din of war. 
Though Cormac's hundred bards fhould 

The battle's deeds in fang to give ; 
Weak were the voice the bards could 

To fend the deaths to future days. 
For many a hero fell in death; 
Wide poured their blood alowg the heath. 

Ye bards, let mournful founds arife ; 
For low in death Sitballin lies. 
Let fair Fiona's plaintive (trains 
Rife on her Aidan's much lov'd plains. 

Like two fair hinds the lovers fell, 
By Swaran's hand, that aimed toor^well, 
Midft thoufands as he roared aloud, 
Like the fhrill fpirit of a cloud, 
That dim beftrides the northern blaft, 
And joys to fee the failor loft. 

Nor, chieftain of the mifty ifle, 
Inactive flept thy hand the while; 
To die thy arm the chiefs compels, 
Thou fon of Semo, king of fhells. 
His fvvord high flamed, as heaven's bright 

Pierces the vale in many a ftream, 
When low and blafted men are found, 
And all the hills are burning round. 
O'er chiefs Dufronnal fnorted loud ; 
Sifadda bathed his hoof in bloo'd. 
Behind them lay the lcene of death, 
As groves o'erturned on Cromla's heath ; 
When o'er the defart llorms have paft, 
And night's dim fpirits ride the blaft. 

Weep on the rocks where winds do roar, 
O beauteous maid of Iniftore ; 
Bend o'er the waves thy beauteous head, 
Fairer than fpirits of the dead, 
That glide at noon on fun-beams pale, 
From hills o'er Morven's filent vale. 
Thy youth is fallen, low he lies, 
Beneath Cuchulhn's fword he dies. 
No more thy youth his valour's praife 
To match the blood of kings (hall raife. 
The lovely chief of Inifcon, 
Trenar, the graceful Trenar's gone; 
His gray dogs howling are at home, 
They fee his pafling fpirit come. 
His bow ujiflrung the ftranger finds. 
No found is in his heath of hinds. 

As to the rocks high wavus do roll, 
Rufh'd Swaran's hoft of warlike foul. 
As meets fome rock a thoufand waves, 
So Erin Swaran's army braves. 
Death raifesall his voices round, 
The fhields mix dreadful with the found. 
A pillar dark each hero ftands, 
His fword is lightning in his hands. 
From wing to wing the battle flies, 
The field re-echoes to the cries, 
As on fome anvil's ample round 
By turns an hundred hammers found. 
But fay who there advance to death, 
Gloomy and dark on Lena's heath, 
Like two dark clouds; as lightning fpreads, 
Their fwords fly dreadful o'er their heads 
Around the little hills